Strategic management is the conduct of drafting implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its long term objectives, developing policies and plans, specifying the organization’s mission, vision and objectives. Often in terms of programs and projects which are designed to achieve these objects and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs (Mulcaster 2009).

According to Kim and Man Borgne(2005), that strategic management is an ongoing process that evaluates and controls the business and the industries in which the company is involved, assesses its competitors, set goals and strategies to meet all existing and potential competitors, and then reassesses each strategy annually or quarterly (i.e. regularly) to determine how it has been implemented and whether it has succeeded or needs replacement by a new strategy to meet changed circumstances, new technology, new competitors, a new environment or a new social, financial or political environment.
Strategy formulation is adopted before any implementation, in which is a combination of three processes which are as follows;
          Performing a situation analysis, self evaluation and competitor analysis, both internal and external, both micro-environment and macro environment.
          Concurrent with this assessment, objectives are set, which are parallel to a time line, some are short-term and others on long-term. This involves crafting vision statements (long term views of possible a future) mission statement (the role that the organization gives itself in society).
          These objectives should in the light of he situation analysis, suggest a strategic plan, which provides the details of how to achieve these objectives.
Strategy valuation involves measuring the effectiveness of the organization’s strategy, in which a SWOT analysis is conducted to figure out its strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats both internal and external. This may require taking certain precautionary measures or even changing the entire strategy (Muicaster 2009).
As noted by Johnson, Schools and Whittington (2008) that strategic
options are evaluated against three key success criteria.
          Suitability, which deals with the overall rationale of the strategy, if the strategy will make an economic sense, would the organization economies of scale and would it be suitable in terms of environment and capabilities.
          Feasibility, which is concerned with weather the resources required to implement the strategy are available, can be developed or obtained. Resources include funding, people, time and information. Certain tools such as breakeven analysis, cash flow analysis and forecasting are used to evaluate feasibility.
          Acceptability is concerned with the expectations of the identified stake holders, (mainly shareholders, employees and customers) with the expected performance out comes, which can be return, risk and stakeholders reactions.
The industrial organizational approach strategies are based on the assumptions-rationality; self discipline behavior, profit maximization and economic theory which deal competitive rivalry, resource allocation (Christopher 2009).
As noted by Christopher (2009), industrial organizations such as Pz industries may adopt certain strategies such as process improvement strategy to improve its production excellence through Total quality management. Process improvement approach which forms the basis of ISO 9001:2008  quality management standard duly driven from the eight principles of quality management, which process approach, is one of them. The process approach may be limited in words, but not in applicability, while it fulfils the criteria of all-round gains in terms of competencies and seeks newer direction to the business success (Thareja 2008).
Process improvement strategy involves a lot of activities that directly add values to the overall objectives and set goals of the organization in achieving higher performance and products/services which conforms to customers’ requirements. Process improvement is necessary in organizations and industries, it is a matter of making sure each process and system is in control and capable. This involves the machineries, plants and equipments, operators. Doing it right, this means the process is consistent and predictable, capable means the process can consistently produce products that meet customer’s requirements (Godfrey 2009).
As noted by Elliot (2001), that the best way to produce the highest quality products is simply to run the equipment or process the way it was designed to run. Once a process is under control and capable, doing it rig1nt means maintaining a consistent and predictable process, in manufacturing is only part of the equation. People are the other part, people maintain the equipment, people changes the equipments, and people run the process and people determine daily performance. Therefore, people require as much attention or more, as a complex piece of equipment. Their knowledge and understanding, decision making, problem solving and daily performance must achieve the same consistency and capability as any other complex process (Elliot 2001).
            Organizations seeks consistency, they simultaneously encourage and mandate variation. In the absence of strict process control and operational consistency, most organizations strive for optimal cost through project work aimed at continuous improvement, unfortunately the only consistent things about this approach is the high degree of inconsistency and variation generated within the system. In different situations different operators, crews, engineers run the same process differently and run things differently on different days.
Eliminating structural work will enable the organization to stop doing as many things as possible that do not directly contribute to daily performance. These include those things that built into the system by the vast and current management decisions made around products, customers and systems (Traverso 2000).
People based improvement approach is another strategy which will improve the production excellence through Total Quality Management of this study.
As noted by Elliot(2001), that in any manufacturing organization, the process involves the people operators, crews, engineers) and the plant equipments, to produce the highest quality products that meet customers requirements. People are the citadel of this approach in every organization, ones knowledge and skills determines the level of performance.
Any organization that would achieve sustainable production excellence should have an extra ordinary level of knowledge, discipline, and self awareness of knowing that if we already knew how, it would already be clone. The result of extreme discipline, driven by comprehensive knowledge, extreme capability with intense commitment and understanding the task. Most important of all, however it requires an unrelenting leadership commitment to productively master those elements of process, plants/machinery, equipments, that need to be achieved through the execution of the basics (Godfrey 2009).
