OPEC, often described as a cartel, is an organization of 12 oil rich countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Sandi Arabia. The UAE and Venezuela. OPEC headquarter is located in Vienna since its inception in 1965. regular meetings rotates among the oil Ministers of its member countries Indonesia withdrew its membership in 2008 after it became a net importer of oil, but stated it would likely return if it became a net exporter in the world again.

1.         Aims and objectives: According to its statutes, one of the principal goals of OPEC is the determination of the best means for safe- guarding the carters interest, Individually and collectively.
2.         It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in the international market with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations.
3.         Giving due regard at all times to the interest of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries.
4.         An efficient and regular supply of petroleum products to consuming nations.
5.         A fair returns on their capital for those investing in the petroleum industry.

History and Background:  OPEC is a central body while at regular intervals, fixes the price of oil on the international market. Although Britain is an producing state. It is not a member of OPEC since they are all at odds with the old colonial powers who controlled the oil industry in the early stages. OPEC increased petroleum prices very dramatically in 1973 and 74 to the great discomfort of the western countries who are the major oil consumers.
            Venezuela and Iraq were the first countries to move towards the establishment of OPEC in the early 1960s. they approached Iraq, Kuronite and Sandi Arabia and suggested exchange of views and regular, closer communication among petroleum producing nations. The founding fathers of OPEC are Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Sandi Arabia and Venezuela. Later, other members – Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Gatar, Indonesia, Libya and the UAE came on board. OPEC was found to unify and co-ordinate members petroleum policies.

OPEC and the 1973 oil Embargo: The lingering Arab-Israelite conflict triggered an OPEC response that transformed the organization into a formidable political force in 1973. after the six-day war at 1976, the Arab members of OPEC formed a separate overlapping organization called the organization of Arab exporting countries for the sole purpose of centralizing policy and excreting pressures on the west over its support to the state of Israel. Egypt and Syria, though not major oil exporting countries joined the latter group to help articulate their objectives. The Yorn Kippur war of 1973 galvanized Arab opinion. Furious at the emergency re-supply effort that had enabled Israel to withstand Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world role in Unisom and imposed an oil embargo against the US and Western Europe, non Arab members of OPEC however, did not join the embargo.
            The Arabs were able to use oil as a political and economic weapon successfully became the went felt the impact of the oil embargo. The result of the embargo was so effective that the US secretary of state, Henry Kissinger declared that in future, the US may have to invade the oil fields of the middle earth to get what it wanted.
            The oil glut of the1980s after 1980, oil prices began a steady six-year decline that culminated In a46% price drop in 1986. this was due to reduced demand and over production that led to a glut in the world market. This situation caused OPEC to lose its unity as well as its influence. Other factors that led to the decline of OPEC value include the Iran-Iraq war, which lasted eight long years and the Iraq invasion of Kuwaih in 1990. although these conflicts, particularly the Kuwaniti. Invasion brought about very low points in OPEC Whension, it led to a significant but temporary increase in oil prices due to supply disruption fears. Once there supply fears dissipated, oil prices once again began to decline. In the late 1990s, will prices slumped to a record & 15 a barrel. This prompted concerted diplomatic efforts by OPEC members to arrest the drift. The co-ordinated scaling back of oil production form 1998 helped stabilize oil prices. In 2001, the US was attached by Aleada terrorists. This led to the Invasion of Afghanistan and later Iraq in 2003 by the US and its allies. The war on terror Iraq in 2003 by the US and its allies.  The wary on terror prompted a singer in oil prices far beyond  OPEC targets. In 2007, global oil prices reacted strongly to OPEC members threat to convert their foreign reserves form the US dollar to the Euro. This was on effort t pull Pressure on the US over the Iraq campaign which was lead by many, even beyond the Arab world, as unjustified and illegitimate. 

