David Hulme (20007) in a paper: The Making of the Millennium Development Goals: Human Development meets Result-based management in an imperfect world, observed that two ideas – human development and result based management- have been particularly significant in shaping the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). He explained that though they seems unlikely intellectual, they significantly influence and shape the pattern of direction of MDGs. He further observed that at time, the ideas of human development and result based management were pursued as crucial to survival of MDGs, when these ideas challenges the interests of powerful groups or nations, their principles are compromised or assiduously avoided.

In a related development, Hulme (2008) studied the process that led to the formulation and implementation of MDGs and observed that it is an incremental and ongoing process of negotiation and bargaining with no clear cut phases or precise end. He is of the view that while the key actors presents policy as an outcome of a linear rational process based on scientific analysis and weighing up evidence, the real process that they are engaged in are quite different. He explained that no leader or agency is ‘in control’ (see also Keeley and Scooneb,2003; Stone, 2006)).
Olayode (2006), argued that for MDGs objectives to be realized there is need for establishment of an appropriate political and institutional framework to guide state intervention, market reform and poverty alleviation. He observed that MDGs being benefits accrued from globalisation requires Nigeria repositioning through appropriate policy measure. He argued that with appropriate policy measure, Africa in general and Nigeria in particular can more, attract more capital flows and benefit immensely from full integration into the world economy, which will culminate into speedy realisation of the MDGs objectives.
In another development, Agbu (2006) observed that for Nigeria to part take of the benefits of MDGs, it is imperative for the country to adopt a practical approach by collaborating with the other countries of the South, and other south multilateral groups in negotiating for better terms of engagement with the developed world. He sited the membership of Nigeria in the Developing Eight (D -8), consisting of Nigeria, Iran, Indonesia, Turkey, Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Malaysia who unanimously agreed to promote trade among themselves through reforming there custom services and other policies that hinders the free flow of goods and services across their borders. This we believe is crucial to the fulfillment of MDGs objectives and targets. He advocated for attraction of FDI in the agriculture and manufacturing sectors as crucial to MDGs goals achievements as it has the capacity to increase job creation and reduce poverty knowing that about 70% of the rural populace engage in Agriculture and a strong relationship between agric and manufacturing.
Aribigbola Afolabi (2009) studied the institutional constraints to achieving the MDGs in Nigeria, using the example of Akure Millennium City and Ikaram/Ibaram Millennium Villages both in Ondo states, and observed that although both the Millennium City and Millennium Village projects have taken off as programmed, the effect of the program has not been widespread especially in Akure, though the effect of the program seems visible in the millennium village. He discovered that the problems which the programs are design to solve are still widespread and lack adequate conceptualization of the programs militating against full implementation of the project. He identified lack of conceptualization and understanding both by the implementers and the will be beneficiary (people at the grass root), over politization by the government, lack of interest on the part of grass root would-be beneficiary/ community and inadequate funding and capacity under utilization as the major problems militating against the success of the project. He recommended collective participation that will carry the community along in project design, and implementation as crucial to achievement of the MDGs and complete removal of civil service bureaucracy.
In a related development, Ajayi (2008) studied the success of MDGs in Millennium Village project and found out that Nigeria is at present off track and very slow , when it come to MDGs implementation and execution. He therefore called for a better understanding between the policy formulators and executors. Similarly, Falade (2008) observed that most African countries are backward when it comes to implementation and execution of the MDGs, when compared with other region of the world. This, he explained is due to poor technical capacity in formulating, implementing and monitoring the operational MDGs based Poverty Reduction Strategy Process (PRSPS). Hassan Arif, Patel Shela and Satherwaite David (2005) observed that MDGs represent a new attempt to increase the effectiveness of development assistance in reducing poverty with a time bound targets and strong commitment to monitor progress. They pointed out that in order to achieve these laudable MDGs objectives, it is imperative to address the need for water sanitation, health care, schools, employment and poverty crisis especially among the less developed economies.
