A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization, NGO is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently form any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGOs maintain its non- governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. 

Unlike the term inter governmental organizations, the term non-governmental organization has no generally agreed upon legal definition. In many jurisdictions. These types of organizations are called “civil society organizations” or referee to by other names. NGOS may also be referred to as independent sector, volunteer sector, civil society, grassroots organization, transactional social movement, private voluntary organizations, self help organizations and non state actors1.
            The number of NGOS operating internationally is estimated at about 40,000. National figures are even higher. Russia has 277,000 NGOs while India has close to 1.2 million2

Historical Origin
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at Ceara 19393. Rotary international was founded in 1905. it has been estimated that by 1914. There were 1083 NGOs in operation-International NGOS important role in the antislavery movement and the movement for women’s suffrage. The activities of NGOs reached a peak at the time of the world disarmament conference4
            The phrase, “non governmental origination” only into popular use with the establishment of the United nations which provided in Article 71 of chapter 10 of its charter for a consultative rule for organisations which are neither governments nor member states. Resolution 288(x) of Ecosoc on February 27, 1950 defined an NGO as “any inter national organisation that is not founded by an international treaty”. The vital role of NGOs and other major groups in sustainable development was recognised in chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relations between the UN and non-gender mental organisations. Repaid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries Asa  result o the processes of  retraction of the welfare state. Further globalisation of that process occurred after the falloff the communist system. The fall of communism system. The fall of communism was an important part of the rise of non governmental originations. The expansion globalisation during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organisations such as the WTO were perceived as been too central on the interests of capitalist enterprises. Some argue that in an attempt to counter balance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasise humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development. A prominent example of this is the world social forum which is a rival correction to the world Economic forum. Some have argued that in forums like  these, NGOs take the place of which should belong to popular movements of the poor. Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist in nature, that they sometimes operate in racialised manner in dominant countries, and that they fulfil a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era5. Peter Hall ward, political philosopher argue that NGOs are an aristocratic form of politics6.
            Whatever the case, whatever the argument either way NGOS have become extensive translational net works. There is relevance, their influence and involvement in the social, political and economic life of the global society has become robust and manifestly undeniable.

Types of NGOs
NGOS can be classified or understood according to their orientation and level of co-operation. NGO by orientation could be charitable orientation, service orientation, participatory orientation, service orientation, participatory orientation, empowerment orientation, etc. NGO type by co-operation would be community based organisation, wide organisation, National NGO or international NGO.
            Non governmental organisations are a heterogeneous group. They way go by different  Makes, appellations and identities. A long list of acronyms have developed around the term Ngo. The primary purpose of an NGO is the design and implementation of development, related projects. this categorisation could be divided into relief oriented or development oriented orgasnaitons. They can also be classified into according to whether they lay emphasis on service delivery or whether they are religious or secular, whether they are public oriented or private oriented. Operational NGOs can be community based, national based or international based7.
            The primary purpose of on advocacy NGO, for instance, is to defend or promote specific cause. As opposed to operational project managements, these organisational typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by bobby in, press work and activist engagements. USAID refer to NGOs as private voluntary originations. However, many scholars have argued that this definition is highly problems as many NGOs are no fact state and corporate based, funded and managed their projects with professionals staff.
            NGOS exist for a variety of reasons usually to further the  political or social goals of their embers or founders. Other reasons include improving the state of the natural. Other reasons include improving the state of the natural environment, to encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged or representing a corporate agenda. There are a huge member of such organisations whose goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This con also be easily applied to private schools and athletic organisations.

Method of operation
NGOs vary in their methods of operation. Some act primarily as bobbysts while others conduct programs and activities. An NGO such as Oxfam, for instance, concerned with poverty alleviation might provide needy people with the equipment and skill required to find food and clean drinking water whereas an NGO like the FFDA helps with investigation and documentation of human rights violations and provides legal assistance to victims of hum rights abuses. Others provides specialised technical products and services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other organisations.

Public Relations:   
Non government organisations need healthy public relations and good understanding with the public to succeed. To meet their goals, foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. Interest groups may also be of political relevance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. A code of ethics was established in 2002 by the world Association of Non Governmental originations. 

Project Management:   
There is an increasing awareness that managements techniques are crucial to project success in nongovernmental organizations. Generally, NGOs that are private here either community or environmental focus. They address varieties of issues such as religion, emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. They mobilize public support and voluntary contributions for aid. They often here strong lives with community groups in developing countries and they work in areas where government-to- government aid is not possible. NGOS are accepted as a part of the hitter national relations lands cape, and while the influence of national and multi lateral policy making increases, they are more directly involve in local activities.

