Title page .
Dedication n
Acknowledgements iii
Table of contents IV
1.0 Introduction 1
1.2 Objective 2

2.0 Literature Review 3
2.1 Classification of Mushroom 4
2.1.1 Edible Mushroom 5
2.1.2 Non Edible/Toxic Mushroom 5
2.2 Nutritional Quality of Mushroom 6
2.3 Medicinal Uses of Mushroom 8
2.0 Thermal Properties 9
2.1 Basic Properties of Heat Transfer 12
2.1.1 Thermal conductivity of food material 12
2.1.2 Specific Heat Capacity 14
2.1.3 Thermal Diffusivity 15
2.4 Effect of Moisture on Thermal and Physical Properties 16
2.5 Physical Properties 17

2.5.1 Color 18
2.5.2 Density and Volume 19
2.5.3 Texture 20
2.5.4 Moisture Content 21
2.5.5 Shape and Size 21
3.0 Materials and Method 23
3.1 Source of Raw Material 23
3.2 Sample Preparation 23
3.3 Analytical Procedure 23
3.3.2 Bulk Density Determination 23
3.3.2 Bulk Density Determination 25
3.4 Thermal properties Determination 25
3.4.1 Determination of Thermal conductivity 25
3.4.2 Determination of Specific Heat Capacity 25
3.4.3 Determination of thermal diffusivity 26
References 27 

For many years mushrooms have been consumed; not only as a part of normal diet, but also a delicacy due to its unique taste and flavor. It’s is rich in dietary fiber, minerals as well as vitamins, normally in thiamin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and vitamin D2, but it is low in calories and fat (Mittla et al., 2000; Chi et al., 2006 ; Teichmann et al., 2007). In addition it has been attributed with many medicinal properties, such as reducing cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, anti-tumor, antimicrobial and improving liver function (choi et al; 2006; Regular and Siwulski, 2007). However, it is highly perishable and has a short shelf- life, thus further processing is required to increase its storage potential. There are many methods for processing of mushroom. Such processing includes pickling in vinegar, canning and drying. Thermal processing is generally applied to extend shelf life of frozen products (chol et al; 2006).
     The process design for mushroom processing requires properties such as thermal and physical properties.
These properties strongly depend on temperature, chemical composition and state of the product. (Becker and Fricke, 1999; Tansakul and Lumyong, 2008) As food and agricultural products have individual composition, the thermal and physical properties are also different. Charm (1998) reported that accurate understandings of those proportions of food materials for processing are required and necessary for equipment design, manufacturing of food product, ensuring quality of final product and prediction of process.                                                   Data on thermal and physical proportion of various food products have been widely reported in the literature, however, data on some Nigeria mushroom were not found.
The objective of this study is to determine the thermo-physical properties of some mushroom varieties.

Mushroom (Amanita I4uscar!a) is the fleshy, spore- bearing fruiting body of a fungus, produced above the ground on soil or on its food source.
Mushroom structure begins after a spore has settled on a suitable substrate, notably the soil, composite, rotten woods and on tree trunks. It sends out filaments into every crack, which grow and spread as they feed on organic materials. (BarriI ;1999). The process continues for a longtime, with out being visible above the ground, when the mass of filaments reaches a considerable size, the hyphae form little tangled knots, which are the rudiments of the future mushroom. As a whole, the hyphae filaments flows towards the centers of the entity till each mass grows every rapidly that, it grows up as a mushroom over night. This growth is actually as a result of a transfer of protoplasmic materials from the hyphae to the mushroom. If mushroom is teased apart, it is found to consist mainly of a compacted mass of cotton wool like filaments, which extend from the base of the stalk, into the surrounding soil as an extensive and loosely constructed network. Filaments are called hyphae and a mass of hyphae called Mycelium.
Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of member of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom Agaricus campestric. Not all member of the order Agaricales provide mushroom fruit bodies and many other gilled fungi, collectively occurs in order of the class Agaricomycetes
A typical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, which is deformed, colored parasitized fruit body of a lactarius, colored and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete. other mushrooms are not gilled and so it is difficult to give a full account of their classifications. Mushrooms are macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning and are classified into two types;
Edible mushrooms are known as the meet o the vegetable world and are eater as foods. They are used extensively in cooking in Korea, china, Europe, japans and many other countries. (Stuntz  et al; 1978).
Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on human and desirable taste and aroma. Mushrooms can be dried and made readily for packaging, they can be frozen, freeze-dried, dried by direct sunlight and canned for storage and preservation. Most mushroom sold in supermarket have been commercially grown on mushroom farm and they include the white crimini and the portebello, other cultivated species now available also include shiltake, maitake or hen of the woods, oyster and the Enoki. (Seref. T. et a! 2007).
2.1.2               NON EDIBLE/TOXIC MUSHROOM
A number of species of mushroom are poisonous and therefore cannot be eaten by man some of these non-edible mushrooms resemble certain edible species in many essential respects and consuming them can be fatal. Poisonous mushroom differs in their effect according to their chemical nature of their toxins. These toxin causes varying percent of illness but are not in the most product and deadly. These toxic mushrooms produce secondary metabolites that are toxic, mind altering, antibiotic, or antiviral. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible.
Mushrooms are known to be a valuable health food low in caloric and high in vegetable protein, usually eaten either raw or cooked, to provide garnish to a meal. Raw dietary mushrooms are rich source of B-complex vitamins such as Thiamin (B1) riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), panthothenic Acid (B5). They are also rich in essential minerals, selenium, copper and potassium. Fat and carbohydrate of low content  are contained with absence of vitamin C and sodium (Pang G. et al, 2009).
According to USDA Nutrient data base, the following values were shown on a study of Agaricus species by Haas EM. et al; (2009).