Criticism and Conclusion:  OPEC’s influence on the market has been criticized as insensitive since it became effective in determining production and prices. Arab members of OPEC greatly alarmed the developed economics when they used the “oil weapon” during the Your kippun war of 1973 to implement an oil embargo that created a global energy crisis. OPEC countries have also been accused of monumental waste  and corruption. In many oil over the years does not reflect on the living standards of the citizens. The large clink of this revenue filter into private bank accounts while the population remain in the grip of poverty and desperation. The economics and general infrastructure of these countries remain at deplorable states despite the huge resources that would have been channeled to development efforts. OPEC countries also do not always in one voice, on many occasions, Sandi Arabia have some outside OPEC regulation to produce beyond there commended quota in role to impress the US. OPEC’s ability to control the price of oil have diminished when the years due to several factors some of which have been outlined. Other reasons include the discovery and development of large oil reserves in Alaska, the North sea, Canada, gulf of Mexico and the opening up of Russia and other market modernization efforts.
            OPEC nations still account for two-thirds of the worlds oil production, affording them considerable control over the global market.  The next largest group of producers, members of the OECP and the post-soviet states produce 25% and 14% respectively  of the world’s total oil supply.
            Dwindling oil reserves and excess pumping capacity is also affecting OPEC’s position. Since 2003, there have been concerns that OPEC members had little excess pumping capacity and this has again spanked speculation that their influence on crude oil prices would continue to flutter.

            The international labour organization, ILO, is a specialized agency of the UN that deals with labour issues; it has its heated quarters in general. The ILo received the noble prize in 1969.
            History and origin – the ILo was established as an agency of the league of nations following the fealty of Versailles, which ended the world war 1. The founding fathers of the ILo are man who have made great strides in social thought and action before 1919, drawn from private, professional and ideological networks in which they exchanged knowledge, experiences and ideas on social policy.  Prewar epistenice communities and political interludes were decisive factors in the institution of the international labour policies. In the pass world war 1 euphoria, idea of a makeable society’ was an important catalysh behind the social engineering of the ILo architects. The utopian ideas of the founding fathers about social justices and the right to decide work were however changed by the diplomatic and political compromises made at the Paris conference of 1919 which placed the ILo at a balance between idealism and pragmatism.
            Over the came of World War 1, the international labour movement proposed a comprehensive programme of protection for working classes conceived as compensation for labour’s support and sacrifice during the war. However, the way In which the program was instituted disappointed the high expectation of trade unions. Port war reconstruction and the protection of labour unions occupied the attention of many nations during and after world war1.
            In 1946, the ILo became a member of the UN system after the demise of the league. Unlike other special agencies of The UN, the ILo has a tripartite governing structure representing government, employers and workers membership. Membership of the ILo is limited to nation states. There are 182 members at present states are admitted by a super –majority vote of any ILo general conference. The national training centre of ILo is based in Torino, Italy.
            The governing body is the executive of the international labour office which meets three times in a year. It takes decision on ILo policy, decides the genda for the ILo conference, elects the director general and adopts draft program and budget for submission to the conference. The ilo organizes the international labour conference in genera every year where conventions and recommendations are crafted and adopted. The conferences makes decision on the ILo general policy, work programme and budget.
            One of the principal functions of the ILo is to set international labour standards which is referred to as the international labour code. The topics covered have include a wide range of issues dealing with freedom at association, health and safety at work, working  conditions high work, discrimination, child labour and forced labour.
Areas of ILo interest
1.         Child labour: the term child labour is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, leisure, their potential and their dignity and work that is harmful to the physical and mental development of the child. Child labour refers to work that
a.         Is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to the child.
b.         Work that interferes with his schooling or deprives him the opportunity to attend school as in should be.
c.         Obeying them to leave school prematurely or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
d.         In most extreme cases, child labour may involve a child being enslaved, separated from their families  exposed to serious hazards and illnesses or left to fend for themselves on the streets.
            Children helping their parents and guardians of home, assisting in the family business, or earning pocket money during holidays, or outsides school hours does not constitute child labour. Such activities are healthy and can help contribute to child development or serve as arances for them to assist in the welfare of the family.
2.    Promotion and realization of freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining.
3.         The elimination of all forms of forced labour, compulsory labour or any form of what may constitute serritude.
 4.        The effective and total elimination of child labour in all its ramifications.
5.         The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment, occupation and professional abolitions.
6.         Special aspects of forced labour such as bonded labour, human trafficking, forced domestic work, rural servitude and forced prison labour.
7.         HIV/ AIDS
a.         Prevention of HIV/AIDS
B.        Management and initigation of the impact of HIV AIDS on the work force.
c.         care and support of workers infected with HIV/AIDS or affected in ay other way.
d.         Elimination of stigma and discrimination on the bodies of real or perceived his status.
e.         Concerns for indigenous and tribal peoples in independent countries.

