Meaning and objective of SIWES. OVERVIEW of
EVANS MEDICAL PLC., Evans Organogram
Objective of SIWES
Evans Organogram
Evans Medical PLC
Quality Assurance Department Research &
Development Raw Material Lab
RAW Material Lab
Analyses on Sorbital Solution
Water treatment water
Analytical test on glucose D
Presentation in packaging
Manufacturing processes flow diagram
Antidote the event of over dosage
Conclusion & Recommendation

Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a very big aid and a stepping stone to life after school. It is an opportunity given to students to put into practice most things that were theoretically explained by lecturers in schools.
Food processing industries like A&P Foods has been of great aid to this programme most especially for science students due to the fact that they make use of various chemicals and equipments such as Hot Air Oven Muffle Furnace water distillation standard.
As a result of this, the standard methodology and equipment handling expose students in their course of training.

Meaning of SIWES
            Students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is the accepted skills training programmes, which forms part of the approved minimum academic standards in the various degree programmes for all the Nigeria universities. It is provided to bridge the gap existing between theory and practice of engineering and technology, sciences,
Agriculture, medicine, management and other professional educational programmes in the tertiary institutions. It is aimed at exposing students to machines and equipments, professional work methods and ways of safe-guarding the work areas and workers in industries and other organizations

1.         To prepare students for the work situation they are
likely to meet after graduation.
2.         To provide an avenue for students in the Nigeria
universities to acquire industrial skills and experience in their course of study.
3.         To enlist and strengthens employer’s involvement in
the entire educational process of preparing university graduates for employment in industry.
4.         To provide students with an opportunity to apply their
theoretical knowledge in real work situation, thereby bringing the gap between university work and actual practice.
5.         To expose students to work methods and techniques in
handling equipments and machinery that may not be available in the university.
6.         To make the transition from the university to the world
of work easier and thus enhance student’s contacts for later job placement.

Water treatment water that are use in company are analyze once in a week after treatment. We have three type of water in the company. They are portable water, demonetized water and purified water. This water is different from each other due to its content like acidify Leal, iron content, Hardness and Chloride content.
            Hare portable water is treated in primarily and secondarily. In primary treatment, water that acmes from borne hole are treated with calcium hypo chloride which kills some the micro-organism in water. This hypo chloride adds chlorine and makes the water    harder. The water pass thru sand filter to remove sand of Carson filter which removes odor from the water and excess chlorine.
-           It enter iron filter so as to remove iron from the water then finally
-           It enters into alkarite filter which adjust the ph of water to 6.5.
Secondary treatment which is where the micro-organism are killed by addition of
After this stage the water becomes a portable water.
-           Deminarized water: Here portable water enters where activated carbon filter removes chlorine in the water and then it enters into the 100 exchange thank where cation and anion are remove by 100 exchanger.
After this stage the water become a purified water
Purified water: purified water are stored in a distribution tank and before it enter into the production room, it pass thru an ultraviolet light which kill all the micro-organism which may grow in the distribution tank.
            When the water goes into the production room, it come back to distribution tank to avoid room for stagnancy which may causes the growth of bacterial (biofims).

Sampling of Water:
            Water are sampled at different point both the purified water portable and deminsarized water in order to checks for PH levels, conductivity total dissolved solicit (iron content, hardness and chloride content which caco3 for portable and demonetized water.

Water Analyzes
The PH of water are checked using PH meter the PH of purified water should be between 5-7 and portable water and demonetized water should be between 6.8-8.00. This is to know the acidify and alkalinity of water because acidic water is not good for human body due to acidosis, portable water is not good for human body due to our body is acidic and can cause acidosis, portable water is good for drinking but purified water is not good for drinking due to it has acidic.
This is checked using a conductivity meter which will show the ability of water to conduct reaction when is used for the production of drugs.
Total Dissolved solvent
This is checked also using the conductivity meter. This is to know the capacity of the water in dissolving substance.
Iron Content
This is to check for the iron content of water which is for only portable and deminarized water and spectophometer is used to check for this parameter.