113kg (25 Kcal)
Thiamin (vitamin B1)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Nicin (vitamin B3)
Panthotheric Acid (Vitamin B5)
Vitamin C
1.1mg (12%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendation for adults. Report also note that when exposed to ultra violet light the natural ergo sterols in mushrooms produces vitamin D2. (Koyyalmudis’R et a!, 2009). This process is now exploited for the functional foods retain market. Miles PG, Chang S.T. (2004).
Mushrooms have long been used in medicine in many part of the world. Such medicinal properties include lowering blood pressure, reducing cholesterol, anti-tumor, antimicrobial and improving liver functions (Chol et al;, 2006, Regula and siwu/ski, 2007). Until recently, the importance of mushrooms and their extracts were dismissed out of hand by medical researchers who saw few medical compounds of interests in some mushroom.

Researchers has focused on a group of fungal cell wall polysaccharides known as b-(1-3) (1-6)-glucans, these polysaccharides can be physiologically inert because the
digestive system breaks them into simple sugar. Many of these compounds are strongly immunopotentiating, that is they stimulate the production and activity of immune cell.
The content of mushrooms include polysaccharide, glycoprotein and proteoglycans modulate. Immune system responses and inhibit tumor growth. Immunopotentiating b - glycans have shown significant anti-tumor activating in vitro and some mushroom extracts have been shown to have significantly lower  rate of mutagen-induced cancer. (Smith J.E, Rowan 14.J. 2002).
         Medicinal mushrooms isolate have been identified to show cardiovascular, antiviral, antibacterial, ant diabetic, antinflammalary and antiparastic properties. Currently, several extracts of mushroom have widespread used as adjust to radiation treatment and chemotherapy. (Hawley C. 2010).

            Chilled storage (40c) of mushroom from harvest to cooking help to maintain  good quality (Gormley, 19975) by- reducing the rate of bacterial growth and enzyme activity. The best method of preserving mushrooms is to keep them at 40c, packed in containers, wrapped with micro  porous film. This can minimize respiration reduce the humidity in the container and dimish spoilage (Maria et al., 2004) sharma et a.,       

