This chapter presents a review of literature that are pertinent to this research work.
            Furthermore, a review of related literature for clear understating of the two working concept; local government and rural development in Nigeria is of paramount necessity because of the usefulness of local government to rural development or rural community in Nigeria especially in a populated country like ours.

            However, the researcher contributed enough efforts in reviewing related texts on the topic from various political scientists, analyst and social science scholars who had written on the topic at hand previously these discussions of the review were done under the following subheadings:-
·     Local government as a link to rural development in Nigeria.
·     Rural and community development
·     Advantages of rural and community development.
·     Role of local government in community development
·     Problem of community development in Idemili North.

2.1       Local Government as a Link to Rural Development in Nigeria.
            Local government as an engineer to rural development has contributed tremendously in the transformation of grassroots living. Thereby making life so meaningful to them the provision of social amenities, rural infrastructures and political education.
            Thus, Ibodje (1989) observed that the role of local government is to involve the local people in political process and to assist them resolve their differences ie local government political role is that it serves as an instrument for facilitating the spread of democratic participation to the local people.
            Consequently, Nwangwu (1991) observed that one of the principle objective of the Nigeria local government was to bring about even and rapid development at the local level throughout the country.
            The primary objective or philosophy underlying the creation and / or establishment of local government in Nigeria can be summarized as here under:-
To advance the course of rural development through;
·     The provision and maintenance of in restructure facilities, like roads, health care services, electricity, water etc.
·     To facilitate and bring nearer to the people the experience of democratic self government and its dividends.
Reacting also to the concept of local government Nwankwo (1992) has it that local government or local authority is a government set up by a centrality authority or state government as a means of ensuring effective administration at the grass-root level in other words, a local government is the type of government that help either the central or state government to carry out effective administration of the country at the grass-root level.
Furthermore, in legal terms, a local government is defined as a body corporate, having perpetual succession and a common moveable and it can sue and be sued.
According to Ofoeze (1997), he sees local government as a system of government at the local level exercise through locally elected representative council enjoying sustained autonomy in the exercise of specific power over a given locality in the performance of a range of functions and responsibilities allocated to it by law. Thus, as professor, Ademolekun (1979) avers, a local government must be able to exercise substantial control over local affairs as well as the staff and institutional and financial powers to initiate and direct the provision of service and to determine and implement projects of its own.
In addition to this assertion local government autonomy is merely a paper framework, which is not really implemented to the test of the constitution that created local government.
Onwe (2004) opines that local government is a smallest government body created to take care of all local interest that require government attention.
According to Okpata (2004) local government can contribute to national building in a number of ways, one way is by constituently an area where local view and feeling can be expressed, thereby preventing them for becoming build up tension, build up tension at the local level can explode with adverse consequences not only to the local environment but also to the National system as a whole.
Thus, local level politics do often get liked up with central level politics and vice-versa. The role of local government in this respect is to provide an organized environment for the discussion of National issues at the local level. For instance, National issues like poverty eradication, universal Basic Education, Privatization and commercialization etc.
Laski (1966) sees local government as a government that is closer to the local people and their problems. Because of this closeness of its constituency, it has more efficient agent providing those services that are essentially local.
According to Osenwota (1994), local government system is a public sector organization with assigned functions and responsibilities, administrative maintaining itself and rendering its statutory assigned functions and responsibilities. In addition to Osenwota assertion, state government should leave local government to perform their statutory function rather than regarding local government as an administrative appendage to the state government, where state is at the parlour of enjoyment, regarding local government as an errand body.
Mill and Alex de Tocquevill (1912) voice out that local government is said to provide political education by constituting a forum for the socialization of citizens and political participants. Thus, in addition to providing general political education, local government is said to constitute a forum for political training etc.
Mackenzie who share the view that local government provides valuable training, traced the notion back to Benthan (1915), who described the local government as a “sub legislature” constituting a nursery for the supreme legislature.
According to Thorinhill (1912), he observed that the role of the local government is to provide the political forum for the people to share in government and resolve their differences i.e local government political role is that it serves as an instrument for facilitating the spread of democratic participation to the people.
Sharp (1976) has the idea that local government rather the an other decentralization agencies of the central government Isbether placed for efficient administration of local resources and provision of services as it does.
It is only a local government authority that has the political independence for such choice. Decentralization branches of the central ministries to do so. The political independence also entitles local government to independence source of revenue.
Consequently, Bryce (1921) said that local government is the best school of democracy and the best guarantee of its success is the practices of local self government.
Okpata (2003) said that local government is a creation of national government local government acquires its meaning and rationale only within the territories of an existing national government, hence local government according to Okoli (2003) exist to:
a.   Fill a gap which the national government is to remote to fill. Complement and extend the national government closer to the people.
b.   Implement the ideals, objectives, programmes and aspiration of the local level;
c.   The ideology of the national government needs objectives and aspirations constitute crucial determinant of the structure and functions of local government.
According to Odenigwe (1977) local government has generally been seen as the system of local administration under which local communities and towns are organized to maintain law and order, provide limited range of social services, public amenities and encourages co-operation and participation of the inhabitants in joint endevours towards the improvement of their condition of living.
Olewa (1996) sees local government as a process of facilitating industrialization by encouraging small scale industries such as garri processing industry, rice mill industry bag making, soap production and shoe industries. Those industries could be encourages by provision of land, soft loans and credit facilities, graders and bulldozers by the local government to enable them take off.
In the words of Agena (2004) conceptually, a local government is a government set up by a central authority or state government as a means of ensuring effective administration at the grass roots.
Alternatively, a local government is a type of government that help either the central or state government to carryout effective administration of the country at the grass root level.
Okata et al (2000) defines local government as “A political sub-division of a nation or (in a federal system) the state which is constituted by law and his substantial control of local affairs, including the powers to impose taxes or to exact labour for the prescribed purpose.
According to Nwosu (1985), stress that local government is the government of some particulars local community which include three general criteria which a local government unit must meet to qualify as a government.
The first holds that a unit must have existence as an organized entity with essential co-operate power. Secondly, a unit must enjoy sustained autonomy as evidenced by fiscal and administrative independence subject only to requirements of state of law and supervision. In addition local government is a system of administration of a district, country etc. by an elected representative of people.

