Water melon (citrullus lanatus) may be. Round or oblong in shape; it colour are of different types, some are light green to dark green. Some varieties have stripes. The flesh may be white, creamy, yellow, pale red, red or dark red. Watermelon flesh is juicy and crunchy. It consists of 90% water.

Seeds are usually black and embedded in the fruit. There are seedless varieties as well. Watermelon varieties fall into three broad classes based on how the seed was developed open pollinated, f1 hybrid and triploid (seedless).
Citrullus lanatus
Common        -           Names
English           -           Watermelon
Bahasa           -           Melayn: Tembikai, semangka
Mandarin       -           Xigua
Tamil -           Kumate, palam
Indonesia       -           semangka
Tagalong (phllipunes)         -           Pakwan
Thai                -           Taengmo
Vietnamiese  -           Doa haau.
Watermelon is leader in fresh produce, having higher concentration of lycopene than any other fresh fruit or vegetable. In fact, fresh watermelon contain higher levels of lycopene than fresh tomatoes – a 2 – cup serving of watermelon contains an average of 18. 16mg and one medium – sized tomato contain 4mg. water melon has heart healthy properties because it is naturally low in saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol.
Watermelon is practically a multivitamin control itself.
A 2 – cup serving of watermelon is an excellent source of vitamins A, B6 and C. Vitamin A found in watermelon is important for optimal eye health.
Vitamin B6 found in watermelon is used by the body to manufacture brain chemicals (neurotransmitter), such as serotonin, melatonin and dopamine, which preliminary research shows may help the body cope with anxiety and panic. Vitamin C in watermelon can help to bloster your immune system’s defenses against infections and viruses, and is known to stimulate the immune system and protect against free radical damage.
A two-cup serving of watermelon is also a source of potassium*, a mineral necessary for water balance and found inside of every cell. People with low potassium level can experience muscle cramps. A two cup serving has less than 10 percent of the daily reference value for potassium
Watermelon is though to have originated in the kalahari desert of Africa. The first recorded watermelon harvest occurs nearly 5,000 years ago in Egypt and is depicted in Egyptian hieroglyphics on walls of their ancient buildings. Water melon were often placed in the burial tombs of kings to nourish them in the after life from there, water melon spread throughout countries along the Mediterranean sea by ways of merchant ships. By the 10th century, water melon found its ways to China, which is now the worlds number one producer of watermelons.
The 13th century found watermelon spread through the rest of Europe via the moors, southern food historian, John Egerton, believes watermelons made its way to the united state with African slaves as the states in his book, “southern food”.
Watermelon is thought to have originated in southern African, where it is found growing wild. It reaches maximum genetic diversity there, with sweet, bland heal bitter forms. In the 19th century, Alphonse de condole claimed the watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa though citrullus colocynthis is often considered to be a wild ancestors of watermelons and is now found native in north and west Africa, it has been suggested on the basis of chloroplast DNA investigations that the cultivated and wild watermelon diverged independently from common ancestor possibly c-ecirrhosus from Nambia.
Watermelons were grown by Native Americans in the 16th century. Early French explorers found the fruit being cultivated in the Mississippi, valley.
