Meteorology is the study of the changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture and wind direction in the troposphere. It is a scientific study of the atmosphere. Its studies are carried in the field which could be stretch back, even when no significant progress in meteorology did not occur not until the 18th century. The 19th century saw breakthroughs after observing networks developed across several countries, after the development of the computer in the latter of the 20th century breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Disciplines such as climatology, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology are sub-disciplines of atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology. Interactions between earth’s atmosphere and the oceans are part of coupled ocean-atmosphere studies.
Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction to enable everything in working capacity, meteorology is the bases of nature.
            A meteorologist, an individual or group of people who are referred to as scientist who study metrology. They are best known for forecasting the weather and other atmospheric changes. They are basically weather reporters in both radio and television stations, who can also work as government agencies, private consulting and research services, industrial enterprises, utilities and Educationist.
            There are elements that give a case study to the meteorologist that assist in study of the atmosphere body which includes the following
1.         Cloud
            Apart from Venus among the planets, Earth is one of them that have clouds. These are visible water vapor floating in the sky, they can be white or grey but this cloud are formed when air is cooled and some of its water vapour condense e into tiny droplets at the temperature which is known as the dew point temperature. The shape, he put and movements of clouds indicate the type of weather which is about to occur. This cloud ranges from cumulus type of cloud, stratus, stratocumulus, altostratus, altocumulus, cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus, nimbostratus and cumulonimbus.
            There are two major shape of clouds which are cumulus or stratus. The dark cloud produce most of our continuous vain which is called nimbostratus while mot of our showery rain comes form eruption of cumulonimbus and the word nimbus means rain-bearing

2.         Rain
Invariably one can not talk cloud without referring to rain. This is the precipitation of liquid drops or water, there are other forms of precipitation such as snow, sleet and hail.
            Raindrops generally have a diameter greater than o.5mm (0.2inch), they range in size up to about 3 mm and the fall rate increases up to 7.6 per sec with their size, larger drops tend to be flattened and broken into smaller drops by rapid fall through the air. The precipitation of smaller drops are called drizzle, often severely restricts visibility but usually does not produce significant accumulations of water. The instrument used to measure the amount of rainfall regardless of the place is known as rainguage.
            The types of rainfall widely known are orographic rain (relief rain), conventional rain and frontal or cyclonic rain. There is another but not occasionally discussed which is the artificial precipitation where despite presence of mixture in the cloud fails to rain.
3.         Wind
            This is measured using wind vane or wind rose it is air in motion that is usually horizontal seen in the atmosphere. Winds are produced by differences in atmospheric pressure which are primarily attributed to differences in temperature. This distribution of pressure and temperature are caused largely by unequal distribution or heat form the sun, together with differences in the thermal properties of land oceans surfaces. When the temperatures of adjacent regions become unequal, the warmer air tends to rise and flow over the colder and heavier air. The wind is greatly affected by the earth’s rotation.
            There are types of winds that affect nature and its atmosphere which are
a.         prevailing wind
b.         seasonal and monsoons wind
c.         local wind
d.         Cyclones and anticyclones

4.         Humidity
            This is the measurement of the water vapour content in the atmosphere, water evaporates form lakes, seas and oceans and vegetation loses water through transpiration, the humidity of the air increases. The relative humidity of the air is measured using a hygrometer.
A weather station is define as a facility either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for observing atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate conditions.
            There are countless weather stations but will discuss four as concerning  our practical which include
1.         Synopitic weather station
2.         Agricultural station
3.         Climatogical station
4.         Rainfall station
Synoptic Weather Station
            These weather station is a meteorological station where professionals or full time observers work. The observers are there everyday taking every hour observation, with this collected data or observations enable them to forecast the weather.

Agricultural weather station
These are part-time observers that only collect and record observations twice a day (9am and 3pm) it is mainly for agricultural purpose. It is carried out early in the morning 9am and towards the late afternoon 3pm.

Climatogical Weather Station
            These are part-time observers that collect data mainly on few weather demands like rainfall, maximum and minimum thermometer, they record twice per day 9 am and 3 pm on daily  basis.
Rainfall station
This comprises of part-time observers who collects data on a daily rainfall basis twice per day 9am and 3pm. The data are recorded based on the observation carried out.
            The tools include the following
1.         Stevenson screen
2.         The wet and dry bulb thermometer
3.         Thermometer (maximum and minimum)
4.         Rainguage
5.         Recording sheet

Stevenson screen
            This is raised 1.2 or 4ft above the ground level. It is a wooden box that is double layered. The double layers help to exclude direct sun ray, the sides are louver-like in nature made of wood. This helps or make sure the instruments deposited inside the box are safe and not influenced either by moisture or water flow. It is
painted white to allow easy reflection intensity.
Maximum thermometer
            This instrument is white in color and is a mercury glass calibrated to take the highest temperature reached In a particular day. It contains a blue color liquid which the mercury and It is 0.5 Celsius difference. The other type of thermometer which include old mercury thermometer which uses magnet to reset after each reading is taking. The new mercury thermometer swinged to rest before taking any observation. The mercury content in the thermometer expands at intervals.

