WAEC Past Questions For Civic Education | Current Questions & Answers

WAEC Past Questions For Civic Education

Question 1:  (a) What are values?
                        (b) State six importance of values to the Nigerian society.

This was a popular and a straight forward question. All the candidates who attempted it performed creditably well and scored high marks. Nevertheless, some candidates deprived themselves of good marks by giving mere definitions without further explanations. Candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:

  1. Values are the ideas, things or principles cherished by people in a society.
  2. Values signify norms and behavioral traits which are generally accepted as being of great worth in the society.
  3. Values are precepts, moral principles, ideas and beliefs which people hold dearly and cherish, e.g. honesty, contentment, faithfulness, justice, tolerance, fair play and so on.
  4. Values are standard criteria which determine how the people of a society, nation or state think and relate with one another.
  5. Values refer to the worth attached to things which may not be quantifiable, e.g. integrity, hard work, perseverance.

  1. Values help to determine and control the behavior of individuals in the society.
  2.  They act as criteria or measures for the judgment of the actions of individuals in the society.
  3.  Values give focus and direction to individuals in the family and society at large.
  4.  Values help us in decision-making.
  5.   Values modify our attitudes and feelings towards other people through tolerance of                               different opinions and behavior.
  6.  Values act as standards of conduct for people in a society
  7.  Values guide people toward the achievement of declared objectives e.g. individual, family, communal, corporate and national objectives among others.
  8. Values promote unity, harmony and cooperation in the society.
  9.  Values encourage sense of responsibility and hard work among Nigerian citizens.
  10.  Values help youths to resist negative peer pressure in the society.
  11.  Values help us to develop respect for other people’s ways of life e.g. different ethnic and religious groups.
  12. Values encourage tolerance and friendship among people in the society.
  13.  Values promote self-reliance in the society, thus creating employment opportunities for citizens.
  14.  Values ultimately promote development in the society.
  15.  Values lead to actions which promote happiness and contentment in society.

Question 2:     (a) Explain the term citizenship education.
(b) State four reasons for effective citizenship education of Nigerian 

The performance of most candidates who answered it was good as they really understood its demands. However, some candidates did not do well in the (b) part and they scored low marks by merely mentioning the required points without giving full explanations. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:

 Citizenship education is a process of enlightening or training citizens on their 
rights and responsibilities.        
Citizenship education is a form of education given to citizens with a view to making them responsible individuals who are committed to the meaningful development of their society. 
Citizenship education is a type of education which instills desirable values, 
attitudes, skills and knowledge into individuals to enable them participate in the 
affairs of their group or adjust functionally as good citizens.

(b)  Effective citizenship education helps to:
  • Sensitize Nigerian youths on their duties and rights as citizens.
  • Produce responsible, well-informed and self-reliant Nigerian youths.
  • Inculcate the right values and attitudes into the youths for the development of the  
  •  society.
  • Help citizens especially youths identify national problems and proffer solutions.
  • Produce enlightened youths who are politically and nationally conscious.
  • Install in the youths high moral standards which are required for the development of the country.
  • Encourage national integration and nation building.
  • Prepare the youths for future leadership roles.
  • Install in youths a sense of national consciousness and patriotism towards their
  • Society and the country at large.
  • Provide the youths with sound knowledge and skills required by them to actively
  • Participate in the process of democratic governance in the society e.g. voting, standing for election, Protesting against bad policies and constructive criticism of leaders among others.
  • Inform citizens of the activities of government in a democratic society.
  • Educate citizens on the importance of rules and regulations in the society e.g. rule
  • of law.

Question 4:     (a) Define human trafficking.
                        (b) State six causes of human trafficking in Nigeria.

This question was fairly attempted by the candidates with the overall performance just a little above average. Some candidates confused ‘human trafficking’ with ‘human traffic’ or ‘road traffic’. A large number of candidates that attempted it gave good definition with full explanation.  However, many candidates did not do well in the (b) part and they scored low marks by listing the points without further explanations. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:

Human trafficking is the illicit/illegal business in the sale and transportation of
human beings for economic and other selfish purposes. Usually the unsuspecting victims are lured away into forced labour, prostitution and other forms of abuse.