Many sources list the watermelon as being introduced in Massachusetts as early as 1629. Southern food historian John Egerton has said he believes African slaves helped introduce the watermelon to the united state. Texas Agricultural Extension horticulturalist jerry parsons list Africa slaves and European Colonist as having distributed watermelons to may areas of the world. Parsons also mentions the crop being farmed by native America in Florida (by 1664) and the Colorado River area (by 1799). Other early watermelon sighting include the include the Midwestern states (1673) Connecticut (1747) and the Illina region (1822). Charles Fredric Andrus, a horticulturist at the USDA vegetable breeding labourotory in Charleston, South Carolina, set out to produce a disease resistant end wilt-resistant watermelon. The result, in 1954 was that gray melon from Charleston “its oblong shape and hard rind made it easy to stack and ship. Its adaptability meant it could be grown over a wide geographical area. It produced high yields and was resistant to the most serious watermelon diseases. Anthracnose and fusarium wilt. Today, farmers in approximately 44 states in the US grow watermelon commercially, and almost all these varieties   have some “Charleston gray” in their lineage. Georgia Florida, Texas, California and Arizona are the US’S largest watermelon producers. Common watermelon is often large enough that groceries often sell half or quarter melons. Some smaller, spherical varieties of watermelon both red and yellow fleshed, are sometimes called “ice box melons” There are over 120 varieties of watermelon ranging from one to 200 pounds. While your average supermarket melon evinces a red coloured flesh, there are varieties that sport an orange, while or yellow hue. “seedless” varieties are somewhat of a misnomer. They still contain small, white, edible seeds. Fourth four US states produce watermelon with Georgia Florida, Texas, California and Arizonia leading the way. They are available may through September with the peak from June to August. Despite being 92% water, water melons do contain some nutrients. They are a good source of vitamin A and c also contain lycopene, a compound reputed to have anti-cancer properties. There are a number of other nutrients in the rind, if you are so lacliaed. In china, the rind is pickled, stirs- fried and stewed. The Chinese are also found of the seeds and roast them watermelon juice can be made into wine is southern Russia; it is utilized to make beer.  Temperation for up to two weeks, but I did recommend using them within a week. Like any natural product, age does not bode well for taste. Try to avoid purchasing per cut watermelon unless you plan to use it expediently. Once cut the watermelon must be refrigerated. watermelon is an ancient and versatile fruit. It can be eaten fresh, sliced, grilled or diced salads, with cheese (it pairs well with feta and fresh goat cheese), and made into jams, jellies and juice to drink straight or is combination with other fruit juices or spirits. Watermelon juice can be made into soup and sorbet and served in numerous other ways. It can fermented into water melon beer, and it use flavor liqueur, vodka and punch.   
Kingdom                                plantae
(unranked)                            Angiosperms
(unranked)                            Eudicots
(unrankea)                             Rosids
Order                                      Cucurbitales
Family                                    Cucurbitaceae
Genus                         Citrullus
Species                                   C. lanatus
Botanical name citrullus     lanatus
There are over 120 varieties of water melon ranging from one to 200 pounds but we just make the two varieties namely the round variety and oblong variety.
Weeds: plastic mulch Provides excellent weed control over the plant row. You can keep the inter-row space clean by using a registered knock down herbicide. where crops are grown without plastic mulch, you can control grass by applying registered post-emergence herbicides. It is important to read the chemical label, as melons are very susceptible to herbicide damage, especially when the plants are small.      
            Mechanical methods will give good control and are most effective if the vines are “tucked in” before cultivation. Cultivation between rows should be shallow to prevent injury to the root system.
A number of insect species, including beetles, caterpillars, mites and trips, can damage the plants but are readily controlled using registered insecticides. Aphids can be very damaging as they are the vector of mosaic viruses. Sliver leaf whitefly has the potential to extensively damage crops. It is very difficult to control and produce copious quantities of honey dew, resulting in the presence of sooty mould. It is the rector of gemini viruses.   

Mice can cause major problems in melon crops prior to emergency because they dry out and eat large quantities of seed. If this occurs, you may need to replant the crops several times, resulting. In delayed harvests. You can reduce losses by pre-germinating seed or planting container grown seedlings.
Crows can be a devastating and annoying pest. Just before harvest, they can make melons unsaleable by punching holes through the skin with their sharp beaks. Often they damage many melons and populations of crows can wipe out an entire crop in just a few days. Crows can be deterred with a sound devices, such as a gas gun or bird alarm.
Diseases can extensively damage crops. Some of the more important of these are listed below
A list of major disease, their symptoms and management techniques.
Bacteria fruit blotch
Oval water-soaked
areas on fruit
Registered seed treatment, crop hygiene registered copper-based  sprays
Fusarium wilt
Yellowing, wilting, stunting
Rotation and resistance varieties
Gummy stem blight
Brown spots on leaves reddish ooze from runners; black sunken spots on fruit.
Registered fungicides and crop hygiene
Mosaic viruses
Mosaic pattern on leaf; leaf and fruit distortion
Aphid deterrent, crop hygiene
Powdery mildew
Greyish patches on older leaves
Registered fungicides or resistant-strains
Damping off
Rotting and death of seedlings
Good soil drain age; decomposition of organic matter before planting
Root-knot nematodes
Wilting and stunted growth
Avoidance of legume crops; soil treatment
Sudden death
Rapid wilting, rotting roots
Improved drainage controlled irrigation crop rotation

Fruit Disorders
1.         Blossom-end rot
            This is caused by calcium deficiency in the flower (blossom) end of the fruit. It is worse in hot, dry, windy conditions where moisture stress is likely to occur.
