A number of studies have been reviewed for this study. Rachael Mabie and Matt Baker (1996) carried out an experimental study using experiential teaching approach with two urban inner city Los Angeles Schools in United States of America (USA). One of the schools was in East Los Angeles and the other was in South Central Los Angeles. Five fifth grades, sixth grade or fifth/sixth combination classes participated in the study.
            These groups were randomly assigned to the following treatments:

(a)       A ten-week garden project consisting of a fifth/sixth combination class and a sixth grade class (56 students).  
(b)       A ten-week series of three short in-class projects (including bread baking chick rearing and seed germination for two of the fifth grade classes (57 students) and
(c)       One control group, a fifth/six combination classroom that received no treatment (13 students).

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            The treatments (gardening projects and short- in – class projects) were developed for integration into a 10- week instructional unit in science. The teacher of the control group did not include the specific food and their competencies in the curricular. Gardening instruction was structured as 15-20 minute session of lecture, discussion and demonstration in the classroom, followed by group gardening activities. Lessons were one hour each week for the ten-week period. Three days (one day per week) were each spent one each of the short, in-class project (bread baking, chick rearing and seed germination). Emphasis was placed on observing each project as it progressed, recording observations, making predictions and discussing outcomes.
            The data collection involved researcher observation of students’ written responses to series of questions on pre-test and post-test instrument developed by the researchers and reviewed for validity by a panel of experts. The instrument was designed to find out how much children knew about where food comes from, their level of awareness of careers in agriculture and environmental significance of agriculture. The instrument was pilot-tested with fifth graders at another inter-city Los Angeles School. The K-R20 reliability co-efficient was 0.74. The data were analyzed using the SPSS+PC Statistical package.
            The result disclosed that the learners participating in the study knew very little about food fibre system before completing a ten-week series of the experimental activities. The learners’ knowledge increased through participation in the activities. For example, 69% of the control group participants 45% of garden group participants and 42% of short project participants, said that agriculture was interesting on the pre-test. On the post-test, the percentage of yes respondent in the control group declined to 54% and increased to 83% in the garden group and 85% in short project group. The students showed little understanding of the food and fibre system in their state. On pre-test, 42% of control group students 25% of garden group students and 36% of short project students knew that California was their nation’s leading farm state. On the post-test 50% of control respondent, 78% of garden respondents and 78% of short project respondents were aware of their state’s status in agriculture. The students’ knowledge increased through participation in the activities. Many more were able to identify related careers. The students went from knowing very little to becoming quite knowledgeable. Based on this research, the researcher therefore recommended that extension professionals should assist teachers in introducing experiential activities into their curriculum. Secondly they opined that it is critical to ensure that today’s youth grow up with basic understanding of food and fibre system. People should be capable of making educated decision on issues in the voting booth as well as in their personal lives, starting in kindergarten and continuing through higher education. Finally, they stated that none use of experiential learning method makes subject matter seem to loose the qualities that make it exciting.  
This study is considered relevant to the present study mainly because it shows how much knowledge learners can gain by being involved in practical activities that bring discovery of knowledge. It also shows that science will be best taught through experiential teaching methods, as is advocated by the researchers. The above study is also considered relevant to this present study because just like the participants were able to identify careers in agricultural science because they were taught with this method, experiential teaching method will enable learners become aware of careers that exist in sciences if the teachers adopt experiential teaching method for the teaching of science in the schools.
In another related study, Richardson (1994) conducted a study to determine best learning preferences by specifically targeted Extension audiences in eleven (II) North Carolina counties in United State of America (USA).
            Agents from each of the II counties selected an applicable program for their county and developed educational program objectives and a list of clientele targeted to receive the specific information. The program ranged broadly from those focusing on water quality, community leadership development, to feeder cattle conditioning programs. Seven people who participated in the program in each of the II counties were randomly selected from county list; and were subsequently interviewed by the extension agents in those respective counties.