First we prepare the standard for by using 5ml of iron standard and make it up 100ml using 100ml volume flask, using purified water. To 25ml of 20% wtater 25ml of the sample (water portable) add 5ml of 20% water stric acid, 0.3ml of mercaptoacetic acid (thiogcycolic acid) and mix. Add 5ml of 10MNH3 and then dilute to 50ml with distilled water. Mix and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Prepare blank (reaction control) using purified water.
Read the absorbance at 535nm. To read the absorbance, we first blank the spectrophotometer using the blank and then read the absorbance of the sample and for the standard.
Iron =         

Where AU = sample absorbance
            AS  = Standard
            WS = Weight of Standard (0.1727g)
Hardness (CaCO3). This is to know amount CaCO3 in the water; to know how hard the water is. Here we use titre vale to know the amount of CaCO3 in the water. The type of titration that occurs here is complex – Solometic titration because of solochrome blank indicator used. To determine this, we measure 100ml of sample, add 5ml of triethanslamine, 2ml of 4H3 buffer and 0.2ml of solochrome blank indicator. Titrate immediately with 0.02M EDTA until a blue/bluisa green colour is obtained. Carry out blank using distilled water.
Hardness (CaCo3) (ppm)

Chloride content: to know the amount of chloride in the water. This can be done by titration which is back titration.

Measure 100ml of sample add 2 drops of methyl orange. If the colour is yellow add 0.01m sulphuric acid until the colour is orange. His to neutralize the sample. After this neutralization, add about 0.1g of calcium carbonate and mix in order to adjust the pH of the sample. Add 0.5ml of potassium chromate indicator which will impact a yellow colour. Titrate the solution with 0.03M silver nitrate to a reddish brown tinge.
Calculate the chloride content = y x 100
In quality assurance department we make sure that water used in Evans Medical Plc does not affect life.
(i)        Fluid Bed dryer
(ii)       Multifunction pharmaceutical machine
(iii)     Rotary press compression machine
(iv)      Ph meter
(v)       Coating vessel
(vii)    fribilator
(vii)    Disintergation machine
(viii)   Hardness tester
(ix)      Dissolution test-machine
(x)       Furnace
(xi)      High efficient chromatograph machine
(xii)    Spectrophotometer
(xiii)   Stability chambers for 300C, 400C, 500C
(xv)     Autoclave

Analysis on finished product goods. (drug) finished product goods are analyzed using  method which must obey the standard operating procedure.
            We have categories of analyses on these drug analysis → 1
This is looking at the drugs in the physical accept of it. This were we do description, of average weight, uniformity, friability, diameter, hardness, thickness leakage and disintegration time.
-           Average weight can be done by weighing 20 tablets of
drugs ie.
Weight of 2o table x 1000
-           Uniformity is by weighing 20 tabs and checks the weight of each tablet by zeroing the balance and remove them one after the other. Friability is to check the amount of dust that can come out of a drug using friabilitor.
            Thickness and diameter can se done by variable caliper.
            Disintrlation time: this is to know the time a drug can dissolve in the body using a disintegration machine.
This is were we use chemical to know active component of a drug like Assay, dissolution time.
            In away, we checked for the vitamin B2 contact  B1 minimum content. Calcium content.
            We analyses drugs like after, gluose D., multivite, paracolanol.
            Analyses on glucose D.
Description:  A white crystal powder loss on drying using an infrared moisture balance method.
Weigh 10g of sample and allow to stand for 10mins – result = 9.0%
Assay – Calcium content:
To 9.00g of the sample add 100ml of H2o, 3-4 drops of HCL comes 50ml of 0.4729 EDTA and 10ml of ammonia Soya for blocose.
Add 4-8 drops of solo chrome black and titrate with calcium soil 0.4719m
Blank              =          49.40ml
Sample A       =          16.90ml
Sample B       =          17.20ml

I was able to analyze different row material like calamine, powder, sulfamethoxazole, Ammonium chloride, providine, pine sorbitol solution, eucalyptus oil, granulated sugar, Asparalame pecaauanha Liquid extra.
Below is an example of Analyses I did.
            Analyses on suffamethoxazole (C10H11 N3 O3S)
1.         Description: A fine white powder, odorless
2.         Solubility: water – insoluble
                                    Acetone – soluble  
                                    Ethanol – soluble
                                    NaoH – soluble
3.         Identification: Dissolve 0.05g of sample in 10mL of 1m HCL Dilute 1m HCL Dilute 1cm of the solution to 10me with water.