Interestingly, it also refers to the recruitment, transportation, harboring or receipt of persons
by deception, force or threat of harm for the purpose of exploitation.

  1. Poverty  - this makes victims very vulnerable.
  2. Youth unemployment.
  3. Disorientation of values/moral decadence in society.
  4. Greed and get-rich-quick attitude.
  5. Corruption in the society which encourages adventures into crimes.
  6. Bad leadership which fails to protect citizens and provide for their social, economic and other related security.
  7. Ignorance or lack of knowledge/awareness on the part of victims of human trafficking.
  8. Social, economic and related deprivation which breeds desperation.
  9. Political instability.
  10. Inefficiency/ineffectiveness of law enforcement agents makes apprehension of Human traffickers difficult.
  11. Inadequate punishment of offenders.
  12. Conflicts/wars.
  13. Low self-esteem can make individuals become victims of human trafficking.
  14. Negative peer influence contributes to human trafficking.
  15. The demand for cheap labour within and outside Nigeria.
  16. Rise in demand for commercial sex workers encourages human trafficking.
  17. Illiteracy/lack of education.
  18. Lack of parental guidance and control.

Question 5:
(a) What is drug abuse?
(b) Highlight six ways by which drug abuse can be curbed in the society.

All the candidates who attempted it performed creditably well and scored high marks. Nevertheless, in the (b) part, a good number of candidates based their answers on corrective use of drugs rather than ways of curbing drug abuse. Candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question: 

Drug abuse refers to the use of drugs through self-medication or without due medical prescription and administration. It is the indiscriminate use of any drug i.e., it is the misuse or improper way of using drug.
Drug abuse could also be defined as the use of illicit or hard drugs e.g. marijuana (Indian hemp), heroine, morphine and so on.
  1. Establishment of drug control agencies e.g. National Drug Law Enforcement
  2. Agency (NDLEA), National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and   
  3. Control (NAFDAC) and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
  4. Access to hard drugs should be controlled by those in authority.
  5. Proper family upbringing should be encouraged so as to curtail undue influence
  6. on children.
  7. Youths should be taught moral and religious principles.
  8. Youths should be encouraged to resist negative peer pressure.
  9. Good knowledge of drugs by individuals and the public should be encouraged.
  10. Stiff penalty should be applied for drug related offences.
  11. There should be effective counseling services for youths on drug related matters.
  12. Life coping skills should be provided for youths to enable them deal with
  13.   challenges.
  14. Media campaign against drug abuse should be intensified.
  15. Exemplary lifestyles by parents/guardians and other adults should be encouraged.
  16. Selected and recognised outlets for the sale of drugs should be controlled.
  17. Celebrities (musicians/entertainers/actors/footballers and so on) as role models
  18. should be in the forefront of anti-drug campaigns.
  19. The school, through its teaching and learning programmes, should address issues concerning drug abuse.
  20.  NGOs such as African Council on Narcotics (ACON) and Christ Against Drug   
  21.  Abuse Mission (CADAM) can assist in curbing drug abuse through intensive campaigns, grassroots mobilization and securing international sponsorship and support for rehabilitation purposes.
  22. Creation of job opportunities.
  23. Punishment for illicit drug vendors and barons.
  24. Inculcating right values through civic education

Question 6:     (a) List five consequences of cultism.
                        (b) Highlight five ways by which cultism can be prevented.

This question was fairly attempted by the candidates; those who attempted it scored high marks. Nevertheless, their answers were not as diverse as those given in the marking scheme. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:

     Breakdown of law and order.
     Violence and social instability.
     Disruption of academic activities.
     Disorientation of societal values.
     Premature death of youths who are cult members/innocent victims.
     Drug addiction and related health problems.
     Embarrassment for families and parents.
     Bad image for the individual/family/society.
     Spiritual problems for cultists and their families.
     Proliferation of arms and other weapons.
     Destroys the future of the youths.
     Committing murder and other crimes e.g. armed robbery, rape, kidnapping.
     Poor academic performance.
    Immoral activities and indiscipline.

