Background of the Study
Universal Basic Education (UBE) is an educational reform programme of the Nigerian Government that provides free, compulsory, and continuous 9-year education in two levels: 6 years of primary and 3 years of junior secondary education for all school-aged children. UBE was launched in Sokoto in 1999 by the then President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. Then the legal framework for the programme (the UBE Act) was signed into law in May, 2004 in a bid to address section 18 (1) and (3) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which provides that:

 (1)      Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels;
(2)       Government shall eradicate illiteracy; and to this end, government shall as and when practicable provide:
(a)       free, compulsory and universal primary education;
(b)       free secondary education;
(c)       free university education; and
(d)       free adult literacy programme
            This section of the said constitution, enjoins the government to provide free and compulsory basic education amongst other educational objectives. It should, however, be noted that though the constitution has imposed a duty on all the three tiers of government to strive to eradicate illiteracy and to provide free and compulsory basic education, this educational objective is non-justiciable (cannot be challenged or enforced in any court of law by any person or authority).
            Nevertheless, to pursue this educational objective, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Commission was established in 2004 by an Act of the National Assembly, known as the compulsory, free, Universal Basic Education Act (2004). UBE programme constitutes: Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCDE) for children aged 3-5 years; 6 years Primary Education for children aged 6-11 years; and 3 years Junior Secondary School (JSS) Education for children aged 12-14+. UBE is not a new educational policy but, an introduction to reinforce the 6-3-3-4 National Policy on Education (Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, 2006).
            The Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCDE) is not compulsory. What is compulsory is 6 years of primary and 3 years of JSS Education. The issue is that parents are strongly encouraged to register their children in ECCDE, centres while government is expected to provide ECCDE centres of good quality. The 9-year continuous basic education becomes necessary because, at the moment, according to UBEC(2006), completion of primary school does not equip a child with the necessary life skills to become self reliant. Thus for the Nigerian child to be considered functionally literate and numerate, he or she must successfully complete 9 years of schooling.
            In order to implement the UBE programme, according to EBEC (nd),the existing curriculum has been changed. A new 9-year Basic Education Curriculum is now in place. The implementation of the new curriculum is scheduled to start with only Primary 1 and JSS1. UBEC (nd) explained that The old primary school curriculum would be phased out by July 2013 whereas that of junior secondary school would be phased out in July 2010.UBEC (2006) observes that the existing 6-year secondary education is in contradiction to the 6-3-3-4 policy because it allows Junior secondary school and senior secondary school (SSS) to exist as one and be run by one administration in the same location sharing the same infrastructure. It also observed that the new UBE provides for the disarticulation of JSS from the Senior Secondary School (SSS) so that the two levels should be run by two separate administrations and eventually have separate locations, infrastructures etc.
            UBEC (2006) sees UBE as being pivotal to the attainment of and as being interlinked with National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS), State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS), Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the light of the above, the new 9 year Basic Education Curriculum places emphasis on the following areas: Value Reorientation, Basic Science, Basic Technology, Computer Science, Teaching of Thinking, Home Economics, Agriculture, Business Studies
Civic Education, Moral Instruction and French.
            Some of these areas fall within technical and vocational education which FRN in Okorie (2009) expresses as very vital ingredients for success in the efforts of government at alleviating poverty, eradicating corruption, attaining food security and achieving universal basic education. From the above, technical and vocational education (TVE) has been identified as a means of achieving universal basic education. Technical and vocational education was subjected to intense criticisms about inappropriate curricula, poor teacher preparation and welfare scheme, gross inadequacy of facilities, low public esteem of technical and vocational education trainees, inadequate resource input and consequent low output, structural imbalance and system configuration (FRN in Okorie, 2009). TVE is in a state of crisis. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is in full realization of the danger that; if the crisis situation in technical and vocational education persists, the ability of the government to deliver on many people-oriented programmes could be severely hampered. On this premise, provision of learning experiences in a curriculum that would ensure that beneficiaries of technical and vocational education scheme have job skills for solving many of Nigeria’s socio-economic problems, have been named second among the nine priority areas in TVE.
            From the introduction of the 9 year Basic Education Programme and the need to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 and, the critical targets of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS),  it becomes imperative that the existing curricula for primary school and JSS  be reviewed, restructured and realigned to fit into a 9-year education programme. The National Council on Education (NCE) approved a new curriculum structure namely: Lower Basic Education Curriculum (Primary 1-3), Middle Basic Education Curriculum (Primary 4-6) and Upper Basic Education Curriculum (JSS 1-3), listing relevant subjects for each level. Similarly, in her December 2005 meeting in Ibadan, the NCE directed the National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to review, restructure and re-align the curriculum accordingly (FRN, 2007).
            In response to the above, a High Level Policy Committee on Curriculum Development (HLPC), made up of critical stakeholders and chaired by NERDC, took the initiative to provide the guide lines for re-structuring the curriculum. Between January and March 2006, the NERDC convened a meeting of experts and also organized several workshops to produce the 9-year basic Education Curriculum, which would ensure continuity and flow of themes, topics and experiences from primary school to JSS levels.
            FRN (2007) discloses that the Upper Basic Business Education Studies Curriculum on which this study is based, was adapted from the original work of the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) which was presented to the Joint Consultative Committee on Education in 1982. The alignment of this curriculum gave due consideration to the need to provide students with the ability and skills to be gainfully employed upon completion of their programme as well  as prepare them for setting up their small businesses as entrepreneurs. These are in agreement with the critical targets of NEEDS on value orientation, employment generation and wealth creation. The National Value curriculum, an anti-corruption programme for the school system, has been infused  into relevant areas of Business Studies curriculum. The content of this curriculum has been organized in a thematic manner in order to provide the learner with a holistic blend of theory and practice of Business Studies. The content area of keyboarding, shorthand and  aspects will equip students with the skills  to enter into work as junior stenographers, secretaries or verbatim recorders while bookkeeping equips the to enter as bookkeepers or accounts clerks. Bookkeeping when acquired ensures the acquisition of skills for production work. Prescribed activities and projects as well as recommended experiences will further ensure the acquisition of productive skills. The curriculum planners designed and considered as adequate, six themes to provide the students with the required cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills at the upper Basic level. These themes, according to FRN (2007), include:
-           Overview of Business Studies
-           Effective Office Practice
-           Commerce-the Heart of Business success
-           Keyboarding as a Communication Tool
-           Shorthand Skills for Business.
            In agreement Nweze (2008) points out that one of the national education goals is the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment to live in and contribute to the development of one’s society. Acquisition of appropriate skills cannot be over emphasized since according to him, after junior secondary education, an individual may either continue full-time studies, combine work with study, or embark on full-time employment. Furthermore, Ebonyi state which, according to Okike (2006), occupies the position of the least literate south eastern state and was one of the educationally disadvantaged states before 1999 should opt only for the right type of education.  
No education may rise above the quality of its teachers. Mkandawire (2010) believes that teachers are the most important human resource in curriculum implementation. He further asserts that a sufficient supply of trained teachers is a sine qua non for effective curriculum implementation. Similarly Ulifun describes availability, maintenance and adequacy of teaching facilities as a sine qua non for the attainment of all educational goals. Esene and Okoro (2008) see teaching materials and equipment as devices used to supplement or complement teachers’ talks. Ivowi (2000) and Odigbo (2005) agree that adequate facilities ensure meaningful teaching and learning. Against these backdrops, it is crucial that adequate provision be made in terms of human and material resources in order to promote saleable skills acquisition and employment generation possibilities through Business Studies (FRN, 2007).