            To determine the single most preferred way of learning by targeted clientele, they were given the choice of hearing, seeing, touching/feeling, doing, tasting, smelling and discussion. Among these options, the respondents indicated an overwhelming preference for “doing”

Learning method                                                    % Preference
Doing                                                                                     70%
Seeing                                                                        18.2
Discussing                                                                 6.5
Hearing                                                                      3.9
Touching-feeling                                                      1.3
Tasting                                                                       0
Smelling                                                                     0  
            In another question, clientele were asked if there are any combinations of learning methods that help them learn better. In their responses, the preferences were strongly focused on combination of methods that allow them to gain interactive sensory experience when learning. These findings indicated that 74% preferred some combination that allows them to “do” what they were being taught. Preferences for combinations that include being able to “see” what is being taught were indicated by 64.9% of clientele. Also 35.1% preferred a combination of delivery method that allows them ‘discuss” the information they are receiving.
            When clientele were asked why they preferred a combination of learning modes, their responses indicated that the learning process was positively enhanced. Their responses to why they preferred the combination include the following;
(a)       “Combinations make learning easier and faster”
(b)       “Helps for better and longer retention”
(c)       “By using all senses, can gain more knowledge”
(d)       “Helps to discuss, then do”
(e)       “If I can see it done, I learn it”.
            To confirm the consistency of the responses to the test items, Richardson administered the same instrument to a group of new workers during their orientation training. In their responses to the single most preferred mode of learning, agents even indicated stronger preference for “doing” or performing 80.7% seeing 16.6%, Discussing 3.2% Hearing 0%, Touching/feeling 0% tasting 0%. On combination of modes of learning that were most preferred, the new group (agents) was similar to the earlier responses. However there was an even greater preference for discussion to be included in the combinations. Seeing/Doing/Discussing had 37%. Hearing/ Smelling/ Tasting/Discussing has 22%, seeing/Doing had 18.6% Hearing /Seeing/ Feeling/ Smelling/Tasting/Discussing/Doing had 7.4%. Hearing/seeing/doing had 7.4%, doing/discussing/3.7, doing/seeing/discussing/touching/feelings had 3.7%. From the above, all the new agents preferred combinations that include “Doing”. When the two studies are compared, it is obvious that there is a parallel between those two different groups of people. They agreed that learning experience should include opportunities to “do” “see” and “discuss” the information presented. The results from the above studies led the researcher to recommend that extension education programs should include foremost, experiential or “doing” opportunities. The learning process is further enhanced by providing opportunities for learners to see and discuss the information.
            The above study by Richardson is considered to be relevant to the present study on the effect of experiential learning on pupils’ achievement in basic science. This is because the study showed how relevant or helpful the experiential learning can be to any form of learning, be it that the learning is done either in the formal school system or in the informal system. The study further revealed that the method enhances retention, logical presentation and presents learners opportunities to practice what they have learned in new situation (transfer of learning). Since the study of science involves testing, asking questions, comparing observation etc. which culminate in “doing” and seeing”, it therefore means that pupils’ achievement in science will increase if the subject matter is taught with a teaching method that has the same process.
            Grisoni (2002) conducted a research on the use of experiential method in instructional delivery. The objective of the study was to check his projected assumptions about the use of experiential learning in Bristol Business School London, United Kingdom. In a bid to conduct the study, he made comparisons of his personal Espoused theory about experiential learning with the organization’s (Bristol Business School) theory in use. Semi-structure discussions were used to gather data from staff and students of the institution.
            The gathered data were later content analyzed and were grouped together. More so, his major sources of basic data were,
1.         Personal Espoused theory and theories in use
2.         Organizational Espoused theory and theories in use.
            In comparing his personal Espoused theory and theories-in-use, he discovered that there are contradictions between the two sets of theories, which indicate tension between conscious and unconscious processes. While espoused theories are the conscious expression of value theories-in-use are his personal unconscious enactment of them.
            The data gathered from the semi-structured discussion was content analyzed and the findings were grouped together under the following
·          Different understanding of the term experiential learning
·          Roles and relationships between staff and student
·          Experiential learning is non-academic
·          Experiential learning as an inefficient and costly method of learning
·          Experiential learning is seen as a resource intensive learning strategy.
            From the foregone observations, the researcher concluded that experiential learning was being used in different ways by wider range of staff of the school than anticipated. There was an appreciation that experiential teaching could provide more effective learning for students but was countered by argument about resources constraints and fears about staff competence. In the light of the above, the researcher recommended that there is need that a broader application of the approach as a pedagogy requires considerable staff support in redefining the roles of teachers as facilitators of learning.