2.2       Rural Community Development Association in Communities in Idemili North Local Government
Community development association have been defined as “A confederation of voluntary mutual aid association formed by individual from a particular rural community but residents of different town in the country and at times outside it” (Enemuo, 1990). The definition of community development association given have brings out the global objectives of community development association to include the fostering of unity among communities development, the execution of self help projects and they also assist in maintenance of peace and order in the community.
According to Enemuo (1990), there are two types of community development association in Nigeria namely, the town unwns, which a dominated and championed by elite and which do not necessarily have organized branch outside the community in which they are based. For example the various age-grades in the rural villages and community development association are dominated and championed by modernized elite from civil services and retired ex-services personnel who are enlighten members of the community in which they are suspected to acquire new techniques concerning rural development.
But is not necessary associating the leadership of all the community development association with modernizing elites. It was admitted that they are age-grade associations which do not have elite as their leaders.
There are many community development association in different communities in Idemili North local government. For instance, we have Abatete development association (ADO), Umuoji development association (UDA) Nkpor development association (NDA), Eziowelle development association (EDA) etc. all these development associations mentioned above are elite association, their aims are well articulated while age –grade association are more common due to that it has been existing for a long time before the existence of the elite groups.
These rural development associations had in one way or the other initiated development project and commissioned them for the use by their members of the community. The Umunna and clubs are the most prominent in the communities of Idemili North local government.
The most common and oldest form of community development association is the age-grade association (Ogbo) which is founded in all area. These association organized themselves and relatively worked on each of the members farm. They also provide manual labour when there are communal projects. They also make financial and material contribution to execution of self-help projects.
Furthermore, many community development association in Idemili North local government have approved constitution that guide their activities, such constitution are binding on all members. This distinguishing community development association from local government established by edicts, which are imposed on them by the cultural or sub-national government.
It should be concluded that based on the analysis given above it is clear that practices of community development association in Idemili North local government is not a new thing hence it has been one of the are whereby the people initiated their development programmes and also identify the community needs in order for them to communicate them to the government for their intervention.
2.3       Advantages of Rural and Community Development in Idemili North Local Government
The concept of community development has been used in different contexts and for different purpose by different scholars unity development guide lines of the international co-operative administration of the United States cited in Ndukwe (2005). According to that Agency, community development is “a process of social action which the people of a community organize themselves for planning an action, define their common and individual needs and problem; execute these plans with a maximum reliance upon community”.
Darby and Morris in Okpata (2004) define community development as “an education which would raise levels of local awareness and increases the confidence and ability of community groups identity and tackle their own problems.
The concept of community development also has to do with the elimination of such limiting circumstances of life as poverty, hunger, ignorance, sickness and fear, in a bid to bring about improvement in the standard of living of a people.
Finally, community development can be said to mean participation by the people themselves in efforts to improve their level of living and the provision of technical and social services in ways which encourages initative and self help. (Nkwede, 2009).
According to Nkwede (2009), them advantages of community development are that
·     It relief’s the government huge financial burden.
·     It encourages healthy socio-economic competition among local communities.
·     Community development method helps to encourage local initiate and promote democratic participation.
·     Participation will speed up the process of social change amng people.
·     People’s participation in programme planning is a useful learning experience.
·     Participation also provides motivation forces necessary in carry out such programmes.
·     It helps government achieve its goal rural development.
Rural and community development in Idemili North local government widely speed up participation, enhance adequate social change among the people in different communities. These people that could not have sense of belonging are today integrated to the extent they can now think of what they can provide for themselves and what government will provide as a priority. It also offers opportunity to rural community dwellers to participate in programme planning of their community.
Consequently, rural and community development in Idemili North local government helps to harness local resources like cassava and yam jointly planted for project purpose and now canalized through group efforts. This also relief’s the government of huge financial burden, now because government now have a direct focus in going to major project.
The problem of finance to attend some other project will reduce since individual are seriously contributing to development.
A also helps the people of Idemili North local government to achieve one of its goal of rural and community development. This is because when project awaiting for only a source, none of the project will be busy filling case of marginalization on the area of infrastructures to the local government or state government.