            Symptoms include young fruit dropping off and brown rotting lesions appearing at the (blossom) end of older fruit. Salinity of soil or irrigation water may also promote blossom end rot. Good water management and sufficient soil calcium availability will usually address the problem
2.         Internal cracking
            This is caused by cool temperatures during early fruit filling period. Other influences are stop-start growth excess nitrogen, low boron levels and heavy, infrequent watering at fruit fill, affected melons tend to be flattened in shape and feel lighter than usually.
            This occurs in melons that have been poorly pollinated. This melons may term yellow and drop off the vine early in their development; or partly develop with the blossom-end soft and spongy. This area is also slightly pointed. Internally, there is very poor seed development at the spongy end.
This can be a major problem is dark or darker striped melons. It is rarely seen in light-coloured melons that have been stacked in the filed with their under side facing upward.
            Water melon are susceptible to several diseases that attack the roots, foliage and fruits. The most common disease of water melon are anthracnose, fusarium wilt, downy mildew, gummy stem blight, root-that nematodes and virus diseases.
            Also, cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew, bacterial fruit blotch, damping- off, and root/rots vine de clines have been reported as problem. Disease control is essential in the production of high quality watermelons. A preventive program that combines the use of cultural practices, genetic resistance, and chemical control as needed usually provides the best results. Cultural practices are useful for limiting the establishment, spread and survival of pathogens that cause water melon diseases. Many of the fungal, bacterial, and nematode pathogens survive in old crop debris and in soil. Field should be rotated with non-cucurbit crop for at least three years to reduce pathogen levels. Grass crops are ideal for rotations where nematodes are a problem. Diseases such as anthracnose, bacterial fruit blotch, gummy stem blight, and fusarium wilt are known to be carried on seed. This can lead to rapid disease development and spread in green house transplant production and to the introduction of diseases into fields.
            Purchase seed from reputable sources, and apply a fungicide seed treatment prior to planting. Most foliar diseases are spread by water splash or are favored by long periods of leaf wetness. Use drip irrigation or avoid frequent sprinkler irrigation with small amounts of water. Finally, use tillage practices that promote the rapid decomposition of old vines and melons soon after harvest. The use of disease resistance varieties is an economical means of controlling diseases. Several varieties have resistance to fusarium wilt. Some varieties also are resistant to anthracnose. Management of foliar diseases such as anthracnose, downy mildew, cercospora leaf spot, and gummy stem blight may require fungicide sprays.
            Around the world, over 10 viruses are known be a problem in watermelon production. Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), papaya ring spot virus-water melon strain (PPSV_W) formerly known as water melon mosaic virus-1) and Zucchini yellow mosaic (Zymr) are the most seriously important virus diseases.
            Anthracnose is very common fungal disease and is cause by the seed borne fungus colletotrichum lagenaruim. Most cucurbits are susceptible. Most commercial water melon varieties have some resistance.
            Depending on weather, leaf and fruit spotting may occur on young plants, especially is late plantings Appears first on crown leaves as small, brown-black spots. During damp weather, orange-pink masses of spores develop in centers of larger leaf spots.
During dry weather the spore masses turn gray. Mostly the youngest leaves are attacked. On fruit the fungus causes sunken spots on the rind. Symptoms may not be visible at harvest but may develop in transit or at the market. Small anthracnose spot may be confused with pimples disease.
Control, a combination of seed treatment, crop rotation and fungicide applications are necessary for control on susceptible varieties. Follow general management practices; start spray schedule at first appearance. Vines should be thoroughly covered with fungicide spray. Avoid soaking seed before planting. It is advisable to grow water melons, cucumbers, squash or pumpkins only once every five years on the same land.
Downy Mildew
Downy mildew is caused by the air-borne fungus pseudoperonospore cubensis. Disease is serious on later season cantaloupes, watermelon, pumpkins and squash.
Control: resistant cultivars: Start spray schedule at first appearance, follow a protective spray problem during periods favourable for infection and spread. Begins as small yellowish areas on the leaves Early in the morning when moisture has been present overnight, young spots may appear as water-soaked, some what angular areas on the lower side. As the lesions enlarge in a somewhat angular manner, they change form yellow to brown. On the lower side, purplish spore masses may be seen, and several infected leaves may die in 10-14 days. Older leaves become infected first. Downy mildew does not attack stem or fruit.