The need to have accurate data on thermal properties of food materials especially as these vary with composition during processing is ideal (Onweka, 2003). Most of the agricultural products of plant animal origin are subjected to various kinds of thermal processing before they are placed at the access of the consumers. It is upon the thermal properties of the product that any change of temperature will largely depend (frlohsenin, 1980). Since specific heat and thermal conductivity of food materials depend on the composition of food systems and their relative concentrations, very often empirical relationships resulting from experimental investigations are presented; which may have the limitations of being specific to certain food materials. The variations of the thermal properties with temperature, which may often not be a simple direct relationship, means that average values for a given temperature range are sometimes used. (Onwuka; 2003).
Specific heat is an important parameter ii heat treatment applications where germination and viability may be endangered if time of heating is exceeded. Heat treatment of wheat, corn and legumes has shown some problem in stimulating germination. The fungus causing the decay of onions in storage vanishes in the temperature range of 40-60°C. (Gasnikow, 1960). Heat treatment of peaches has shown promise in delaying the decay of the fruit in storage and improving the quality retention. In fruits and vegetables the action of enzymes and microorganisms causing deterioration can be controlled by low temperature.
Heating or cooling of agricultural products may be accomplished by the method of convention, conduction and radiation. (Mohsenin, 1980). A heat balance for a heating or cooling capacity of the materials at any time during a heating or cooling process requires the knowledge of the thermal characteristics of the material.
For heat treatment processes associated with processing, heat is conducted within the product and precautions are taken to preserve the nutrients, quality and viability, thereby observing the time, temperature and nature of product. 
Heat transfer between a solid and its surrounding can take place by conduction, convention and radiation if there is no appreciable movement of surrounding field and fluid is not transparent, heat transfer is by conduction and it takes place under influence of a temperature gradient only .if solid itself or fluid surrounding the solid is transparent, the heat transfer is both conduction and radiation where there is relationship between solid and surrounding medium, heat transfer by convention is added (Monsenin1 1980).
The thermal conductivity of a material is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. Most food products are made up primarily of the solid and water components thus most thermal conductivity expressions incorporate the percentage water content especially to emphasize the significant increase in the overall value during a phase change. When the water portion changes from liquid to solid (Onwuka, 2003). The thermal conductivities of some common foods are 1.35 x 102, 0.097-0.133, 0.15, 0.491, 1.37, 0.0324 + 0.329mw and 0.564 + 0.0858mw: for freeze dried peach, whole soy beans, starch, beef, frozen beef, fish and sorghum respectively are all at °C except freeze- dried Peach which is at -10°C (Lewis, 1990). The thermal conductivity decreases as the food become drier. Freeze- dried materials, which are usually very porous, have extremely low thermal conductivities. During freeze drying, heat is normally transferred to the frozen material through the dried layer (Lewis, 1990). Thermal conductivities of various components have been giver by Mi/es et al; (1963) as follows;
Ka (air) = 0.25; Kp (protein) = 0.20; Kc (carbohydrate) = 0.245; Ks (solids) = 0.26; Kf (fat) 0.18; Kw (water) = 0.6; Ki (ice) = 2.24. Riedle (1949) proposed model for thermal conductivities for fruits, juices and sugar only. Sweat (1974) also proposed model for thermal conductivities for fruits and vegetables with water contents greater than 60o. The
CP = 1.675 + 0.0025m has been used successfully with a good measure of accuracy for several heat products in the moisture content range of 26 to 100% and for fruit juices of moisture contents greater than 5Q%
A similar expression by Charm (1978) based on the components of the food is as follows;
CP = 2.094xf + 1.256xs + 4.187xm.
Where the values of 2.094, 1.256xs +4.187 are specific heats of the fat, solids and water present in the product respectively. Although specific heat is a function of temperature, its variation is not as significant as that of gas, the value however, for any food material, depend to a large extent on its composition and very often average values are which gives at specific temperatures or over a known temperature range. (Onwuka, 2003).
The thermal diffusivity of a material is a material property that describes the rate at which heat diffuses through a body. It is a function of the body’s thermal conductivity. The S.1. Unit is meter square per second (M2/s). The expression of Lewis (1987) was used for thermal diffusivity.
a  =     k

a         =          Thermal diffusivity
K         =          Thermal conductivity
r          =          Density
Cp       =          specific heat

