WAEC 2018 Geography Questions and Answers

WAEC 2018 Geography Questions and Answers 

Read Below For WAEC Past Questions For Geography

Question 1: Study the map extract on a scale of 1 :50,000 and answer the following questions:
(a) Calculate the distance "as the crow flies" from Agbeyangi to Marafa.
(b) Describe the drainage of the mapped area.
(c) Explain the relationship between the relief and the road network in the area.
(d) Identify two land use types on the map.

NOTE! The map is currently not available

Further observation: This was a compulsory question that was attempted by many candidates. Many candidates could not score high marks because they were not able to carry out accurate measurement of the required length and convert it correctly from map distance to ground distance using the scale. Secondly, some candidates could not adequately describe the drainage of the mapped area as they only stopped at saying that it is dendritic. Other expected answers in the description of the drainage pattern were:
  1. River Ohun has many tributary
  2. The map area is well drained as it is covered with numerous networks of well defined streams
  3. The rivers are at their early stages of development as evidenced by the dissected highlands caused by downward cutting
  4. The central ridge is a major watershed from which many rivers take their sources
  5. The river in the Eastern part flow eastwards
  6. The smaller ridge at the North Eastern corner of the map has rivers radiating from it
  7. The rivers in the North-West flows northwards.
Only few candidates were able to express the relationship between relief and road network as required. The expected answers were:
  1. The main road takes advantage of the lowlands and runs between the two
  2. major ridges in the map
  3. The roads take advantage of the valley floors parallel to IGPORIN hill thereby avoiding the highland
  4. The secondary road, minor roads and main paths are constructed along spurs
  5. Roads avoid steep slopes
  6. The roads are constructed through passes, gap or saddles.
Some candidates stated the land use types without stating the corresponding evidences. The required evidences included:
  1. Agricultural land use (presence of scattered cultivation)
  2. Educational land use (presence of school)
  3. Transportational land use (presence of roads)
  4. Residential land use (presence of settlement)
  5. Rearing of livestock (presence of scrubland)
Question 2: The Table below shows the quantity of yams in kilogrammes produced by four
yam producing states in country X between 2003 and 2006.

State                           A                               B                       C                         D

2003                      200,000                    400,000               500,000              600,000

2004                     300,000                     400,000               600,000              500,000

2005                     400,000                     500,000               700,000               400,000

2006                    500,000                      600,000                700,000              300,000

(a) Draw a comparative/group bar graphs to represent the statistics.
(b) State two advantages of using comparative/group bar graphs in showing statistics.
(c) Name one other method that can be used in showing the statistics.

This question was answered by a few candidates. Some of those who answered the question were able to plot the graph properly. However, many of those who answered it were not able to state the advantages of using comparative bar chart to represent statistics. The expected answers were:

  1. Makes for easy comparison of items
  2. Makes for easy computation of items
  3. Gives vivid impression of the quantities involved
  4. Can be used to represent a wide range of economic, social and geographical data.

Question 3:  (a) With the aid of labeled diagrams, describe the instruments used to measure rainfall.
                      (b) Explain how the instruments are used to obtain total annual rainfall

Observation: This was a very popular question among the candidates. Most of those who answered the question performed well.

Question 4: (a) What is a plateau?
                    (b) List two types of plateaux.
                    (c) Describe the formation of anyone type of plateau listed in (b) above.
                    (d) Highlight three ways in which plateaux are of importance to man.

Observation: This was a very popular question among the candidates and most of those who answered the question performed well. Such candidates were able to correctly define plateau, list the types, describe the formation of a plateau and highlight its importance.

Question 5: (a) Define the term soil
                     (b) Outline three functions of soil.
                     (c) Highlight any two negative effects of man's activities on soil.
                     (d) Describe any two methods of conserving soil.

Observation: This was a very popular question among the candidates and those who adequately explained the points that they raised scored high marks. Some of the candidates were not able to highlight the negative activities of man on soil. The negative effects of man's activities on soil include:

  1. Soil exhaustion
  2. Accelerated soil erosion
  3. Loss of ground water through capillary forces
  4. Soil pollution
  5. Destruction of top soil through mining

Question 6: Write explanatory notes on the following:
                     (a) Formation of clouds;
                     (b) Relief rainfall.

Observation: This question was popular among the candidates. Their performance was good except that some of the candidates could not explain the formation of clouds properly. The expected points included:

  1. When the ground is heated by the sun
  2. There is evaporation and evapo-transpiration
  3. Air rises to high attitude
  4. Cooling of air with attitudes lead to saturation
  5. Condensation takes place around hydroscopic nuclei
  6. There is coalescence of particles to form clouds.

 Question 7: (a) What is water pollution?
                      (b) Highlight any three causes of water pollution.
                      (c) Outline three effects of water pollution.
                      (d) List any two measures that can be used to control water pollution.

Observation: This question was one of the most popular among the candidates and most
candidates that answered the question were able to answer it correctly. They
defined pollution, its causes, effects and control measures.

Question 8: Write explanatory notes on drought under the following:
                    (a) causes;
                    (b) effects;
                    (c) control.

Observation: This question was quite popular among the candidates. Many of the candidates who attempted the question were only able to write notes on the causes of drought but could not adequately explain its effects and control. The effects of drought include:

  1. Leads to famine
  2. Leads to crop failure
  3. Leads to forced migration
  4. Scarcity of food
  5. Malnutrition
  6. Drying up of water bodies e.g. streams
  7. Movement/migration of animals in search of pasture
  8. Loss of crops and animals
  9. Retards the growth of plants
  10. Leads to desertification
  11. Leads to conflict between farmers & pastoralists

The ways by which drought could be controlled include:

  1. Construction of irrigation dams
  2. Planting of cover crops
  3. Controlled grazing
  4. Afforestation/re-afforestation
  5. Cloud seeding
  6. Artificial rainfall
  7. Planting of trees to protect/conserve ground water
  8. Environmental education
  9. Legislation against cutting of trees and bush burning.
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