            The above study is considered relevant to the present study; firstly, the findings show that fear by teachers to adopt new teaching method/approach which will help to improve pupils academic achievement is the same both in developing and developed countries. It further showed that resource inadequacy, which hampers implementation of innovative educational programs, is not limited to developing countries. Moreover, the teaching method explored by the study is the same as the one currently being studied.
            Finally, it was further discovered from the study that if the teachers overcome their perceived fears and adopt the method, experiential teaching approach is the most effective and will be preferred to other teaching methods.
Ajiboye and Ajitoni  (2008) conducted a study on the effects of full and quasi-participatory (experiential) learning strategies on Nigerian Senior Secondary Students’ environmental knowledge implications’ for classroom practice. The study determined the effects of two models of participatory (experiential) teaching models; the full and quasi participation on secondary school students’ achievement in selected environmental issues and concepts. Secondly, the study also examined effect of group size and academic ability on subjects’ knowledge of the environmental concepts.
Three hundred and sixty senior secondary two (SSII) students from nine (9) secondary schools in Ire Podun Local Government Area of Kwara State constituted the subjects of this study. The selection of the nine (9) schools was based on stratified random sampling. The study adopted a pretest, pos-test, control group, quasi-experimental design, using a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Randomly selected intact SSII class was involved in the experiment. Six of the nine schools were randomly assigned as experimental group and three as control group. Out of the six treatment schools, three were assigned to full learning participatory learning strategy (FLPS) and three to quasi- participatory learning strategy (QPLS). Also three used small groups (4 students) and three used large groups (8 students).
Four instruments were used in the study. General Aptitude Test (GAT), Participatory Learning Guide (PLG), Environmental Education Model (EEM); and Knowledge of Environmental Concept Test (KECT).
            The GAT which is a 50-item multiple choice test was designed by the researchers, has a reliability index of 0.86 using K-R 21 formula. The GAT scores were used to classify subjects into three academic ability groups of high, average, and low. Also KECT is a 30-item multiple choice test designed by the researcher based on the environmental concepts taught the pupils. It has a reliability index of 0.92 using the K-R21. The Participatory Learning Guide (PLG) and the Environmental Education Model (EEM) were the experimental materials or stimulus instruments for the study. The Teacher Instructional Guide (TIG) was the guide for the co-operating teachers in the full and quasi-participatory learning groups. The conventional lecture method (CLM) group was allowed to work in the conventional mode.
            The full participatory and quasi participatory learning strategy guides were a 3-hour and 20 minutes session of five periods each, split into three separate sessions, of eight minutes for each of the first and second sessions and forty minutes for the third and last session. Students were assigned to a four-member group for small group and eight-member group for large group.
            The participating teachers in the study were those who had at least a university degree preferably B.Ed. in any field, since environmental education cuts across many disciplines. Also the teachers were those with a minimum of five years post-qualification experience. All the subjects for the study were pre-tested using the instrument. Teaching in both the experimental and control group were carried out for three period (sessions) of 200 minutes (80+80+40 minutes) per week for six weeks. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) to test the hypothesis and differences among groups, using pre-test scores as covariates.
            The result of analysis of the data shows that there is a significant main effect of treatment on variation in students’ knowledge of environmental concepts. The data also reveals significant main effect of group size and academic ability. Specifically, the quasi-participatory group obtained a mean of 54.56, the full participatory had a mean of 52.40 while the conventional had a mean of 51.75. To determine the source of the observed significance, a post-hoc analysis was carried out using the Scheffe, multiple ranges. The outcome of the analysis shows that quasi-participatory learning strategy differed significantly from the full participatory learning group and the conventional lecture method-group.
            However, the difference in the mean scores of experimental group I and the control group is not significant. This shows that the quasi-participatory learning strategy (QPLS) is best suited to enhance the academic achievement of senior secondary schools students’ knowledge in environmental education. It was also observed that the differences between the mean scores of subjects on the small and large groups were significant for the experimental group and control groups.
            This study is considered relevant to the present study mainly because the teaching strategy explored by the study is the same with the teaching subject the present study is set to explore its effect in the teaching of basic science.
            Secondly, the study explored small group of four members, which is also part of the design of the present study. Furthermore, the subject area used by the study is taught in basic schools as basic science which is the subject area this study is based. The above study is also considered relevant to this study because, the challenges of large class and poor teacher preparations in the study area are similar to those in the area where this present study was conducted.
