Table of contents                                                                                                     ii
Background of the Problem                                                                                    1
Statement of the Problem                                                                                        6

Purpose of the Study                                                                                               7
Significance of the Study                                                                                        7
Scope of the Study                                                                                                   9
Research Questions                                                                                                 9
Hypothesis                                                                                                                9
Conceptual Framework                                                                                           10
Theoretical Framework                                                                                           40
Review of Empirical Studies                                                                                  49
Summary of Literature Review                                                                              52
Design of the Study                                                                                                 54
Area of the Study                                                                                                     54
Population of the Study                                                                                          55
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                         56
Instrument for Data Collection                                                                              56
Validation of the Instrument                                                                                  56
Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                  57
Method of Data Collection                                                                                     57
Method of Data Analysis                                                                                        57
REFERENCES                                                                                                          59

Background of the Study

Universal Basic Education (UBE) is an educational reform programme of the Nigerian Government that provides free, compulsory, and continuous 9-year education in two levels: 6 years of primary and 3 years of junior secondary education for all school-aged children. UBE was launched in Sokoto in 1999 by the then President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. Then the legal framework for the programme (the UBE Act) was signed into law in May, 2004 in a bid to address section 18 (1) and (3) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which provides that:
 (1)      Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels;
(2)       Government shall eradicate illiteracy; and to this end, government shall as and when practicable provide:
(a)       free, compulsory and universal primary education;
(b)       free secondary education;
(c)       free university education; and
(d)       free adult literacy programme
            This section of the said constitution, enjoins the government to provide free and compulsory basic education amongst other educational objectives. It should, however, be noted that  even though the constitution has imposed a duty on all the three tiers of government to strive to eradicate illiteracy and to provide free and compulsory basic education, this educational objective is non-justiciable (cannot be challenged or enforced in any court of law by any person or authority).
            Nevertheless, to pursue this educational objective, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Commission was established in 2004 by an Act of the National Assembly, known as the compulsory, free, Universal Basic Education Act (2004). UBE programme constitutes: Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCDE) for children aged 3-5 years; 6 years Primary Education for children aged 6-11 years; and 3 years Junior Secondary School (JSS) Education for children aged 12-14+. UBE is not a new educational policy but, rather, an introduction to reinforce the 6-3-3-4 National Policy on Education (Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, 2006).
            The Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCDE) is not compulsory. What is compulsory is 6 years of primary and 3 years of JSS Education. The issue is that parents are strongly encouraged to register their children in ECCDE centres while government is expected to provide ECCDE centres of good quality. The 9-year continuous basic education becomes necessary because, at the moment, according to UBEC(2006), completion of primary school does not equip a child with the necessary life skills to become self reliant. Thus for the Nigerian child to be considered functionally literate and numerate, he or she must successfully complete 9 years of schooling.
            In order to implement the UBE programme, the existing curriculum has been changed. A new 9-year Basic Education Curriculum is now in place. The implementation of the new curriculum is scheduled to start with only Primary 1 and JSS1. The old primary school curriculum would be phased out by July 2013 whereas that of junior secondary school would be phased out in July 2010.UBEC (2006) observes that the existing 6-year secondary education is in contradiction to the 6-3-3-4 policy because it allows Junior secondary school and senior secondary school (SSS) to exist as one and be run by one administration in the same location sharing the same infrastructure. It also observed that the new UBE provides for the disarticulation of JSS from the Senior Secondary School (SSS) so that the two levels should be run by two separate administrations and eventually have separate locations, infrastructures etc.
            UBEC (2005) sees UBE as being pivotal to the attainment of and as being interlinked with National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS), State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS), Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the light of the above, the new 9 year Basic Education Curriculum places emphasis on the following areas:
