This chapter will be concerned with the review of those relevant and related texts whose authors have contributed to the issue and perspectives of television advertising and product adoption by consumers. Hence, the following will serve as the heading for the view of literature.

2.1       Product adoption in the plastic market:
            The plastic industry in Nigeria has witnessed different categories of adopters who have manifested different attitudes toward the different plastic products in the market.
            Since the introduction of plastic product like chairs, plates cups, tables etc in the early 1868 by different plastic industries like Leo-plast, KGM, Lion-king, Themoline etc Nigerian consumes have manifested different characters towards these products, and the attitudes of these consumers corresponds to the different categories of adopters.
            Umeh and Umanta (2002) called the first adopters the innovators. They said that these are consumers who are venture-some always willing to try new products. They are also ready to bear the risk e.g. financial and social risks of trying the new products. They constitute about 2 ½ % of the market. Within the year of introduction of plastic products, especially chairs, most consumers were very ready to adopt the products without really evaluating the quality, fancy or the durability of the product. Most of these adopters were ready to bear the financial risk of buying the products probably because of their need for the product or their social status which does not allow them to evaluate the products before buying them.
            As there continue to be new introduction of different plastic products and the emergence of more plastic industries in the market, consumers began to be more critical and comparative of the quality, fancies and the durability of the plastic products by the different plastic industries. This now gave rise to another category of consumers in the plastic industry and this group could be referred to as the early adopters. Umeh and Umanta (2002) note that, this category of consumer adopts new products early but carefully. They are guided by respect and are greatly respected in the social group. Marketers often influence this group of adopters in order to increase the adoption of their product.
Presently, the large number of plastic products by different plastic companies brought the consumers to the level of critical scrutiny. Most of them see and regard some of the plastic products as inferior and others are superior and more durable which may be because of the effectiveness of the advertising used by the different plastic industries. This group of adopters is the late majority unlike the early majority. Thus, for Odimegwu, the late majority represent about 34% of the market. They are characteristically skeptical and are initially doubtful in their approach to innovators. Their adoption to innovation may be due to social pressure. Consumer finds it difficult to adopt new plastic products that are not part of the first three products that was introduced in the market. If they must adopt the product, they must have been pressured so much.
  Finally, the adoptions of a particular plastic product in the Nigeria market now depend on how much the consumers know about the product. These consumers who buy because others are buying are called the laggards. According to Umeh and Umanta, these categories of adopters are suspicious of innovation and innovators. They are often older and are at the lower end of the social and economic class. They are tradition bound and believe something is only worth using when others people are using it.

2.2       Impact of Television Advertising on Product Adoption:
            According to Onyeka (1999), television advertising has a peculiar quality that makes it more result oriented and profitable than other advertising media. It has an audio-visual impact which is to say that the audience can view it and the same time hears about the product being advertised. It is enough to say that, television advertising has an element of dramatic performance in the screen which is designed as both an educating and entertaining process because, while entertaining the audience, the advertisers also unveils some message which they intend to pass across to the prospective consumers/ audience.
            Okereke (1999) notes that, this peculiar feature of television advertising makes it the most viable medium of advertising. With its clever nature and entertaining programmes, the prospective consumers are often induced even against their plans to buy a product.
            The point here is that, unlike in other media of advertising like radio, billboard, newspaper etc, television advertising gives adequate representation of a product. It demonstrates the usage and the benefits of a product and this often arose in the mind of the consumers the feeling to patronize the product. The consumers are persuaded to visualize in their mind the taste of a particular product in the case of an edible product. They are also made to have a feeling of the comfort of service in the case of product that is not edible. All these help to induce the consumers and make them patronize a product.
            Also, televisions advertising often present a product as being inevitable and essential for the consumers to buy. Onyeka (1999) noted that, television advertising present new life impression of a product with its colourfulness and movement combined. This shows that television advertising gives the prospective consumers adequate knowledge of a product and also makes them believe that such product has an inevitable essence and the impression which is created in their mind about the product becomes lively, realistic and convincing.
            In agreement with the above views, Odimegwu (2000) notes that, unlike in radio and other advertising media, television advertising re-assures the potential consumers of the reality, usefulness and benefits of the products being advertised. The prospective consumers are made to have abstract feelings of the product and this intensifies the urge in them to buy the product . This shows that, television advertising has a convincing strategy which induces the consumers to adopt a product.
            It is also important to notes that, not all television advertising process are effective and efficient. The success of any television advertising in promoting product adoption depends on how well it is packaged by the advertisers and for it to be yielding, it must be based on certain dramatic performance that are capable of enticing the consumers and making their mind up for the product being advertised. This is why companies have failed to realize the essence for which they invest in advertising. They record less sales margin than even those companies that produce less quality goods. The problem being that their advertisers have failed to structure their advertising programmes in such a way that it will be reflective of what the consumers need and what they may wish to see in a product.
            Thus Okechukwu (2001) notes that, the success of any television advertising lies on the ability of the advertiser to develop programmes that are demonstrative of the ideal nature of a product, its benefit and quality make-up, which will propel the consumers to buy the product. Also, the colourfulness and attractiveness of the presentation gives the product an edge over its competitors in the market.
            It doesn’t go without saying from the above views that television advertising is an effective and more viable advertising medium. If it is well packaged, it promotes sales increase a company’s profit margin and increase consumers adoption and constant patronage.