  1.  Parents should pay more attention to their children’s upbringing and educate them properly on acceptable standards of behaviour. 
  2. Students should be encouraged to join religious groups and develop the fear of God because the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.
  3. Educational institutions and the government should enact very stiff laws against cultism and strictly enforce such laws.
  4. Religious organizations should specifically organize their own religious
  5. programmes to preach against cultism.
  6. Authorities of tertiary institutions should organize regular seminars and
  7. Sensitization campaigns to enlighten people on the adverse effects of cultism.
  8. Students should be encouraged to work hard in school.
  9. Parents should show good examples to their children.
  10. The teaching and learning environment should be conducive.
  11. Civil society groups should embark on advocacy programmes against cultism.
  12. The media should be encouraged to project programmes that would sensitize youths on the danger of cultism.
  13. Stiffer punishment for cultists to serve as deterrent to others.
  14. Sports and recreational activities should be encouraged to engage the youths.
  15. Students should be responsible enough to shun acts that could lead to cultism e.g. keeping bad company, drunkenness, use of hard drug and so on.
  16. Counseling units in schools should be more effective in assisting cultists to renounce their membership and preventing others from joining.
  17. Politicians, wealthy and influential members of the public should desist from patronizing, protecting and rendering financial support to cultists
  18. Maximum protection by relevant authorities for cultists who are willing or have renounced their membership.
  19. Schools should sensitize student bodies against cultism and encourage them to form vanguard groups to resist cult activities.
  20. Lasting solution to cultism should be sought by all stakeholders in the education of the child e.g. parents, teachers, religious leaders, government.
Question 7:     (a) Mention five characteristics of democracy.
(b) State five ways by which the practice of democracy can contribute to national development.

Many candidates answered the question and were able to score good marks. However, a good number of candidates were unable to mention the characteristics of democracy or properly link it to national development. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question: 

  1.  Respect for the principle of rule of law.
  2.  Periodic, regular, free and fair elections.
  3.  Constitutional governance.
  4.  Effective/popular participation.
  5.  Respect for Fundamental Human Rights.
  6.  Tolerance of opposition.
  7. Independent/impartial judiciary.
  8. Equal political rights.
  9. Popular sovereignty/majority rule.
  10. Freedom of association and groups.
  11. Formation of political parties.
  12. Separation of powers between the arms and levels of government.
  13.  Popular consultation.
  14.  Consensus building.
  15. Divergent partisan ideology.
  16. Transparency and accountability.
  17.  Informed electorate.
  18.  Free press (mass media).
  19.  Universal adult suffrage/franchise.
  20.  Representative government.

  1. It promotes rule of law and constitutionalism.
  2. It engenders peace and security.
  3. It facilitates effective participation of citizens in governance.
  4. Democracy guarantees periodic elections to ensure smooth transition of
  5. government.
  6. It entrenches freedom of expression and respect for human rights.
  7. It encourages checks and balances resulting from separation of powers which 
  8. enhances cooperation, collaboration and partnership in governance.
  9. It leads to employment generation.
  10. Democracy promotes poverty alleviation.
  11. Democracy promotes political stability which enhances national development.
  12. Democracy promotes transparency and accountability.
  13. It ensures equity, justice and fair play.
  14. It brings about legitimacy, i.e., legal and constitutional powers conferred on 
  15. leaders.
  16. The people have freedom of choice in the election of those that will represent 
  17. them in government.
  18. Democracy encourages loyalty to the State since the people/citizens see 
  19. themselves as part of the democratic process.
  20. Democracy allows constructive criticism of government policies which checks 
  21. abuse of power thereby promoting good governance and national development.
  22. Democracy promotes political culture which makes the people favorably 
  23. disposed towards nation building.
  24. Democracy prevents arbitrariness in governance.
  25. It promotes political education and awareness.
Question 8:     (a) Explain the term ‘political apathy’.
                        (b) State three consequences of political apathy.
                        (c) Highlight three ways through which political apathy can be 

All the candidates who attempted it performed very well. Nevertheless, some candidates deprived themselves of good marks by merely listing the points without further explanations. Candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:    

Political apathy is the lack of interest in politics and political activities by the citizens of a country. 