Control: Follow general management practices; start fray schedule at first appearance.
Fusarium wilt is caused by fusarium oxysporium. F. sp. niveum. The fugus may survive several years in soil. The disease is favord by warm, and sandy soils like those in water melon-growing areas. Susceptible varieties are killed at any stage of growth. If inoculum levels of fusarium are high, seedlings may wilt in the field. Foliage of infected plants term yellow and wilt. Plants die soon after symptoms are observed. On the dying vine’s stem a pinkish white cottony growth can appear near ground level. The fungus spreads outward from infected plants. there are three races of the wilt fungus. Genetic resistance has been incorporated into many of the newer cultivars for two of the more commonly occurring races. The third race has only been found in a few isolated areas of the world. There is no source of resistance to this race.
Control: Wilt losses are managed by following five year rotation program with non related plants and use of resistance varieties.
            Gummy stem blight is a warm weather southern disease. it is caused by seed borne fungus Didgymelln bryoniae. All cucurbits are susceptible, and depending on the t weather, stem and leaf spotting may occur on young plants, especially in late plantings. Early symptoms are round black, wrinkled spots on young leaves and dark sunken areas on stems. Early infection usually develops form contaminated seed. Many times, it produces brownish circular spots which rapidly expand into large tan lesions of round indefinite size. The lesions may exhibit brown gummy exudate on the surface and stems may be girdled. In prolong rainy periods, most of the follage and vine may rapidly collapse.
            Fruit lesions appear as small water soaked areas, similar to anthracnose which rapidly enlarge to in definite size; also, a brown streaky may appear in the blossom-end of the fruit. Although this disease may attracted young tissue, it is primarily a disease of older tissue.
Control: Follow general management practices; start spray schedule at first appearance.

Root-knot is a nematode disease that is caused by meloidogyne spp. Are usually present in agricultural fields and affect many crops. Nematode damage is visible as stunted yellowed plants. The plats develop symptoms of plant stress and when the population is very high, the plant dies. Examination of the roots reveals small to moderately, sized galls. The galls will be scattered over the root system. Normally damage is restricted to a small areas of the total field.
Control: Promptly disk all crops after harvest. soil fumigation with a soil nematicide will reduce the soil population. The practice of summary fallow will reduce the nematode population as well.
Honey bee pollination of melons
            Providing one honey bee for each 10 hermaphrodite flowers is the safest way to ensure an adequate pollinator population all times.
            I recommend having I colony per arce to achieve this. It has been shown that with no bees yield were 161 crates and with just half colony per arce was 242 for musk. So you can see that pollination is a requirement for maximum yields. The bees are place on two sides of the field and centered if possible, but it seems to work fine if the bees are at least just near the field. Of course limiting other competition is just a good idea to encourage the honey bees to go to the crop. Place bees when crop starts to bloom and leaf the bees until the season is too late to have mature melon before frost.
            An optimal fruit set in water-melon is highly dependent on the appropriate timing of pollination. This study was conducted in two cropping seasons, to determine the most suitable and appropriate time of pollination of water melon. Water melon was soon at the rate of 2 seeds per hole at a spacing of 3 x 3m. At flora induction,   flower buds went tagged to monitor the number of male to female flower ratio, sequence of flower development and pollen rating from 5.00 to 7.00 hours. The result of the study showed that there ware 50-100 males to 1 female flower. Flower opened at a relatively fast rate in the morning till mid-day and closed gradually in the evening. Also, the pollen rating was highest between 6.00 and 11.00 hours and subsequently declined steadily as the follower closed up at 18.00 hours. The best period for pollination to obtain optimum fruit set in water melon was therefore it stages 3.6, in this study, which fell within 7.00 and 12.00 hours. Watermelon is pollinated by insects particularly honey bees. The lack of sufficient honey bees to pollinate early watermelon makes the watermelon not to grow effectively. Honey bees visits to melon flowers are primarily in the morning form 1 to 2 hours after sunrise, when the flower first opens until mid-afternoon, depending on the temperature and other weather conditions. The peak of the activities is usually mid morning. The average time that honey bees spend on melon flowers: 5.7 seconds per female flower in 1959 and 8.0 seconds per female and 5.7 per male flower in 1960. Honey bees visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen, but because of the scarcity of blooms they never store surplus amounts of either. The effect of number of visits to the flowers is of great importance to production of mature melon. Fruit set and yield after eight or more bee visits to the flowers superior to four or fewer visits. only two of 64 flowers receiving one bee visit and one of 72 receiving two bee visits developed fruit, which were small, badly shaped, unmaketable. Fruit set after eight bee visites was significantly better than after two or more visits.