2.3       Employing Advertising in a Competitive Industry:
            Advertising according to Chukwuokolo (2000:52) plays significant roles in competitive industries. For him, without the use of effective and efficient advertising media, a company can easily loose out their competitive irrespective of their product quality.
            Therefore, to benefit from this significant impact advertising on product adoption or consumer patronage, certain techniques must be used to make sure the advertising package or programme stands the taste of time and also measure effectively in the competitive market. First, the advertising programme must be reflective of the consumers’ needs and expectation. It has to be convincing and inducing as to make the consumers develop confidence in the product,
According to Anibueze (2001:83), for a company to out weight their competitors in the consumer market, their advertising network and programmes must be colourfully presented. The advertising process employed must be subtle, logical and attractive. It must be constantly presented in order to create an indelible impression in the mind of the consumers. The point here is that, to have a profitable advertising programme that can suffice the competitive nature of the market, a company must maintain regularity and consistency in their advertising process and programme. The media selected for the advertising process must be strategic as to capture all the target market or consumer. Again, the population who should benefit from the product being advertised must be taken into consideration in the advertising programme. The dramatic performance involved in the advertising programme must capture the test, the fashion and the expectation of the target consumers. This is why Ikeogu (2003:11) states that, an advertising process or programme is efficient and effective if it is strategic, logical and reflective of the taste, fashion and needs of the target consumers.
            Similarly, the difficulties involved in having an effective and efficient advertising lies in the fact that most company lack the resources to embarks on strategic advertising while some that have the resource do not channel it properly when it comes to the issue of advertising. Another problem been that, most of the advertising agencies cannot develop a well structured and inducing advert programme that will be very profitable due to lack of advertising experience.
            For Igbafen (2001), advertising is very important to the growth of a company especially in competitive industries but the efficiency of any advertising network or programme lies in, first, the ability of the company to sponsor a very strategic advertising that is information and inducing. Second, the ability of the advertising agencies to develop a strategic well structured and well packaged advertising programme.
            In the same way, what makes the process sweet and encouraging is that, if after presenting the advertising programme, the company witness large turn-out of consumers that adopts their product against those of their competitors.
Secondly, the company becomes re-assured that, their products have gathered more popularity among their competitors in the consumer market.
            According to Toye (2003) he noted that, strong emphasis usually made by advertisers on the importance of the goods and services being advertised often urge potential consumers to believe that the use of the product is inevitable. Also, attempt to persuade the audience that a product statue is like no other brand will position it in their mind that the product is the best. It is obvious from the above view that advertising helps to persuade the consumers and make them believe that a particular product is the best when compared to its substitute. This is very important because the aim of every business is turn-over, knowing fully well that without consumer patronage, producers can hardly produce nor make profit out of the capital they invest in the production process. This is to say that advertising is very essential in every competitive industry and it helps a company to maintain the position of product in their market.

2.4       Criteria for Effective Television Advertising             
            Television advertising unlike any other medium of advertising has certain criteria that makes it effective and result oriented. According to Igbafem (2002), an effective television advertising must be ethical which must not be against public morality, this means that a given television advertising must be structured in such away that, it respects the cultural values and ethical orientation of the social environment of the consumers it intends to capture.
            For a particular television advertising to really induce the consumers to patronize a product, it must not antagonize the people’s belief and moral orientation. For instance carrying out a television advertisement of beer and other alcoholic drinks in the Northern area of Nigeria will instead of inducing the consumer makes them hate the product being advertised. This links Idoanuka (2001) which argued that, an effective television advertisement must be censored by the Nigeria advertising association to make sure that, it has the required standard of advertising recognized by the society. And one of the standards is that, it must be truthful. The advertising message presented by the advertising programme must be a true representation of the quality of the product being advertised, its uses and price. This is because, if the consumers in the long-run discovers that the products being advertising has a different content from what the advertising programme claims, it may discourage them to patronize the products.
            Also, Okolie (2002) identifies the criteria for effective television advertising the following word: An effective television advertising must present a good image of the product being advertised. It must reflect the current trend of taste and fashion of the targeted consumers, above all, it must be consumer friendly as to arise their interest and urge to buy the product.
            It is also important to note that, advertising is a two-way thing. While it helps to induce the consumers, it must also be profitable to the organization. Hence, for Adler (2001), an effective television advertising must be profit oriented and must be structured and programmed in such away that, it will help to increase the company’s profit margin. This is because where a given television advertisement increases consumers adoption but does not promote the profit of a company, then, it is not effective and result oriented. Also, according to Chukwuokolo (2000) states that, effective television advertising must be in consonance with the provision of the consumers’ protection agencies and the Nigeria standardization of organization. This is to properly evaluate the product being advertised and also convinces the consumers that the product is a standard product and can meet their taste, need and fashion.
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