 In another related study, UNICEF, UNESCO and the Federal Ministry of Education (FME) (1997) conducted an assessment of learning achievement of basic four pupils in Nigeria on some basic subject area, of which basic science was one. The study was designed to identify competencies within specific knowledge domains such as basic science which a child who has been exposed to four years of basic schooling should have acquired within the dictates of curricular demands. Twenty-two thousand, two hundred and fifty two pupils (22,252) made up of twelve thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven (12,777) males and nine thousand, three hundred and one (9,301) females pupils while one hundred and seventy four (174) unidentified pupils (those who did not indicate their sex) were sampled across the country for the study. The instrument for collection of data consists of forty-five multiple objective test items constructed by the team of researchers that were involved in the study. The reliability co-efficient of the instrument was 0.81 using the K-R21 reliability co-efficient. The data collected were analyzed. The result indicated that the national mean score of pupils in basic science was 32.77 with the standard deviation (SD) of 18.19. The scores were further broken down. It was further discovered that females had a national mean score of 32.96 with SD of 18.29, while males had a mean score of 32.73 and SD of 18.10. The above score made the researchers to draw the conclusion that the performance of Nigerian basic school pupils who have completed four years of basic education indicates that the level of attainment in basic science is very low. They also noted that girls performed slightly higher than boys, as against the generally held belief that science is more suitable for males than females.
The above study is considered relevant to this present study because it showed the low level of attainment in basic science in Nigerian basic schools by pupils, which therefore necessitated the need for an urgent search for solution. This present study is part of the response for the search for solution to arrest the ugly situation. Furthermore the study focused on basic science, which is also the focus of the present study.  Finally the study area of the above research cuts across the whole country including the area where this present research is centred.                                                       
Turesky and Wood (2010) carried out a study to determine how Kolb’s conceptual framework can aid reflection on teaching, based on the experiential teaching model designed from Kolb’s experiential teaching model.
            In a bid to conduct the study, the following questions were posed and  served as guides for the study.
1.         How might Kolb’s theory of experiential learning be used as an interpretive framework for analyzing students’ work in terms of their leadership development?
2.         How might the analysis of students’ work inform and improve teaching?
3.         What strategies might be created to promote students’ growth as leaders by encouraging them to build on dominant learning modes while also strengthening less developed ones?
Two students’ papers which focused on their own leadership experiences were selected as samples for the study. In order to generate data for the analysis, the researchers structured the assignment around Kolb’s modes of experiential learning, feeling, watching, thinking, and doing. They closely analysed the two sampled female student’s papers. Because the papers involved writing narrative accounts of experience in the work place, the researchers wanted to track how students cast themselves as protagonists, facing something they do not totally understand, that intrigues them, that made them realize that they lack certain leadership skills. In order words, they provided the students the opportunity to use Kolb’s framework as they reflected back on their lived experience in leadership. They also wanted the students to analyze and reinterpret that experience through the Kolb’s four modes in order to learn how they were learning and operating as leaders and to imagine ways they might learn and operate more successfully in the future.
            In generating information from the work, the researchers analyzed the work by reading and re-reading them, using the constant-comparative research. Together they formed a community of interpretation, checking and re-checking their understandings as they emerged. They thoroughly considered every aspect of the students papers by identifying in the narrative involvements, the abstract, orientation and complicating actions to (coda) These helped them determine which Kolb mode(s) each student used to explain her predicament and her work to resolve it. The evaluation segment helped identify whether or not the student drew from alternative modes in analyzing the experience, imaging alternative responses and gaining insight for future work.
            The findings from their study, generated potential strategies to nurture students growth as leaders. Secondly, the study made them became increasingly adept at analyzing students’ stories from this perspective. Specifically, the study revealed that Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as an interpretive frame work for analyzing students’ work in terms of their leadership potential made the researchers become more deliberate as teachers, about analyzing students’ strength and weaknesses. This made the researchers develop assignments that were tailored to their students individuals leadership development needs. The study also made the researchers to know that as teachers, utilizing Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as interpretive framework for analyzing students’ work in terms of their leadership potential will make them know their own strength and weaknesses as experiential learners. Hence it makes teachers know who their students are as learners and then extrapolate from that as teachers what they can do to improve their teaching.