Adam Elhirika (2005) observed that despite recent increase in average growth rate of most African countries from about 4.3 percent to 4.6 percent in 2003 and 2004 respectively, as a result of global expansion that led to higher demand and prices for commodities, a significant increase in Official Development Assistance, driven mainly by debt relief and emergency assistance, improving macroeconomic stability, the continent will have a long way to go if sustainable growth is to be achieved as specified in the MDGs targets. He identified unpredictable weather conditions, concentration of production and exports in the commodity market, and volatile external capital flows too week in comparism with those of other parts of the world. He noted that Official Development Assistance (ODA) represents the main source of development financing for many African countries, reaching over $23 million for sub-Sahara Africa in 2003, and far exceeding debt service payment in that year. This notwithstanding, aid flows to Africa remain volatile and cannot meet the MDGs financing needs even if the goal of 0.7 percent of rich countries GNP is achieved. He concluded by saying to ensure reality of MDGs, Africa’s development partners are urged to move faster to ensure all their policies – on ODA, market access and debt – are consistent with meeting MDGs. Wing Thye Woo, Gordon McCord and Jeffrey Sachs (2005) observed that MDGs offers Africa a way of escape out of poverty trap. Poverty trap being too poor to grow – they plead with the Western policymakers to fully support the MDGs and encourage increase in public investments so as to produce a large step increase in Africa’s underlying productivity, both rural and urban. They noted that foreign donors will be critical to achieving this substantial step increase.
On the other hand, Yonghyup Oh (2005) was of the opinion that MDGs is a combination of enhanced foreign intervention, more external money and top-down approach having a potential of depriving recipients of the spirit of independence as their eyes are clue to free launch offer by the donor agencies. Another area of concern as noted by Noko(2011), is the post MDGs implementation periods, in other words, what become of MDGs after 2015. He argued that since MDGs focus mainly on building up infrastructure to produce more public goods, chances are that poor funding may set in after 2015, the terminal year of MDGs, at this point, he asked what becomes of successful MDGs projects.
Roy Culpeper (2005) appreciates the global commitment to move about 50 percent poor of the world out of extreme poverty by 2015 through MDGs projects. However, he advocated for a more thorough approach on the ground that not just 50 percent, but 100 percent of the people living in poverty should be elevated. He explained that if we still had 40 percent or 50 percent of humanity struggling to subsist at between one and two dollars a day, then we needs a deeper approach to fighting poverty. He equally observed that MDGs pay little or no significant attention to poverty in the urban economy, he is of the opinion that the MDGs should focus as well on provision of decent employment in the productive sector for urban dwellers. He advocated for restructuring of the tax system which he described as being regressive at current based on the extreme reliance on sales and consumption tax system. He argued that most developing economies, elites hardly pay tax (a very regressive distributional tax system).
Mistry (2005) observed that MDGs are laudable projects aimed at poverty reduction. He established a divergence between MDGs and Developmental goals. He pointed out that ever since independence, most Africa states have been faced with developmental failure, and he observed that aid to Africa has not worked because human, social and institutional capital – not financial capital – poses as biding constraint. He advocated for a shift in foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on concentration of funding to a blend of funding and know-how so as to maximize the benefits of MDGs Benno Ndulu, Lolette Kritzinger-Van and Ritra Reinikka in Jan Joost Teunissen (2005) were of the opinion that MDGs are the finest set of goals or promises to the third world especially African countries, however there is need to blend MDGs with economic growth. They identify four major reasons for Africa’s slow growth: low capital accumulation; high price of investment goods for African investors; low productivity of investment; and geographical disadvantages. They advocated for aggressive investment in infrastructure as key to economic growth that will complement MDGs achievements and improved social outcomes. Furthermore, they identify the importance of regional cooperation and integration. According to them, regional integration helps growth and infrastructure and vice versa, which will have a lasting effect on MDGs beyond 2015
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