The classroom is a place where teaching and learning takes place under the direction of a teacher. The typical classroom consists of walls, doors, of a few windows, desks and benches or chairs arranged in rows. Other items found in the classroom include the chalkboard, and the teacher’s table. A typical teacher is a rigid personality ensuring that rules and regulations are obeyed without questions. When children arrive in this type of classroom, they join the static pattern quietly in their seats. Memorization accounts for most of the learning done. The scope of modern classroom now is unlimited. The whole world has become one huge classroom.

As the teacher tries to impart knowledge into his/her pupils or students, he is confronted by a lot of problems which he needs to resolve in order to ensure smooth teaching and learning situation. 
            Classroom management is the process of creating a favourable learning atmosphere in the classroom. To achieve a proper learning atmosphere you must make efficient use of the available human and material, resources. Classroom management shows how the teacher can prevent misbhaviour by carefully organizing the classroom environment, establishing clear rules and procedures and delivering effective instruction.

            The teacher as the header of in the class should maintain order and discipline between pupil and pupil and between pupil and teacher. The following are some ways to maintain good classroom miracle, conduct and discipline.
1.                  Sound Preparation: A teacher who is not prepared for his lesson is restless in front of the class, repeats words and sentences unnecessarily. He gets angry upon the slightest provocation. So prepare your lessons, materials and methods very well so that you can be confident when you stand before the class.
2.                  the teacher’s own personality: The way the teacher dresses, speaks, conducts himself in the class tells the type of person the teacher is. The pupil rates him accordingly. You must control your temperament and emotions and act thoughtfully and with fact. Do not be authoritative for it keeps the spirit of teaching and learning. Do not be too permissive allowing your pupils to make a laughing stock of you. Be friendly  in order to win their confidence but be and firm.
3.                  Co-operation and the let a participatory environment exist. E.g
(a)              A pupils to distribute books and other items meant for the class
(b)              Allow pupils to volunteer to clean the board
(c)              Make a list of late comers and absentees.
(d)              Allow them to clean the cupboards and keep other materials neat. Class rules should be discussed and adopted and let the class choose their official or leaders by election. 
4.                  Always give simple and clear instructions in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation
5.                  Let there be order before teaching or making announcements by set inducing the class.
6.                  Learn and call your pupils by their names not “you” to create a friendly atmosphere.
7.                  Give praises and reward when needed
8.                  be audible in your speech but not to shout. Mind some mannerisms e.g ‘you know’ ‘elm’, ‘hole it; so etc.
9.                  Always consider individual differences and treat each child accordingly
10.             Avoid the following errors
-      using bell or banging the desk to call for silence
-      ridicule or use derogatory remarks or insult the pupil
-      don’t witch-hunt your pupil by watching for fault but trust them.
-      Children should always leave their desks with permission to avoid disorder.
-      Free plays must be done outside the classroom
-      Avoid keeping children in school after official closing hours.

            Communication means sending, giving or exchange of information, ideas, feeling etc from one person to another. Teachers and pupils who can express their ideas orally and who can understand verbal instructions makes fewer mistakes, changes easily, more readily absorb new ideas, succeeds in teaching learning presentations, negotiating and resolving conflict, leading and being led, working in team, giving feedback of the learning outcome. Communication at reading, oracy and writing skills, experimentation, observation and practical.
Non-verbal communication may be in form of fiscal expression, gestures, whishing, body movements, and various types of sign. The class activities will remain at a standstill without proper communication between teachers and pupils.
            The following are some good strategies for communicating clearly with your class.
-      using grammar correctly
-      use vocabulary that is understandable and appropriate for the level of your pupils
-      speaking at an appropriate pace, neither to rapid nor too slowly
-      be specific in your communication avoid vague language.
-      Use verbal and non-verbal communication in classroom.

The parent refers to the biological father sponsor or guardian of the school child.
The parents, apart from providing far a school child, is also a teacher and his model at home. He stays with the child and guides him outside the school on culture, moral and social activities.
In his relationship with the school, Obi (2003) identifies parents as indispensable in the work of the school, if the task of child upbringing is to be successful. The parent is a teacher, a counselor, a guide, a protector, an adviser to the child. The parent’s role can only be effective if there is proper co-ordination with the school. A cordial relationship between the school and the parent is therefore a necessity to ensure a balanced upbringing of the child. Parents can be seen as a customer or partner to the school- share with the school, sense of purpose, mutual respect and willingness to negotiate. The type of behaviour, language and attitude of the child can be a carryover from the home.
If a pupil misbehaves frequently in class, the teacher should contact the printers. The purpose is to involve them in disciplinary problems; parental involvement minuses behavioural challgnes in the classroom. In the process of doing this you should not put the parent on the defensive or blame them for their child’s misbehaviour school. Just describe the problem and say that you would appreciate any support they can give you.