When citizens are not interested in the political programmes of a country due to one reason or the other, political apathy is said to have taken place, e.g. the cold feet Nigerians often develop during elections which makes them not to go out to vote could be regarded as political apathy. 

Political apathy is a form of indifference or nonchalance towards political activities by the citizens.
It also means lack of enthusiasm or concern for politics and political activities by the people.

It also refers to the tendency of some members of the society to shun political activities in their country, e.g. refusal to join political parties, register or vote in elections, dislike for political activities.

  1. Emergence of an undemocratic government: government that would emerge may not reflect the wishes of the people.
  2. Lack of accountability: there will be no accountability on the part of the 
  3. government because the people that are supposed to keep the government and the leaders in check have shown no interest in the affairs of the country.
  4. Mediocre leaders are likely to be in power if responsible/competent people refuse
  5. to seek political offices.
  6. Corruption: corruption will set in when dishonourable people fill the vacuum
  7. created by the absence of credible citizens.
  8. The government in power would not provide social amenities and infrastructural
  9. facilities since it cannot be held accountable.
  10. Slow pace of political development: political apathy hinders proper political
  11. participation which ultimately affects development.
  12. Minimal popular input in decision making processes.
  13. Problem of legitimacy for those in power.
  14. Political apathy breeds lawlessness and disorderliness in society.
  15. Inability to protect the principles and ideals of democracy in the society e.g. refusal to protest against bad policies and bad governance. 
  16. Wrong set of people come into power.

  1. Inculcating civic values.
  2. Establishing corrupt free electoral body that would act as an impartial umpire in 
  3. the electoral process.
  4. Independent/non-partisan judiciary.
  5. Encouraging popular participation in elections.
  6. Defending the fundamental human rights of citizens.
  7. Making leaders accountable to the people who elected them.
  8. Ensuring good governance which inspires confidence in the citizens to participate in political activities.
  9. Use of the mass media/civil societies to educate and sensitize the public on their political rights and responsibilities.
  10. Encouraging credible opposition in the political process in order to give the people wider choices.
  11. Encouraging the people to become favorably disposed towards joining popular groups to enhance future political participation.
  12. Fulfillment of political promises and manifestoes.

Question 9:     (a) Define the term ‘political participation’.
                        (b) State six reasons for popular participation in the society

Most candidates who attempted it performed creditably well. Nevertheless, in the (b) part, a great number of candidates could not give the reasons for popular participation. Candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:   
Political participation refers to the active involvement of citizens in the socio-political activities  of a country.

It is a process of involving the citizens in the governance of their country and in deciding important socio-cultural, political and economic matters.

 It also refers to the procedure of involving majority of the citizens of a country in the decision making processes, especially on issues that affect the welfare of the generality of the populace. 

(b) The reasons for popular participation in the society are to:
  1.     Promote political awareness and education.
  2.     Foster political stability.
  3.     Promote self fulfillment/satisfaction.
  4.     Enhance development.
  5.     Institutionalize responsive and responsible government.
  6.     Promote popular consciousness.
  7.     Create greater opportunities for citizens.
  8.     Enhance confidence of the people to hold government accountable.
  9.     Improve the quality of governance.
  10.     Influence the direction of government policies.
  11.     Ensure the legitimacy of government.
  12.     Enhance collective effort in the development of the political system.
  13.     Promote a sense of belonging among the people.
  14.     Carry everybody along in the process of development.
  15.     Ensure equity in the allocation of societal resources.
  16.     Enable people to gain socio-economic and political power.
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