2.4       Role of Local Government in Community Development
According to Nkwede (2009), be mentioned the various areas in which local government can facilitates rural and community development. They include the following.
In transportation sector, local government plays important role in constructing and maintaining rural roads and they also build bridges and culverts to link up communities to the local headquarters. They can equally embarked on mass transit programme with the aim of helping the rural people and not necessarily to make profit.
In gricultural sector, Nigerians in rural areas engage nostly in agricultural activities the local government can educate and help the local farmers to understand the mechanisms and appreciate the modern techniques of production through the use of quick maturing high yielding, varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, mechanization of agricultural operation like the use of pesticides local government can equally make available agricultural inputs to local farmers at moderate prices.
Provision of essential amenities is also one of the role of local government in bringing development to many communities in rural areas, lack of social amenities such as water and electricity is responsible for the wide gap between the rural and urban areas. But local government can ameliorate this problem by engaging on rural electrification and provision of good drinking water to the rural dwellers. Rural electrification is a necessity for economic development of rural areas while good drinking water will reduce the rate of water borne disease.
Local government can contribute to rural development through rural industrialization. This they can do by encouraging small scale industries such as garri processing industry, palm oil processing, bag making, fish industry, livestock etc. local government can do this through provision of credit facilities such as soft loan, tax freedom for some years etc.
In health care, the provision of health facilities to the rural people should be a priority to the local government. However, the poor attitude of most local government towards health is the most important social service that can be provided to the people.
The local government should support community development projects by the provision of grants in aid, technical expertise and necessary building and construction materials and machinery. These, conducive enabling conditions made by the local government, the development of the rural communities is facilitated and enhanced.
In education sector, it behaves on local government to build and maintain schools, with infrastructural facilities such as tables and chairs for both the teachers and the pupils. Relevant books should be made available in the libraries to inculcate reading habit in to the pupils.
In addition. local government authorities are saddled with the responsibilities of clearing a refuse from dumpsites, and disposal of sewage in some area for incineration. They has however achieved limited success in this area but this does not remove the fact that they have tried seriously.
It will be seen from the foregoing that local government have multiple purpose that they serve which cut across the political, economical and social spheres of the local communities under them, this has in no little way contributed meaningful to their development individually and severally.

2.5       Problems of Community Development in Idemili North Local Government
There is after a tendency of conflict of interest to arise between central planner and self-help movement in Idemili North local government in so far as rural and community development is concerned.  The perspectives of the two group of people have after been at variance.  The result has been the much “rooming” of large members of project which have come out with conflicts in various development plans, which have been drawn up.
            Secondly, there has been always a tendency for self-help effort to be directed from the planners point of view towards less productive activities.  This happened at one community in Idemili North local government named “Abatete” where an association have double projects and in order of priority that of “Odida” project suppose to come last as it is the last child of Abatete but because the chairman of the association happens to come from Odida village, their project was first accepted.
            Finally, there are some other problems of community development as cited in Nkwede (2009) they are:-
·     Lack of coordination and reliable leaders
·     Lack of trained personnel or professional workers
·     Cultural, political and religious differences
·     Poor participation by the people.
·     Wrong view of idea about what community development is all about.
·     Illiteracy, apathy and indifference on the
·     Corruption.
·     Un for seen circumstance like natural disaster.
In summary, rural and community development in Idemili North Local Government has tremendously a development through Local government assistance and self-help project embarked upon by the various rural and community development associations.

Okpata, F.O (2003), Contemporary issues and practices in Nigerian Local Government Administration. Enugu: Jones Communication publication.
Nkwede, V.I (2009) Community Development and Urbanization in Nigeria (theories and practice). Anambra: Chambers Books Limited publication.
Ugwu, S.C (2001), Issues in local Government and rural Administration in Nigeria. Enugu: Echrlsi and co-publishers.
Mills, E.S (1987), Handbook of Regional and urban economics. New york: Else View Science Publishers.
Essang S.M (1975): Growth models and Rural Development. Ibadan University Press.
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