Minimum thermometer
            This contains alcohol liquid in it and is known as alcohol in glass thermometer that is calibrated to take the minimum temperature reached in a day. it’s calibration is 0.5 difference.

Dry bulb thermometer
            This is mercury in glass thermometer that records the temperature of a geographical area at that particular time. The dry bulb thermometer and the maximum thermometer works together. its calibration is 0.5 difference. The dry bulb is sensitive to nature and is used to detect or measure cloud coverage.
Wet bulb thermometer
            This is also mercury in glass thermometer. This is used to measure how moist the wind flowing in a particular area at a particular time. The instrument is attached with a wig which helps in cooling the thermometer.
Rain guage
            This is a meteorological instrument used in measuring rainfall. It consist of a meteoric funnel in a metallic shape, it has also a container known as an emergency bucket. The funnel is inserted inside the bucket. The funnel helps in the collection of water or rain drops form the atmosphere into the bucket through the help of the funnel. The top of the rainguage is a ring-like shape and it prevents splashing of water from entering the bucket during heavy down pour. The essence of the bucket is to get accurate record of the entire rainfall and it is mounted in an exposed area. The rainguage is 0.25m above the ground which also consist of a measuring cylinder which helps in measurement of collected rainfall. It is calibrated to 0.1m difference.
Recording sheet
For the purpose of clarity and review, the recording sheet is a piece of writing material where data and observations are noted down for the purpose of references to aid the observers in recording its daily observations.

            The meteorological instrument helps in knowing a particular weather observation of a particular place when in use. To get an adequate result in the metrological station, where the Stevenson screen is mounted is sited on an open area without the alteration of building and trees. This makes it possible for the instrument which consist of wooden box and other instruments not to be influenced by moisture and water flow.
            The wet bulb thermometer contains a wig that has a water container that helps in cooling the thermometer. The mercury in glass thermometer procedure is through swinging of the thermometer to reset it before use.
            The rainguage another meteorological instrument is exposed in on open area and is 0.25m above the ground. It contains a bucket and a funnel. The total amount of rainfall in a day is determined after the container has been filled with water and the calibration is taken. There is no chance that the total amount of the day rainfall will fill the container, so therefore there is tendency to get the reading before next day rainfall commences.
            The direction of wind of a particular place is determine using the wind vane that consist of the four cardinal points (N,E,S,W) with a knob and a blade all made of iron, so that the intensity of wind will not obstruct our observation and damage our instrument. it is mounted in an open space and very high into the atmosphere to get the proper direction of the wind. When taking our observation and direction of the wind i observed through the knob and not the blade because the knob is the perfect direction of the wind on the cardinal point, so when there is wind the knob will face either North or south but during the practical the direction of wind showed SOUTH-WEST at exactly 12noon.
                                  RESULT                                                                                              During then cause of the practical, the observation of the direction of wind was recorded using the wind vane and result showed that the direction of wind in Ebonyi state university showed SOUTH-WEST at exactly 12noon the next day during my observation.
Observations carried out not all are consider genuine but certain challenges and errors are encountered but whereby these observations are carried out in the meteorological stations zero error is encountered and other bodies that tend to influence the readings are minimized.
            Only a professional can handle all metrological instruments so as to get proper observation and guess work is prohibited because there are instruments available to weather observation ranging from cloud observation to relative humidity and rainfall observation. 
            Observations of the daily analysis are made available from the weather stations by the stand-by meteorologists who are stationed at the weather station to give observation helpful to both weather forecast and in change in atmosphere.
            Without the meteorologists who are always busy in the weather stations possible damages and uncontrolled havoc will continue to occur in our atmosphere.
            Daily observations are recorded and processed using modern facilities like computers, satellite sent to space, and other forms of instruments which detect, analyze and process all observations taking place in the atmosphere.
            The study of metrology and the knowledge when applied to our daily living makes our surroundings much better and comfortable for us.
            The application of meteorology will make abundant food to be surplus provided that seminars and advices are given to farmers during their farming season for better time of planting.
            Both private and government investors should come into play to support, build and establish more weather stations to help control the activities of the atmosphere that could bring harm to our planet earth.
            The application of meteorology as a study to both our secondary and tertiary institution should be approved so as to raise younger scientist and space workers which is encourage in developed countries like China, Russian and U.S.A
            The awareness campaign should be raised nationwide to the general public, factories, industries and other individuals for them to have knowledge of their contribution to atmospheric hazard.
            The practical station of my school, Ebonyi state university, should be provided with more instruments and more facilities to equip them to provide more report and daily analysis helpful for both students and school management.
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