It is not all the people moving to NGOs that are volunteers. The reasons people volunteer for NGO work are not always purely facruistic. They can provide immediate benefits for themselves as well as those they serve, such benefits may include skill acquisition, experience, contacts and of course, financial remunerations. There is some dispute as to whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries. Frequently, this type of personnel is employed to satisfy a donor who wants to see that support projects are managed by some one from an industrialised country. However, the expertise these employees or volunteers may be counter-balanced by a number of factors like cost of foreigners which is typically higher and they may have no grass root connections in the country they are sent to, and in such cases, local expertise are often undervalued. The NGO sector is an important employer in terms of members, for instance, by the end of 1995 “concern world wide, an international NGO working against poverty had a staff strength of 174 expatriates and over 5,000 local staff deployed in ten developing countries in Africa, Asia and in Hanti.

Funding of NGOS: 
Large NGOs may have annual budgets running into hundreds of millions of dollars. American Association of retired persons (AARP), for instance was with $ 550 million in 1999. funding large budgets demands significant fund raising efforts on the parts of most NGOs. Major sources of NGO funding include membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions and donor agencies, national governments and private donaions. Several EU grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.
            Even though the term ‘non-governmental organisation” implies independence from governments, most NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. A quarterof the $ 162 million income of Oxfam in 1998 was donated by the British government and the EU. The Christian relief and development organisation, world vision, collected $ 55 million north of goods in 1998 from the American government. The Nobel prize winner, medicines sams frontiers (doctors without borders) gets almost 50% of its income form government sources.
            Government funding of NGOs is controversial since it is felt that NGOs are in most part. Doing the work which governments were, for several reasons, most of them political, unable to do. Government kinding therefore brings government presence to bear on these activities and such in presence in one way or the other may subvert the gamine intentions of the NGOs. According to David Bieff,
… the whole point of humanitarian intervention was precisely that NGOS and civil social had both a right and an obligation to respond with acts of aid and solidarity to people in need or being subjected to repression or want by the forces that controlled them, whatever the governments concerned might think about the matter…8

Monitoring and control:   
In a report released in March, 2000, on UN  reforth priorities, former secretary general Koffi Anan wrote in favour of international Humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a “right to protect” citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide and crimes against humanity. The governments of the countries an NGO works or I registered in may require reporting or other monitoring oversight function over the NGO. Donors and other financial contributions generally require reporting and assessment. Such information is not necessarily released to the public. They may also be associations and watchdog organisations that carry out research and publish details of their findings on the actions of NGOS working in particular geographic or program areas. In present years, many large corporations have increased their “corporate social responsibility” departments in an attempt to pre-empt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practise. As the logic goes, if corporation work with NGOs, will not work against corporations.
            In December, 2007, the US department of defence established an “International Health” Division, part of whose responsibility is to communicate with NGOS in areas of mutual interest. In compliance with international law, the defence department has a responsibility to improve essential services in areas of conflict such as Iraq and Afghanistan.

Legal status: 
The legal recognition of NGOs is diverse and depends upon home grown variations in each countries’ laws and practices. However, four main family groups of NGOs can be found would wide9. These are
1.         In corporate and voluntary Associations
2.         Trusts, charities and foundations
3.         Companies not just established for profit
4.         Entities formed or registered under special NGO or non-pofit laws.
            NGOs are not subject of international law as states and intergovernmental organisations are. An exception is the ICRC which is subject to certain specific matters mainly relating to the Geneva convention.
            The council of Europe in strasbow dratted the European convention on the recognition of the legal personality of international non government organisations in 1986, which sets “common legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe”. Article II of the European convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association which is also a fundamental norm for NGOS.

Consumption and mismanagement of funds. Most times, NGOs do not commit funds to the project for which they were provided.
2.         Most NGOs are self-serving. The are established to the personal benefits of the top membership.
3.         Most time, NGOS connive with governments and corporate interest to defeat their primary purpose which is the protection of public interest and to act as a voice for the voiceless.
4.         Some NGOs propagate certain political and ideological views which may constitute a betrayed of the basic ideals for which they were formed.
5.         Some are formed to act as opposition to certain business interest and corporate bodies and this may not be in the best interest of the civil society.
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