Total Quality Management (T.Q.M) is a quality improvement body of methodologies that are customer-based and service oriented. T.Q.M was first developed in Japan, and then spread in popularity. However, while T.Q.M may refer to a set of customer based practices that intend to improve quality and promote process improvement, there are several different theories at work guiding TQM practices. They are the different theories of Total Quality Management. (Ifechukwu 2007).

 Deming’s Theory
Deming’s theory of Total Quality Management rests upon fourteen points of management he identified, the system of profound knowledge, and the Shewart Cycle Plan-Do-Check-Act). He is known for his ratio - Quality is equal to the result of work efforts over the total costs. If a company is to focus on costs, the problem is that costs rise while quality deteriorates. Deming’s system of profound knowledge consists of the following four points:
          System Appreciation - an understanding of the way that the company’s processes and systems work
          Variation Knowledge - an understanding of the variation occurring and the causes of the variation
          Knowledge Theory - the understanding of what can be known
          Psychology Knowledge - the understanding of human nature
By being aware of the different types of knowledge associated with an organization, then quality can be broached as a topic. Quality involves tweaking processes using knowledge. 

The fourteen points of Deming’s theory of Total Quality Management are as follows:
1.         Create constancy of purpose
2.         Adopt the new philosophy
3.         Stop dependencies on mass inspections
4.         Don’t award business based upon the price
5.         Aim for continuous production and service improvement
6.         Bring in cutting-edge on the job training
7.         Implement cutting-edge methods for leadership
8.         Abolish fear from the company
9.         Deconstruct departmental barriers
l0.        Get rid of quantity-based work goals
11.       Get rid of quotas and standards
12.       Support pride of craftsmanship
13.       Ensure everyone is trained and educated
14 .      Make sure the top management structure supports the previous thirteen points Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA is a cycle created for continuous improvement, in the planning phase, objectives and actions are outlined. Then, you do your actions and implement the process improvements. Next, you check to ensure quality against the original. Finally acting requires that you determine where changes need to occur for continued improvement before returning to the plan phase.
There are many different theories of Total Quality Management, when learning about total quality methods, it is important to remember that these are guidelines. What is important is that you and your company practice consistent steps towards improving quality in your organization and processes. Using the tools that have been shown to work and make a commitment. Committed leadership means committed employees. (Shane 2003).
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