i.          Value Reorientation
ii.         Basic Science
iii.       Basic Technology
iv.        Computer Science
v.         Teaching of Thinking
vi.        Home Economics
vii.      Agriculture
viii.     Business Studies
ix.        Civic Education
x.         Moral Instruction
xi.        French
            Some of these areas fall within technical and vocational education which FRN in Okorie (2009) expresses as very vital ingredients for success in the efforts of government at alleviating poverty, eradicating corruption, attaining food security and achieving universal basic education. From the above, technical and vocational education (TVE) has been identified as a means of achieving universal basic education. Technical and vocational education was subjected to intense criticisms about inappropriate curricula, poor teacher preparation and welfare scheme, gross inadequacy of facilities, low public esteem of technical and vocational education trainees, inadequate resource input and consequent low output, structural imbalance and system configuration (FRN in Okorie, 2009). TVE is in a state of crisis. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is in full realization of the danger that; if the crisis situation in technical and vocational education persists, the ability of the government to deliver on many people-oriented programmes could be severely hampered. On this premise, provision of learning experiences in a curriculum that would ensure that beneficiaries of technical and vocational education scheme have job skills for solving many of Nigeria’s socio-economic problems, have been named second among the nine priority areas in TVE.
            From the introduction of the 9 year Basic Education Programme and the need to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 and, the critical targets of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS),  it becomes imperative that the existing curricula for primary school and JSS  be reviewed, restructured and realigned to fit into a 9-year education programme. The National Council on Education (NCE) approved a new curriculum structure namely: Lower Basic Education Curriculum (Primary 1-3), Middle Basic Education Curriculum (Primary 4-6) and Upper Basic Education Curriculum (JSS 1-3), listing relevant subjects for each level. Similarly, in her December 2005 meeting in Ibadan, the NCE directed the National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to review, restructure and re-align the curriculum accordingly (FRN, 2007).
            In response to the above, a High Level Policy Committee on Curriculum Development (HLPC), made up of critical stakeholders and chaired by NERDC, took the initiative to provide the guide lines for re-structuring the curriculum. Between January and March 2006, the NERDC convened a meeting of experts and also organized several workshops to produce the 9-year basic Education Curriculum, which would ensure continuity and flow of themes, topics and experiences from primary school to JSS levels.
            FRN (2007) disclosed that the Upper Basic Business Studies Curriculum on which this study is based, was adapted from the original work of the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) which was presented to the Joint Consultative Committee on Education in 1982. The alignment of this curriculum gave due consideration to the need to provide students with the ability and skills to be gainfully employed upon completion of their programme as well  as prepare them for setting up their small businesses as entrepreneurs. These are in agreement with the critical targets of NEEDS on value orientation, employment generation and wealth creation. The National Value curriculum, an anti-corruption programme for the school system, has been infused  into relevant areas of Business Studies curriculum. The content of this curriculum has been organized in a thematic manner in order to provide the learner with a holistic blend of theory and practice of Business Studies. The content area of keyboarding, shorthand and bookkeeping when acquired ensures the acquisition of skills for production work. Prescribed activities and projects as well as recommended experiences will further ensure the acquisition of productive skills. The curriculum planners designed and considered as adequate, six themes to provide the students with the required cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills at the upper Basic level. These themes include:
-           Overview of Business Studies
-           Effective Office Practice
-           Commerce-the Heart of Business success
-           Keyboarding as a Communication Tool
-           Shorthand Skills for Business.
            In agreement Nweze (2008) points out that one of the national education goals is the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment to live in and contribute to the development of one’s society. Acquisition of appropriate skills cannot be over emphasized since according to him, after junior secondary education, an individual may either continue full-time studies, combine work with study, or embark on full-time employment. Furthermore, Ebonyi state which, according to Okike (2006), occupies the position of the least literate south eastern state and was one of the educationally disadvantaged states before 1999 should opt only for the right type of education.  
No education may rise above the quality of its teachers. Mkandawire (2010) believes that teachers are the most important human resource in curriculum implementation. He further asserts that a sufficient supply of trained teachers is a sine qua non for effective curriculum implementation. Similarly Ulifun describes availability, maintenance and adequacy of teaching facilities as a sine qua non for the attainment of all educational goals. Esene and Okoro (2008) see teaching materials and equipment as devices used to supplement or complement teachers’ talks. Ivowi (2000) and Odigbo (2005) agree that adequate facilities ensure meaningful teaching and learning. Against these backdrops, it is crucial that adequate provision be made in terms of human and material resources in order to promote saleable skills acquisition and employment generation possibilities through Business Studies (FRN, 2007).