0.0 by of sample tome of IM HCL +   IML of solution add 10MC of H2 OR      
An intensed orange colour formed

4.         Acidity/Alkalinity I HC at 1.25g of sample with 25ml of water at 10oC for 5mins. Cool in ice and filter. Add 0.1 ml of bromothymol blue solution. Note the volume of NaoH that change the colour of solution
·        0.11mc of Na oH 0.1m is required to change the colour of the solution.
·        Loss in drying: using infrared moisture balance weight 10g of sample into the machine and allow to stand for 10mins the result will read out. Oven method can also be used.
·        Sulphated Ash: using 1g in furnace
Weight of crucible = 21.9134g
Weight of sample = 1.0002g
Weight of crucible + sample = 21.9139
Ash = weight of crucible + sample – wt of crucible x 100
                                    weight of sample
21.9139 – 21.9134 x 100
·        Heavy metal: weight 2g of sample + 0.5g of mgO and ignite for some minutes then to furnace to stand for I hr. dissolve with 5mc of Hcl 5m + 0.5mc of phenolphthalein and neutralized with 13.5m NH3 drop wise and add. Glacial acetic acid to remove the pink colour.
To 12ml of the solution add 2ml of acetate buffer and finally 1.2ml of thioacetamide reagent then mixed.
If a brown colour in formed, that means there is a heavy metal.
No heavy metal found because the brown colour formed is not more intense then the reference solution.
Assay: dissolve about 0.50g of sample in a mixture of 20mc of glacial active acid and 40mc of water and 15mc of conc. hcl to cool to 15.oc immediately titrate with 0.1m solution titrate with 0.1m sodium nitrate.
Weight of sample A = 0.5000g
Weight of sample B = 0.500g
Titrate with 0.8491 in sodium nitrate indicator used
                                    Blank              A(mc)             B(mc)
FBR                            0.40                            23.80              23.90
IBR                             0.00                            .000                            0.00
VOL                            0.40                            23.8                            23.90
Assay =          (Titre value – Blank) x = x m x 100                
                                    Wt of sp x STD M.
                        (23.80 – 0.4) x 0.02533. x 0.08491 x 100                  
                                    0.5000 x 0.1
            =          100 . 6556    
(23.90 – 0.4) x 0.02533. x 0.08491 x 100                  
                                    0.5000g x 0.1m
            =          101.0862
Average         =          100 . 6556 + 101. 0862             
            =          100.8709
The sulfamethoxazole in used for the production of co-trimoxazele, metronidazole and Antibiotics.

Analyses on Sorbitol Solution
1.         Description – A clear and colorless liquid
2.         Solubility: soluble in water and glycerol.
3.         Reducing: sugars: to 5.00g of sample add 3mc of water and 20mc of cupric citric solution and a few glass of rod bead. That so that boiling begins after 4mins and continues soling for 3mc cool rapidly and add 100mc of 2.9% w/v solution of glacial acetic acid and 20ml of 0.025m iodine solution. With continuo’s shaking add 25ml of a mixture of 6vol Hcl and 94 vol. of water when the precipitate has dissolved titrate with 0.05m sodium thiosulphate using 1ml of starch solution which will be added toward the end of titration as indicator 13.oml of sodium thiosulphate was required to change the colour of the solution.
4.         Reducing sugar after hydrolysis: To 6.00ml of sample add 35ml of water 40ml 1m Hcl + glass rod. Boil under reflux condenser for 4 hrs. Cool and neutralized to bromothymol blue by adding dilute Na oH. Cool and dilute to 100ml with the to 3.0ml of solution add 5ml of water, 20ml of cupric citric solution and a few glass rod. Heat so that boiling for 3mins cool rapidly and add 100ml of 2.4% glacial acetic acid and of 0.025m iodine solution with continue shaking add.
Add 25ml of a mixture of 6vol of Hcl and 99vol of water when the precipitate has dissolve titrate with 0.05m sodium thiosuphate using 1ml of starch solution add toward the and of titration as indicator.                       
·        13.50ml is required to change the colour of solution
            Acidity: To 10ml of solution 5 add 10mc of co2 free     water to 10ml of this solution add 0.05mc of             phenolphthalein and titrate with 0.0im Na oH 0.14mc in          required to change the colour to pink.   
·        Refractive index = 1.457 using refractometer.

Chloride Test
·        Measure 100ml of sample in 250ml conical flask
·        Add 2 drops of methyl orange
·        If the colour is yellow then add 0.01m of sulphuric acid    until the colour is orange
·        After Neutralization, add about 0.1g of calcium       carbonate and mix thoroughly,
·        Add 5 mc of potassium chromate indicator which will       impact a yellow colour solution.  
·        Titrate the resulting solution with 0.03m silver nitrate        to a reddish brown.