As noted by Shipiro and Varian (2009), that information and technology gives rise to the “knowledge worker”. Some workers would be applying their effort and initiative, while others apply their minds with good information technology. People based improvement approach would be largely driven by information, organizations that manages information well could obtain advantage, however the profitability which is called information float.
However “automating technology” and “information technologies” have effects on individual workers, managers and organizational structures, the importance of flexible decentralization structure, work teams, knowledge sharing and the central role of knowledge worker. Organizations that have the ability to gather analyze and uses information is a necessary requirement for business success in the information age. In order to achieve this organizations need to be structured such that
          People can continuously expand their capacity to learn and be productive.
          New patterns of thinking are natured,
          Collective aspirations are encouraged,
          People are encouraged to see the “whole picture” together (Sveiby 1999). Organizations could adopt the five learning organization discipline to achieve people based improvement;
1.         Personal responsibility, self reliance and mastery. Since human beings are the masters of our destiny. We make decisions and live with the consequences, when a problem needs to be fixed, or an opportunity exploited we take the initiative to learn the required skills to get it done.
2.         Mental model; we need to explore our personal mental models to understand the subtle effect they have on our behaviour,
3.         Shared vision; the vision of where we want to be in future is discussed and communicated to all; it provides guidance and energy for the journey ahead.
4.         Team leading; we learn together in teams, which involves a shift from a “spirit of advocacy to a spirit of enquiry”
5.         Systems thinking; looking at the whole rather than the parts, it is the glue that integrates the other four into a coherent strategy (Shapiro and Varian 2009).
Information technology sector has provided some software development in production industries, access to information systems have allowed senior managers to take much more comprehensive views of strategic management than ever before. Quality information should be passed on to every crew, operator or engineer in the process line about new plants / machineries and equipments. There should be workshops, seminars and training of crew members in the production line about newest technology and advances in their respective field and new equipments (Glad well 2000).
However, this will enable them run the equipment or process the way it was designed to run, to produce higher quality products that meet customers’ requirements. People maintain the equipments and plant/machineries, people change those equipments, people run the equipment and determine the performance daily, and therefore people require much attention, knowledge and information technology to maintain a sustainable performance in achieving production excellence (Gladwell 2000).

According to Gomez-Mejia and Cardy (2008), notes that manage merit in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Because organizations can be viewed as a system, management could be seen as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system.
The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle especially tools) which in turn derives from the Latin maims (hand). The French word management influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Management is often considered as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money (Drucker 2005). Directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an organization, in large firms the board of directors formulates the strategy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.
According to Luis and David (2008), management functionality as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and adjusting some initial plans. This implies in situations where planning does not take place, from this perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions;
A Scottish moral philosopher Adam Smith in his write up the wealth of the Nations aims for efficient organization of work through specialization of labour, Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity. Mathew Boulton developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality control procedures, interchangeability of parts and work planning (Wikipedia 2010).
As noted by Craig (2009), from Taylor’s scientific management attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Management operates through various functions, to achieve its organizational objectives and laid down plans or strategy, such as planning;
          Planning, deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action, the time limit may vary from today, next week, next month, next year or even the next five years etc,
          Organizing, implementing and making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
          Leading/Directing, Determining what needs to be done in a
situation and getting people to do it.
          Staffing, involves jobs analyzing, recruitment and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs.
          Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesn’t take place in an organization then employees may not contribute to other functions.
The management of any organization are usually involved in any business strategy formation, which is the mission of the business or its most obvious purpose, the vision of the business reflects aspirations and specifies its intended  direction or future destination. The objectives of the business refers to ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed, the policy must be flexible, easily interpreted and understood by all employees (Kotter and Cohen 2002).
As noted by Richard (2003). that all policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff, managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. A plan of action must be devised for each department, policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes, assessments of progress ought to be carried out by top-level managers regularly. A good environment and team spirit is required, the missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business mission. The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business future environment; a planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives (Craig 2009).
According to Kotter and Cohen (2002), organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight step plan of action;
          Increased urgency
          Get the vision right 
          Communicate the buy-in
          Empower action
          Create short term wins
          Don’t letup
          Make change and stick
Where policies and strategies fit into the planning process, they give the mid and level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization.
However in large organizations, where there is a multi-divisional management hierarchy may have about five levels, senior management, middle management, low-level management such as supervisors, foreman, rank and file. The top management requires an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills, their decisions are generally of long term natured and are made using analytical, directive, conceptual and behavioral participative process. They are responsible for strategic decisions; they chalk out the plan and see the plan may be effective in future.
The middle management has a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top management, finance; marketing etc comes under middle level management.
The lower management ensures that the decisions and strategies are taken by the other two are carried out.
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