            The school is the primary agency of the community for the education of the younger ones. The community on it’s own is an agency of education through the families, culture, religious organization, the age grade and clubs. The community builds and equips the school sometimes recruits and pay teachers, provide security to the school etc through associations, age-grades, clubs, unions, religions bodies, traditional institutions, public spirited individuals, parents – teachers association old students’ association, woman groups /association and donor agencies. All these units work towards ensuring that conducive learning/teaching environments are provided for proper education of the child.
            In order to sustain the cordial relationship between the school and community, the school should:
1.                  Provide resource persons for public education and enlightenment
2.                  Provide halls for meetings and other social functions.
3.                  Provides space and personnel for adult education and community sports activities
4.                  Disseminates useful information to the community through pupils/students
5.                  Promote culture

Programming is the determination of the sequence of work content for actualizing the decision to achieve the goal. It is the determination of a complex of activities, resources to be used and other necessary elements. The school must provide the type of leadership appropriate for dealing with the complexities of programming. One way of doing this is to make programming participative to every child and teacher at various levels to submit that views on the educational and operational activities.    

            Instructional materials can be defined as all the resources a teacher uses to help him/her explain or elucidate the topic/content/subject to the learner so that he/she is able to fully comprehend the idea.

Types of instructional material (teaching aid)  
1.                  Prints e.g books, newspaper, journals, magazines, pamphlets, handout etc.
2.                  Visuals charts, realia (real objects) photographs slides.
3.                  Audiovisuals e.g slides, tapes, films, filmstrips, television, video, multimedia.
4.                  static/display e.g chalkboard, feltboard, flannel board, flipcharts, magnetic board, maps, flash card.
5.                  Electronic – raido, computers, e-mail, multimedia etc.

A resourceful teacher is one who runs around to get extra materials to achieve the desired educational objective(s) or make improvisation.
The learner benefits from the use of instructional materials through:
1.                  Clarity of instruction: The lesson is driven home when appropriate teaching aid is used or improvised
2.                  Novelty: The teacher can bring new life into the otherwise dull situation of learning.
3.                  Stimulates interest: Interest to learn is stimulated and sustained.
4.                  Reality to expression: Instructional materials make things real. Concrete touch is given to learning through use and improvisation of materials.

Instructional materials ensure more effective learning since the learner not only hears but also sees and does. I hear, I forget, I see; I remember, I do; I understand.

The following class records are expected to keep by the class teacher to assist him/her in carrying out his obligation and duties
1.         Attendance Register
            In school the absence or presence of a child is determined through the attendance register. This register is marked twice on a daily basis, that is, in the morning and in the afternoon. The presence of a child is represented by slanting a stoke in a blue or black ink in a column while the absence is indicated by “O” in blue or black ink and lateness is indicated by a slanting stroke in red in V.
2.         Diary of Work
            This record is made up of two parts, the scheme of work and the record of work done. The scheme of work is drawn from the subject syllabus (modules) indicating work to be covered in each subject on weekly basis. Efforts are usually made to ensure that the scheme is so drawn as to guarantee that all topics slated in the syllabus are covered within their season of relevance. It has provision for 1st, 2nd and 3rd term.
            The record of work is complementary to the scheme of work. It is a record of work down against work proposed. It is therefore unethical for a teacher to record as covered, topics which have not been taught in class. Diary of work provides a veritable yard sick for teaching accountability. The dairy is arranged in six parts or sections.

3.         The Syllabus
            The term syllabus generally refers to a list of topics or a collection or outline of what pupils or students should study in a given year or specific period of teaching. It is a brief outline of the ground to be covered in a course of lessons or lectures. It is that aspect of the curriculum that lists subjects to be taught in a given courses of programme e.g English, mathematics etc the total of this subject course arrangement may be referred to as the syllabus. It tends to guide the teacher on the extent the work involved in the a particular class which entails elements of deliberate planning.
4.         Result Master Sheet
            This is the statement of result of each student subject by subject in relation to his performance among the students in the same class. It is a vital record that helps the student to determine his relative performance in the class and subject.
            It is useful to parents in evaluating their children’s performance in the school. It can be used in absence of the statement of result to validate academic claims.
5.         Report Card
Contains a list of Subjects offered in the school. The class tests and examination scores in each subject offered by the student/ pupils and other information like the term, position, date, pupils character, class and heartache remarks/ comments.
6.         Dossier (cumulative records) it is a collective in formation about a student which constitutes a picture of his physical, educational and social development. It contains the following:-
·        The student’s personal data and family background information
·        Medical and health information of the student
·        Date of admission in the school
·        Student school grade
·        Transcripts form previous school (if any)
·        Academic results and scores
·        Personality and behavioural trait ratings.
·        Special skills (if any)
·        Other school activities records
It provides comprehensive report of the student to the school authority, guidance counselor and society at large for decision making on the student concerned.              
Answer three questions only. Questions 4 is compulsory 1hour 30 minutes.
1a.       What is instructional materials?
b.         List with five examples each, the five types of instructional materials.
2.         Compare the implications of the typical and modern classroom.
3a.       Advance five reasons why you should manage your class effectively.
b.         List and explain the strategies involved in effective classroom communication.
4.         How would you handle the case of a pupil who misbehaves frequently in your class and why.
5.         How would you as a Headteacher react to this issue with regards to their legal implications: A case of a pupil who had an accident after break time while in the town and who was rushed to the hospital and admitted and whose attendance record was marked presence after the break time.  
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