Potable Water
Chloride Content:
(i)        Measure 100ml of sample into 250ml conical flask.
(ii)       Add 2 drops of methyl orange.
(iii)     If the colour in yellow, add 0.01m sulphuric acid until the colour is orange.
(iv) After neutralization add about 0.1g of calcium carbonate and mix thoroughly.
(v)       Add 0.5ml of potassium chromate indicator which will impact a yellow colour to D solution.
(vi) Titrate the resulting solution with 0.03m silver nitrate to a reddish brown tinge.
(vii)    Cal the chloride content as
            Chloride content (ppm) = V X 10
            Where V in the volume of 0.03m Ag N0g used
            Hardness (caco3)
(i)        Measure 100ml of the sample into a clean 250ml conical flask.
(ii)       Add 5ml of triethanolamines, 2ml of Ammonia buffer and 0.2g of solo chrome black indicator.
(iii)     Immediately titrate the solution with 0.02m EDTA until blue/bluish-green colour is obtained.
(v)       Carry out a blank determination using distilled water.
Hardness (caco3) (ppm) = Vol. of 0.02 MEDTA X 1000                          
                                                                        Vol. of sample used.

Iron Content
·        Measure 5ml of iron standard solution (stock solution)     make at up to 100ml with water
·        Transfer 15ml each of distilled H2O (blank), H2O sample and 1ppm iron solution in a separate designated 50ml             volumetric flask
·        Add 5ml of citric add solution, 0.3ml of mecaptoacetic      acid (thioglycollic acid) mix.
·        Add 5ml of 10m NH3, dilute to the mark with distilled       H2O, mix and allow for 5minute
·        Using a suitable spectrophotometer and 1cm cell    measure absorbance of sample and standard.
Raw and Treated water
There are two bore wells of 100 meter depth. Water is pumped from a bore well into a holding tank. The water is dosed on line with 15% calcium hypochlorite solution and 50% caustic soda respectively, before it is stored as raw water. The holding tank now refers as raw water tank. Has a capacity of 80,000 liters and is made of concrete.
The raw water is then pumped through the main components of the plant (filters) and re-injected with 12% calcium hypochlorite solution before it is finally stored in two 8,000 liters concrete tanks as treated (potable) water for general use throughout the factory and for further purification for production uses.
The potable water is distributed by two booster pumps also located in Block N. Both Raw and potable are available for when required for fire hydrants.

Equipment Description
A.        Bore well pumps
B.        Chemical storage tanks and dosing pumps
i.          Chemical hypochlorite storage tanks
ii.         Sodium hydroxide storage tank
iii.       Chemical dosing pumps.
C.        Transfer pumps.
D.        Filters
E.         Booster pumps
F.         electrical panel         
·        Sodium hydroxide storage tank
It injection is done by dosing pumps connected to the tanks. The pH of the raw material needs to be raised to between 6.8 and 7 for effective removal of iron and heavy metals. Resulting PH of raw water is measured and recorded.
·        Calcium hypochlorite solution: is injected to prevent microbial growth. Dosing rate of hypochlorite depend on rate of water production.

·        Chemical dosing pumps
There are three chemical dosing pumps two of which dose the raw water from bore well with 50% W/N caustic soda solution and calcium hypochlorite solution simultaneously.
The third pump doses the potable H2O with 12% hypochlorite solution (secondary chlorination) after the water has left the Alkrite filter.

There are three sets of filters connected in series and one stand alone as follows:
(i)        A set of three sand filters connected in parallel. Each   contains about 300kg of high silica (coarse and fine          sand) as these removes fine sand particle and debris    from raw water.
(ii)       A set of three activated carbon filters in parallel           connection. Each contains activated carbon granules and these remove by adsorption dissolved gases e.g. oxygen and injected excess chlorine before the water reaches     the iron remove filters.
(iii)     A set of three iron filter connected in parallel. Each     contains media graded catalytic mineral (under the      trade name HYDROLITE Mn) and these remove heavy            metals at high PH values.
(iv) One Alkrite filter containing Alkrite pH regulating resin   which adjusts the PH of the treated (potable) water to          7 – 9 before storage in potable storage tanks.