Mohsenin (1980), considered the effect of moisture migration, he noted that such mass transfer occur only when a temperature difference exists in a permeable moisture medium. In most cases, their effect is one of evaporation in the warm region, transmission of the vapour by diffusion to  handling of the material (Mohsenin, 1980). When physical properties of grains, seeds, fruits and vegetables, eggs, forage and fibers are studied by considering either bulk or individual unit of the material. It is important to have an accurate shape, size, volume, specific gravity, surface area and other physical characteristics which may be considered as engineering parameters for that product (I4onsenin, 1980). Information on physical properties of food materials is vital to engineers as well as food scientist and others. Saravacos and Kostaropulus (1995) observed that the physical structure of food product plays a role in field where modern technological processes are applied for the generation of food raw material and production of food. These physical properties include;
35.1    COLOR
Color is a very sensitive property of food material which tells much of the other properties of material hence affecting product acceptability. During food processing it is common to notice desirable and undesirables changes in color of food product, measures are taken to ensure that the reaction that result in desirable color change are optimized while those that result in undesirable color changes are carefully studied and prevented.
The density and volume of food material are of great interest to a food processor. Researchers have been able to determine the density of several food materials and its response to some changes in the composition of food material. Density is used in quality determination during processing operations. The irregular shape of agricultural products present problems in volume and density measurement and because of irregular shape of mushrooms volume is determined by water displacement. (Mohsenin, 1980).
Density plays an important role in application such as drying and storing of Hay (Day and Panda, (1965). Separation of undesirable materials (Maak, 1957). And quality evaluation of product such as peas, potatoes (Gould,1957) are some examples where density of material has found application.
3.5.3               TEXTURE
The texture of a food material plays a major role in processing of food material plays a major role in processing are predetermined.
Texture are defined as the group of physical characteristics that arise from the structural element of the food. The textural characteristics of the raw material are of great importance the requirement of the raw material must be robust to withstand the mechanical stress to which it is subjected during operation, and then raw material must withstand the processing condition so as to yield a final Product of desired texture food texture can be reduced to measurement of resistance to force (Potter and Hotchkiss, (1995). Hence texture is a paramount in selecting food material.
Moisture content is the quality of water contained in a food material. It is used in a wide range of scientific areas and is expressed as a ratio which can range form completely dry (0) to the value of the materials porosity at saturation. It is the most commonly measured properties of food materials and is important to food scientist for microbial stability, food quality and food processing operation. Moisture content of food material is important to consider the food is suitable before consumption, because it affects the physical and chemical aspects of food which relates to the freshness and stability of food for a long period of time.
Size and shape of food to be processed are of great concerned to a food processor. Some food raw materials are sorted into sizes by passing through screens, which retain products of specific sizes and dimension. Shapes and size are very important in the design of machine to replace hand operation (Potter and Hotchkiss, 1995)
The size of food materials is also important during thermal processing. During treatment uniform heating is easily achieved in products of small size unit, because of the ease with which the lowest heating point receive the batch hence preventing over of under heating which would result from high temperature difference between the lowest heating point and surface of product which receive more heat.
In defining the shape of food material some dimension parameters of object are to be measured. The irregular shape of many food product present difficult problems in volume and density measurement. Such simple technique as this displacement can result in applicable errors, if food material is very small in size.

Six varieties of mushrooms sample will be purchased from kpirikpiri market in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
3.2 Sample Preparation
The samples will be prepared by sorting and cleaning the mushroom. This will be done by placing the mushrooms on a flat clean surface area and the infested ones removed. The sorted mushrooms sample will be cleaned by brushing.
3.3       Analytical Procedure
3.3.1   Determination of Moisture Content.
Moisture o the mushroom sample will be determine according to AOAC (2000) using the Hot oven method The Petri dish will be washed and dried in the over at 100°C for a period of 10 mins. and cooled in a dessicator. The dried and cooled dish will be weighed. About five grams (5g) of the prepared mushroom sample will be weighed with a weighing.
balance and dried in drying oven at 105°c for 3 hrs, cooled in a dessicator and then weighed.
Moisture (%) =         W2 - W3    X   100
W2 – W1               1
W1 - Weight of Petri dish
W2 - Weight of Petri dish + sample before drying
W3 - Weight of Petri dish + sample after drying
3.3.2   Bulk Density Determination
The density of the mushroom sample ‘ill be determined using the simple flotation principle. About 10g of samples will be weighed using an electronic weighing balance. The 10g will be put into a 250m1 measuring cylinder. The cylinder will be tapped gently several times and difference in
Volume noted.

Density          =          mass of sample (kg)
Volume of sample (m3)

34 Thermal properties Determination
 Determination of Thermal conductivity The thermal conductivity of the mushroom samples will
be determined by the thermal conductivity method of sweat
K = 0.148 + 0.00493W
K = Thermal conductivity (JSm1 °C)
W Moisture content (%)
3.4.2 Determination of Specific Heat Capacity
 The specific heat capacity of the mushrooms sample
will determined using the expression as described b charm
which is based on the components of Food.
CP       =          2.094xf + 1.256xs + 4.l8xm
Cp       =          Specific heat capacity
Xf, Xs and Xm = Mole fractions of fat, solid and water (% moisture content present respectively
3.4.3 Determination of thermal diffusivity
The thermal diffusivity of the mushroom sample will be determined using the expression as described by lewis

a      =        K            
K         =          thermal conductivity
r       =       Density
Cp    =       Specific heat capacity
a      =      Thermal diffusivity

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