1.         Weighing balance: it is an instrument used in weighing the manure before application and to get the quantity needed.
2.         Cutlass: It is used in clearing the grasses before tilling of the land.
3.         Wooden hoe:  it is used for tilling of the land and digging of holes before cultivation takes place.
4.         Measuring tape:  It is used for measuring the land area and portion for each student.
5.         PEG: It is used for mapping out/ demarcating land area for each student to recognize his or her own.
6.         Improvised watering can: It is used for watering the plant so as to enable the plant get appropriate water and nutrients.
7.         Water: it plays an important role in the growth and reproduction of plant, it helps the plant to get its nutrient etc.
8.         Insecticide: It is chemical used to kill or avoid insects, pest and diseases attacking the plants.
9.         Sprayer: It is used for spraying of the insecticide to the plants.
10.       Bucket: It is used in fetching water that should be watered in the farm.
11.     Seed: It is the planting material
12.       Wheel barrow: It is use for carrying water, plant produce and manure in the farm.
13.       Knife: It is use for harvesting water melon
14.       Rope:- It is used for demarcation, to show accurate measurement.
1.         Pre-Planting Operations
A.        Clearing: The land area used for cultivation of watermelon was cleared of the existing vegetation on 22nd Jan. 2013. This was done manually using cutlass. The debris and other impediments to smooth plough were removed from the land. Thus there was bare land for other farming operations. And the grasses were packed one side for mulching. Subsequently the land was pegged and different farming plots were mapped out using rope .each plot measures 3m length x 3m width.
2.         Tillage operation: the plot was tiled manually using hoe on the 24th of fan 2013. The soil was raised up to about 30cm above the ground using the 3cm x 3m plot dimension.
There was 90cm spacing within plots row and spacing 90cm between plot row.
B.        Application of Manure: (Organic manure) poultry dung was applied to the soil, but before the application, I used the weighing balance to weigh the manure so as to ensure that I got 20kg which is the quantity required. The manure applied will help to approve soil fertility, plant growth and report action.
C.        Mulching:- After the application of manure I mulched the land with those grasses parked one side. The essence of mulching is for water retention ie to say, after watering. The grass will retain some of the water for the plant to utilize it latter and when the grasses decomposed it turn to manure.
(2)       Post- Planting Operation
(a)       Planting -> Water melon seeds were sown directly at the bed at the rate of two seeds per hole on 26th Jan 2013. This was to ensure optimum seed germination per hole. The planting holes were spaced at 90cm within rows and 90cm between row. The bed contained up to 16 planting holes with each hole having 2 seeds thus a total of 32 seeds in the bed after sowing. We have 2 known varieties ie the round variety and the oblong variety I planted the round variety.
Germination:- The seed started of germinating after 3-5 days of sowing, at least one of two seeds per planting hole germinated.
Weeds were controlled by pulversing the soil manually with hoe at 2 weeks after planting, and when necessary until the plants develop canopy that help in weed control.
The watermelon were harvested first at about 60-68 days from the time of planting I harvested 4 pods, I marketable and three non-marketable and this is because of disease infestation.
HANDLING:- The harvested pods should be handled with care to avoid breakage of the pods. It should be handled with care by transporting it carefully to where it will be stored.
STORAGE:- The produce should be carefully scored in a place where is ventilation so as to avoid spoilage or bruised on the product.  

Cost (Expenditure)
Land clearing                                                N100
Tillage                                                            N100
Seed                                                    N50
Total cost                                           N230
I pod               =          450                
Weight           =          1.8
Profit =          TR – TC
=          450 – 250
=          200
Profit              =          N200

In my conclusion, the practical was carried out successfully, but there was poor yield of the produce because of insect infestation. And the performance of the plant was poor. But the practical was so enjoyable and I learnt a lot of things.
I recommended the cultivation of watermelon for farmers and, they have to know the soil that are suitable for the cultivation and also know the suitable period for the cultivation. I also recommend to farmers about the insect infestation, that they should know how to control it so as to yield optimum yield in the cultivation. I ensure that to practice the cultivation for it is highly profitable.
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