MAGGOT MEAL PRODUCTION - LOCAL & FOREIGN FISH FEED

Sustainable aquaculture venture demands good quality food and intensive feeding. More than 60 % of the operating cost goes into fish feeding because fish meal, a major animal protein source is scarce and expensive. There is a need for a cheaper but nutritionally effective alternative protein source to fish meal. Recent studies have shown that maggot meal may be a good source of animal protein in fish nutrition. Interestingly, the Songhai centre in Porto novo, Benin, has facilities for and engages in the mass production of maggot as a solution to the high cost of feed in fish and livestock production (Ajani et al., 2004).


               Maggot is produced from a semi transparent larval stage of the house fly Musca domestica (Ogunji et al., 2008a) .Maggots are usually found in decaying organic waste such as vegetables, animal waste and exposed food materials. Poultry droppings are found to be best substrate for maggot production (Ajani et al., 2004).   Droppings should be kept in a moist state to attract houseflies and encourage laying of eggs. Maggots emerge within eight hours to three days after the eggs are laid. Production is best at temperature of about 30 0c.maggot yield from poultry droppings can be significantly improved by adding a few drops of palm oil to the exposed poultry droppings (Ajani, Nwanna and Musa, 2004).Fly larvae (maggots) produced during the decomposition of poultry manure provide food for fish (Ruman and Singh 1984) and rich source of protein and minerals (Dakuyo, 1992). Ocio and Vanaras (1979) reported that poultry manure is an efficient nitrogen source for plankton productivity, and this has prompted its use as a fertilizer in both intensive and semi-intensive aquaculture.

However, direct application of maggots to fish pond culture poses a series of problems which include algal bloom incidence of diseases, increased bacteria and fish mortality (Vorsters 1992; pillary 1995).It is therefore necessary to process this important manure by-product either alone or mixed with other slurries under imposed conditions that with favor fish growth and avoid bacterial contamination as well as ensuring adequate protein levels in the final feed products (Fasakin, Balogun and Ajayi,2003). Maggots are harvested from poultry manure which they are put in a sieve and immersed in clean water and thoroughly rinsed, killed by immersion in boiling water and sun dried or oven dried at 70 0 c for 10 minutes (Ajani et al., 2004).The dried maggots are then milled into powder and stored in an airtight container.
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