            This study by Turesky and wood (2010) on how Kolb’s conceptual framework can aid reflection on teaching is considered relevant to this study; firstly, the topic of the study which was determing how Kolb’s conceptual frame work can aid teaching is all about the use of experiential teaching approach, which is also the focus of the present study. Secondly, the study revealed that the experiential teaching approach can be used to teach other subjects, outside the  teaching of basic science and technology which is the  focus of the present study. Therefore, if it is adopted as teaching approach in schools, it can be used  to teach art related subjects.           
Furthermore the findings in the study showed that experiential teaching approach helps the teachers to evaluate both the learners and teachers themselves. Teachers can use it as an effective instrument for self evaluation. It therefore shows that the method can lead to enhanced professional development of teachers.
            Akiubobola (2009) carried out experimental work on enhancing students’ attitudes towards Nigeria senior Secondary school physics using the co-operative (experiential), competitive and individualistic learning strategies. The study determined if there is a difference in the attitude of physics students who have been taught with comparative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies. The study also determined if there would be a difference in the attitude of  male and female students taught with co-operative (experiential) competitive and individualistic learning strategies. Two hypotheses guided the study.
            In a bid to carry out the study, the researcher adopted a quasi-experimental design. All senior secondary School two(SS II) physics students in all the 13 co-educational schools in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State Nigeria formed the population of the study. The size of the population was 680 senior secondary two (SS II) physics students. A random sampling technique, through the use of balloting was carried out to select three co-educational secondary schools. One intact class from the participating schools was randomly reflected and the three infact classes were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Students Attitude Towards Physics Questionnaire (SATPQ) was the instrument used for data collection. This instrument used to measure the attitude of physics students towards the learning strategies was developed by the researcher. Content validity of the items was assessed at the time they were developed by an educational psychologist and two physics experts. The SATPQ comprised 25 items on four (4) rating scale responses. The responses, strongly Agree (SA) disagree (D) Agree (A) and strongly Disagree (SD) were respectively assigned value point 4,3,2,1 for positive statements and in reverse order for negative statements.
            The instrument was trial-tested to establish the reliability of the instrument in the school not used for the main study. Cronbach Alpha was used to obtain the reliability co-efficient of the instrument. The instrument had an internal consistency of 0.86.
            Research assistants who were regular teachers in the schools were used to teach the topics. This research Assistants were given special training on how to teach the concept using various learning strategies. The use of the research Assistants also helped to control teacher quality variable. Students in the co-operative (experiential) learning group were taught in small heterogeneous groups of level. different ability. Each group was made up of 3 students. Students in the competitive group were also divided into groups. Questions in the form of quizzes were asked of each group in order to determine the winning group. The best group was given a prize at the end of each lesson. Students in the individualistic learning group completed their activities individually. The concept was taught to the groups for four weeks. The SATPQ was administered at the  end of the treatment. Analysis of co-variance was used in testing the hypothesis formulated at P<0.05 alpha level.
            The result of the analysis of hypothesis one indicated that a significant difference exists in the attitude of students taught physics with co-operative (experiential), competitive, and individualistic learning strategies. Students showed more positive attitude towards competitive than individualistic strategy. Also student showed more attitude towards co-operative (experiential) than competitive learning strategy.
            The result of the second hypothesis indicated no significant difference in the attitude of male and female students taught with co-operative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies. The above results therefore made the researcher to conclude that using co-operative learning strategy will enable the students to understand, enjoy and create more positive attitude towards physics, so that teaching it will become more rewarding to teachers. Also, co-operative learning strategy does not discriminate against gender.
            This study is considered relevant to this present study which is on the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement on basic science and technology for so many reasons. These reasons include the fact that  the teaching method used which is co-operative is an activity-based and is also an aspect of experiential teaching approach, which is the focus of this present study. Small groups were used for the study, the same small groups were used in the present study.
            Secondly, the study focused on physics which is an aspect of Basic Science and Technology. In fact physics is studied as basic science at the basic level of education.
            Furthermore, it has been reported that students poor attitude and performance in physics at the senior secondary level is due to the poor foundation laid at the basic level. This poor foundation gives rise to students developing poor attitudes towards all subjects related to basic science and technology at higher levels of their educational pursuit. It therefore means that if co-operative learning strategy which is an aspect of experiential teaching strategy improved attitudes  of students in the study of physics, experiential teaching approach will also improve pupil’s attitude in the study of basic science and technology which will culminate in improved performance by pupils.