Statement of the Problem
            Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007) observes that educational enrolment in Nigeria is a success story and that the Universal Basic Education has improved access to schools. There is an urgent need to meet educational resource gap which has arisen from the phenomenal rise in enrolment. Egwu (2004) regrets that quantitative rise in enrolments due to previous free education programmes had led to increase in the level of wastages in Nigerian education because more emphasis, according to him, is on quantity rather than quality. Against this backdrop, Osadolor (2007) decries the failure of all free education attempted programmes in Edo State. He explains that each of those programmes failed because of inadequate preparation before commencement.
            Educational resource gap hinder development of skills which in turn hinder economic growth. Wapmuk (2010) notes that no economy grows without the availability of skilled workforce. For Ebonyi State which Okike (2006) describes as the least literate South Eastern State and  an educational disadvantaged state to grow, her education system must develop appropriate type of skills in the recipients. After all according to Wapmuk (2010:13), “Asian Tigers-Japan, Singapore, Malaysia etc. did grow their economics through skilled workforce. It was the availability of divergent skills in their economies that propelled the micro, small and medium scale enterprises which later constituted centre piece of these economies”.
            The 9-year basic education curriculum on Business Studies is deep, appropriate and interrelated in content. It is recommended for the production of the best learning outcome on the premise of adequate provision of human and material resources for its implementation (FRN, 2007). This work therefore tries to establish the adequacy of human and materials resources required for the implementation of this curriculum in Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study  
            The main purpose of this study is to determine the adequacy of  human and material resources required for the implementation of the basic education curriculum on business studies (JS1-3) in Ebonyi state. Specifically, the study intends to:
1.         determine the adequacy of school facilities at the upper basic education institutions in Ebonyi State;
2.         determine the adequacy of the quantity  of business studies teachers at the upper basic education level in Ebonyi State;
3.       determine the adequacy of the quality of business studies teachers at the upper basic education level in Ebonyi State;
4.         determine the adequacy of the provision of business studies curriculum compliant textbooks.
Significance of the Study
            The findings of  this study will be of much utility to the universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Board (UBEB), principals of junior secondary schools, other stakeholders and subsequent researchers. It will help the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) wake up to her duties of, developing and disseminating curricula and instructional materials for basic education in Nigeria; supporting national capacity building for teachers and managers of basic education in Nigeria; and establishing libraries and information Centre. It will as well help UBEC to review its implementation of that curriculum so as to make amendments where necessary.
            The findings of work will make UBEB to understand, in concrete terms, the educational resource gap in the state with particular reference to business studies. Hence UBEB can strategize on how to fill the gap may be through: accessing the UBEC matching grant; training and re-training business studies teachers; recruitment of qualified business studies teachers; and involvement of other stakeholders in the spirit that education for all is the responsibility of all.
            It will help principals of junior secondary schools see the education resource gap that exists at this level. This will make them plan how to strike a balance. It will as well make business studies teachers rise up to their training/ re-training needs.  Training/re-training and provision of required educational materials will lead to the professional growth of business studies.
            By spurring various stakeholders to contribute their own quota to the provision of resources required for business studies at this level, this work will help to create a conducive environment that will enable business studies students to acquire appropriate skills. This will enable the students to continue with full-time studies, combine work with study, or enter full-time employment. By this token skilled workforce will be made available in Ebonyi State and this will lead to the growth of the economy of the state as well as the economy of the entire nation. Furthermore, skilled workforce will increase the human development index of the nation.
            The findings of this work will serve as a guide or a resource material for subsequent researchers. It will spur other scholars to carry out similar or related research works in other areas.
Scope of the Study
      This study will focus on human and material resources required for the implementation of upper basic education curriculum on business studies in Ebonyi State. The study will consider the materials included as appendix to the curriculum under study as the materials required for its implementation. It will cover public and private junior secondary schools (JSS) that offer business studies in the three education zones in Ebonyi State.                                 

Research Questions
            The following research questions will guide the study:
1.         What is the level of adequacy of school facilities in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?

2.         How adequate is the quantity of business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
3.    How adequate is the quality of business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
4.    What is the level of adequacy of the provision of business studies curriculum compliant textbooks in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State? 

            The following null hypotheses that will be tested at 0.05level of significance will guide the study:
HO1:   There is no significant difference between the level of adequacy of business studies teachers in urban areas and the adequacy of business studies teachers in rural areas.
HO2:   There is no significant difference between the adequacy of business studies equipment in public schools and the adequacy of business studies equipment in private schools,
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