Back washing process
This is the process by which the filters are re-charged to increase their efficiency after the plant has run for a day. Firstly each of the three sand filters is washed out to remove accumulated wastes. E.g. (sand and dust particles)
Then the carbon filters to remove accumulating dissolved gases e.g. (chlorine) and the iron filtered to remove iron (fe) and manganese (Mn) metal complexes.
This is documented in the back wash log bank.
Allenbury’s Glucose D promotes the assimilation of facts in cases of low fat tolerance and is of value in the prevention and treatment of ketosis, sea sickness air sickness, vomiting in pregnancy and similar conditions.
It is good in all conditions associated with carbohydrate insufficiency and produces rapidly available form of energy.

Allenburys glucose D, a white powder is presented in 450g and 200g tin pack as well as 50g aluminum foil sachet.
It is filled as 450g and 200g into white paper bags printed with “Allenbury’s glucose D these bags are subsequently packed into light blue non-seamed rust free rectangular cans shrink-sleeved with PVC foil with Evans Logo.

Vitamin                      D3        -           19LU
CALCIUM Glycerophosphate                    27mg
Dextrose monohydrate BP              15g

Glucose D contains three active ingredients
(i)        Calciferol or vitamin D3
(ii)       Dextrose monohydrate BP
(iii)     Calcium cly cerophosphote  
Calciferol or vitamin D
1.         Chemical name
9, 10 – secoergosta 5, 7, 10 (19) 22 – tetraen – 3B-ol
Structural Formula
(iii)     Molecular formula               C28 H44O
(iv)      Molecular weight                 396.7g      

Dextrose Monohydrate BP
(i)        Chemical Name
            D – (+) – glucopyranose monohydrate
(ii)       Structural formula
(iii)     Molecular formula – C6 H12 O6 H2O
Molecular weight – 198.2g
Calcium Glycerophosphate
Calcium Glycerophosphate
(i)        Chemical Name
            Calcium Glycerophosphate
(ii)       Structured formula
            Calcium Glycerophosphate

Equipment Requirement
1.         Manufacturing – Dell Blender
                                                - Kibbler mixer
2.         Package – Autopack – Dialafill
                                    Conveyor for manual
Safety Precaution     
-              Face mask and hand gloves should be worn at the stage of production though the dust is non toxic.
-              Skin contact with material should be avoided.


The dietary calcium intake should be reduced.
Dehydration and resulting electrolyte inbalance/disturbances should be promptly corrected. Hydrocortisone may be administered to lower the hypercalciaemia.
All the ingredients are pharmacopoeia products and are not associated with reports of teratogenicity.
All ingredient are active.
(a)       Specification for ingredients. (vita D3) calciferol 100,000 I u/gm BP – attached
            Calcium glycerophosphate BPC – attached
            Dextrose monohydrate BP
(b)       Analytical method for calcium content in glucose
(c)       Finished product specification

Weigh 10g of the sample and subject it to infrared moisture for 10 minute. Record the % moisture content.
Preparation of sample
i.          Weight of sample: Use 9.00g for packed sample
ii.         Weight 9.00g of the sample is above into a 500ml conical flask and add 100ml of cold water swirl to dissolve.
iii.       Add 2-3ml drops of conc. Hydrochloric acid followed by exactly 20ml of 20% triethanolamine solution
iv.        Add 50ml of standard EDTA solution followed of 10m Ammonia buffer solution.
v.         Add 4-8 drops of calon mixture indicator
vi.        Back titrate the excess EDTA with standard calcium solution until violet purple and point is obtained
vii.      Carry out blank titration (i.e carry out) (a-d) without the sample
viii.     Using the difference between the blank and the sample titration calculate the calcium content in mg per 30g
            calcium content (mg/30g)=
            Ca24    =          Blank – Titre value x M of EDIA
            ____X 30_____      
            Weight of sample (g)

Preparation of sample for pre-blend
Weight of sample use 0.25g for pre-below and 9.0g for pack sachets.
1.         Weight the sample as state above into a clean dry 50ml conical flask and add 100ml of cold distilled water, swirl to dissolve
2.         Add 2-3 drops of con. Hydrochloric acid, followed.
3.         Add 10ml of ammonia buffer solution followed by 4-8 drops of solochrome black indication
4.         Back titrate the excess EDTA with standard calcium solution until a purple end point is obtained.
5.         Carryout the blank (i.e carry out process 1-4) without the sample.
6.         Using the difference between the blank and the sample calculate the calcium content in mg per 30g.
Calcium content (mg/30g)= Blank – title value
Ca24                =          Blank – Titre value x M of EDTA X 30  
                                                Weight of sample (g)
Back titrate the excess EDTA with standard calcium solution unit violet purple and point is obtained.
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