In another related study, Yuan Ling and Hong Kwen Boo (2007) conducted a study on the effectiveness of concept mapping (A participatory and activity-based-teaching method) as a revision tool in enhancing pupils’ learning and understanding of primary science concepts. This research study was conducted in Singapore.
            The research study was a quasis experimental study. The research design of the study was evaluative. This facilitated gathering of empirical data and also helped the researchers in making valid statement about the effect of concept mapping on pupils’ understanding and learning of science. Classes gifted and mainstream pupils were selected and assigned two groups. A the pupils were subjected to  two groups. All the pupils were subjected to take a pretest to the topic. Pupils in the experimental group were continuously exposed to concept mapping as a learning and revision tool in concurrence to the topics taught. Secondly, pupils constructed a concept map in groups of four for the concept lists provided by the teacher. Pupils from the control group outlined the summary in points form for the same topics taught. Thirdly, pupils from both groups took the post test of the topic and their results were analyzed in a quantitative analysis. The above procedure was repeated for each of the topics covered in the first term for both the gifted and mainstream pupils. Pupils’ results in the first continual assessment and mid year exam were also compared in an attempt to check on the validity of concept mapping in enhancing the retention of concepts over four months. A total of one hundred and eight(108) pupils selected from all boys school cum gifted education centre receiving the top 1% of boys from the primary three gifted steaming test in Singapore were randomly selected for the study. All the pupils were from primary four. The experimental group, which was a randomly selected gifted and main stream pupils (N=16, N= 40 respectively) were expected to create a concept map at the end of each of the topic taught. The control class of the gifted and main stream Pupils (N=15, N=57 respectively) outlined a summary of the same topics on heat and at plants parts in team 2. Main stream pupils covered the topic of matter in team 1 and the topic of water in team 2.
            To ensure the test validity and comparability of the pre and the post tests for each topic, a table of specification was drawn up to facilitate the crafting of questions to involve the same concept and process skills for the topic tested for both the pre and post tests. Multiple choice questions amounting to five marks were selected to remain in line with the learning objectives of each topic for the pretest. Selected questions were crafted to test pupils’ application and linking of concepts. A parralled set of questions was selected for the post test. A panel experts comprising of National Institute of Education professors validated the test items, they prepared a model answers and the marking scheme before finalization of both pre and post tests. 30 minutes were allocated for the pre and post tests respectively. The pupils were expected to finish both the multiple choice tests and open- ended questions for each topic.
            The data collected were checked and analysed with pair sample t-test. The null hypothesis were tested using the analysis at 95% confidence level. The results from the analyzed data showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups. The significant difference was in favour of the experimental group. This made the researchers drew the conclusion that the use of concept mapping as a revision tool enhances concept learning in primary science.
This study is considered relevant to the present study on the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology because the subject which the study was focused was the same with the subject focused on in the present study which is primary science. Secondly the finding of the study showed that the use of traditional method of science instructional delivery which has led to pupils poor achievement, in basic science and technology which in turn necessitated for a search for an alternative teaching approach is the same in Singapore just as it is in Nigeria. Furthermore, the teaching approach used in the study was an activity based participatory approach  experiential teaching approach, is also activity-based participatory teaching approach. Again, the participants in the study were primary school pupils. The same primary school pupils are the subjects (participants) in this present study. The study involved arranging children in groups (small groups of four pupils), this present study also arranged the learners in similar small groups, with each group comprising of 3-5 pupils. Therefore if concept mapping teaching approach had enhanced retention and achievement in primary science in Singapore, experiential teaching approach will as well do the same to pupils in Nigerian basic schools.

In another related study by Omotayo and Olaleye (2008) on affective science teaching method to enhance qualitative science education in Nigeria, carried out in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The researchers sought to investigate the performances of students in cognitive and affective scientific aptitude test, at the upper Basic Education in Nigeria. Integrated science which is now studied as basic science and technology was the subject selected for the study.
            Four hundred students were sampled from twenty junior secondary schools in the state. Two hundred of the sampled students were males while the remaining two hundred were females. Moreover, twenty students were sampled from each of the randomly selected schools. Three research questions and there null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
            Furthermore, the researchers’ choice of research design was a quantitative survey research. They visited the schools themselves and administered the questionnaires and collected the data from the responses on the questionnaires.