1.         Accrued of creating a “false division” between different international labour standards especially those on health and safety working hours.
2.      Recommendations do not have the building force of conventions and are not subject to ratification by member countries.
3.      Do not adequately protect the rights mol collective well being of workers in developing countries. These worker are In most part left of the mercy of abusive and autocratic political leadership.
4.         The ILo is not very effective in pursing some of its aims and objectives. Forced labour and child labour remain endemic in many societies despite ILo stand get the organization do not have effective mechanisms to control such situations In area they occur.

            The international criminal police organization (ICPO) was formed in 1923 with its headquarters in Lyon, France. It was formed with the aim of facilitating international police co-operation. It has established as the international criminal police commission but adopted the telegraphic name Interpol as a common identity in 1956. it has a membership of 188 countries, its members countries provide finance through annual contributions. It operates an annual budget of about & 60m. it is the second largest inter governmental organization after the united nations.
            In order to maintain political neutrality as much as possible in its operations, interpol’s constitution forbids its involvement in crimes that do not overlap several member countries. The organization also does not involve itself in political, military, religious or racial crimes. Its work focuses primarily on public safety, terrorium, organized crime, crimes against humanity, environmental crime, genocide, war crimes, piracy, illicit drug production, during trafficking, weapons smuggling, human trafficking, money laundering, child pornography, white collar crime, computer crime, intellectual property crime and corruption in both public and private sectors.
            In 2008, Interpol general secretariat employed a staff of 588 persons representing 84 members countries. This Interpol public website receive are average of 2.2 million page visits every month, in 2008 alone, Interpol issued 3,126 red notices” which led to the arrest of 718 people”.
            Brief History:          The first significant more towards creating Interpol was 1914 at the first international crime police organization congress. Police officers, lawyers, jurists and magistrates form 14 countries gathered in Monaco to discuss arrest procedures, identification techniques, centralized international criminal records and extradition proceedings. However, the outbreak of the world war 1 delayed the initiative until 1923 when Interpol was founded in Austria as the international criminal police, (I C P). following German annexation of Austria the Anschlnas in 1938, the organization fell into Nazi control and the commission head quarters were moved to Berlin in 1942. it is believed that the ICPC files were used to some degree to further the goals of the Nazi regine.
            Shortly after the war in 1945, the organization was revived as the ICPO by European allies of World War II. Officials from Beligium, France, Scandinavia and the UK took the lead in resuscitating the organization. Its new headquarter was established in saint-cloud, a small town wear Paris where it remained until 1989 when it was moved to its present location, Lyon.
Interpol Methodology: Interpol differs from most law enforcement agencies. Agents of the organization do not make arrests themselves, and there are not Interpol jails where criminals are detained. The agency functions as an administrative liason bet need the law enforcement agencies of  the member this is important when dealing with international crime became language, culture and bureaucratic differences makes it difficult for officers of different countries to work together. Interpol’s data base help law enforcement see the big picture of international crime. While other agencies have their own extensive crime data bases, the information rarely extends beyond the borders of one nation.
            Interpol can track criminals and crime trends around the world. They maintain collections of finger prints and mug-shots of criminals and suspects. They keep a lists of wanted lost and stolen travel documents data base contains more 12 million records. They also analyse all these data in order to release information on crime trends to the member countries.
            A scene world wide communications network allows Interpol agents and member countries to contact each other at any time. Interpol’s access points also include key areas such as airports, seaports and border access points. Member countries can also access each others criminal databases. In the event of an international disaster, terrorist attack or assassinations, Interpol can send an incidence response team. This team can offer a range of expertise and data base access to assist with victim identity, suspect identity and the dissemination of information to other nations law enforcement agencies. In addition, at the request of local authorities, Interpol can act as a central command and logistics operations to co-ordinate other law enforcement agencies involved in a case.
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