            The instrument used for data collection was tagged Cognitive And Affective Domain Aptitude Test (CADAT). The instrument was adapted from a standardized test by National Science Teachers Association Maryland U.S.A, but revalidated. The instrument contains 20 items, 10 items tested the cognitive aptitude while the other 10 tested the affective aptitude in integrated science education acquired at the upper Basic Education Level (JSS).      
            The data collected was subjected to computer analysis using SPSS 12 statistical package. Two variables isolated for analysis were cognitive scientific aptitude test scores and affective scientific aptitude test scores of respondents. The histogram graph of the data plotted for normal distribution showed that the variables were skewed. After transforming the data to Log10, the same skewness was still observed. Further comparison was done on the difference between the two sets of data, using t-test paired sample and independent sample. The results of the study showed that:
-           there is a significant difference between cognitive and affective achievement of students in science at junior secondary schools in Nigeria.
-           There is no significant difference in science between male and female in cognitive achievement.
-           There is no significant difference between male and females in affective achievement.

From the above findings therefore, the researchers concluded that;
-           Employing affective science teaching models would enhance more permanent commitment to science learning by students
-           Engage students with more pragmatic activity based practical approaches  to science instructions without altering the concepts.
-           Treat both male and female students as equal sources of intellect by engaging them in same task of science based practical activities in and out of the class room.
-           Accept and use large volumes of recommendation made available in literature on affective orientation.

            The above study is considered relevant to this work which is the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science for the following reasons, firstly, the subject area in the study was science. This present study on the effect of experiential teaching approach on basic science and technology is also focused on science. Secondly, the study was necessitated by the poor performances of students in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria which was due to teachers usage of traditional teaching approach. The present study on the effect of experiential teaching approach on science and technology was also necessitated by the same problems. The two studies were attempts made towards finding solution to them.
            Furthermore, experiential teaching approach is concerned with the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learners. Therefore affective science teaching is a component of experiential teaching method. It means that if affective science teaching method is effective in teaching of science in Nigerian schools, experiential teaching will be more effective since it takes care of the remaining two domains instead of only the affective learning domain.  Finally, if strong foundation is laid at the Junior level of the basic Education system, performance at the higher level will improve.

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Summary of Reviewed related Literature
            In this chapter an attempt has been made to review literature or works that are related to this study. This was carried out under conceptual, theoretical, and empirical reviews.
Under conceptual framework: the concepts reviewed include; experiential learning, principles of analogy or assimilation, principle of mental set, retention of learning, transfer of learning, life skill and gender sensitivity and the experiential learning models.
            In theoretical framework, theories reviewed include; John Dewey’s theory of experience, Piagetian theory of cognitive development and the theory of transfer of learning. Furthermore, related empirical studies were also reviewed.
            In all, a search through these several literature or works related to this study which is the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology supports the adoption of experiential teaching approach in teaching because the method involves a conscious desire by educators (teachers) to create learning opportunities by engaging pupils in doing that results to construction (idea formation) and reconstruction (dropping initial views) of meaning/knowledge. This is opposed to conventional/traditional teaching approach where learners are passive and are expected to commit to their mind knowledge that have been packaged in its final form.
            Those reviewed literature showed that experiential teaching approach is unique in the sense that it imparts to learners knowledge and skills that are lifelong and essential in adapting to and survival in life. The processes employed by the method are inquiry and discovery. These are also the methods employed in effective study of science through science process. Hence, the two (experiential teaching method and science) have direct relationship or correspondence. Effective study of science cannot be carried out through rote learning method currently in use in schools.
            Specifically, the empirical studies reviewed showed the need for the adoption of experiential teaching approach not only in the study of science but in other subjects taught in Nigerian schools. This is due to the benefits that learners will derive from the use. One of such benefits is that learning is made real and is relevant to the needs of learners. It will also impact adaptive skills to learners.
            However, the empirical related works reviewed further showed that even though the method is age long, there is dearth or scarcity of studies carried out in this field in Nigerian basic schools and technology. As it was clearly shown that the method could work effectively in areas like environmental education and agricultural science, it will also work in basic science. In fact, no known study on the method has been carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. As a result of this, the present study is designed to fill this gap and generate interest in further research in this area using this method.
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