Statement of the Problem
            The Federal Republic of Nigeria is very good at policy formulation but poor at policy implementation (Ocho, 2005). Terry in Okoroma (2006) describes a policy as an overall guide that gives the general limits and direction in which administrative action will place. He believes that a policy defines the area in which decisions are to be made. On this premise, Okoroma (2000) sees educational policies as initiatives that determine the direction of an educational system. Similarly, Ogbonu (2008) opines that educational policies form a framework of the direction governments intend the education sector to take. Hence the upper basic education business studies curriculum is a kind of educational policy.
            Policy implementation, or rather, curriculum implementation is not done in a vacuum. Adequacy of human and material resources are conditions sinequal non for the implementation of the curriculum under study. Inadequate human and material resources which Okoroma (2006) identifies as a major constraint of UBE in rivers State, has been identified by Osadolor (2007) as a major cause of failure of all free education programmes attempted in Edo State.
            The upper basic education business studies curriculum which Ezekwesili in NERPC (2007) describes as deep, appropriate and interrelated in content, is expected to produce the best learning outcome if adequate human and material resources are provided. For Ebonyi State which Okike (2006) describes as the least literate south eastern state to grow, her education system must develop appropriate type of skills in the recipients. This is possible if adequate human and material resources are provided. This work therefore, tries to establish the adequacy of human and material resources required for effective implementation of this curriculum in Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study  
            The main purpose of this study is to determine the adequacy of  human and material resources required for the implementation of the basic education curriculum on business studies (JS1-3) in Ebonyi state. Specifically, the study intends to:
1.         determine the adequacy of business studies teaching facilities at the upper basic education institutions in Ebonyi State;
2.         determine the adequacy of the provision of business studies curriculum compliant textbooks.
3.         determine the adequacy of the quantity  of business studies teachers at the upper basic education level in Ebonyi State;
4.       determine the adequacy of the quality of business studies teachers at the upper basic education level in Ebonyi State;

Significance of the Study
            The findings of  this study will be of much utility to the universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Board (UBEB), principals of junior secondary schools, other stakeholders and subsequent researchers. It will help the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) wake up to her duties of, developing and disseminating curricula and instructional materials for basic education in Nigeria; supporting national capacity building for teachers and managers of basic education in Nigeria; and establishing libraries and information Centre. It will as well help UBEC to review its implementation of that curriculum so as to make amendments where necessary.
            The findings of this work will make UBEB to understand, in concrete terms, the educational resource gap in the state with particular reference to business studies. Hence UBEB can strategize on how to fill the gap may be through: accessing the UBEC matching grant; training and re-training business studies teachers; recruitment of qualified business studies teachers; and involvement of other stakeholders in the spirit that education for all is the responsibility of all.
            It will help principals of junior secondary schools see the education resource gap that exists at this level. This will make them plan how to strike a balance. It will as well make business studies teachers rise up to their training/ re-training needs.  Training/re-training and provision of required educational materials will lead to the professional growth of business studies teachers.
            By spurring various stakeholders to contribute their own quota to the provision of resources required for business studies at this level, this work will help to create a conducive environment that will enable business studies students to acquire appropriate skills. This will enable the students to continue with full-time studies, combine work with study, or enter full-time employment. By this token skilled workforce will be made available in Ebonyi State and this will lead to the growth of the economy of the state as well as the economy of the entire nation. Furthermore, skilled workforce will increase the human development index of the nation.
            The findings of this work will serve as a guide or a resource material for subsequent researchers. It will spur other scholars to carry out similar or related research works in other areas.

Scope of the Study
      This study will focus on the adequacy human and material resources required for the implementation of upper basic education curriculum on business studies in Ebonyi State. The study will consider the materials included as appendix to the curriculum under study as the materials required for its implementation. It will cover public and private junior secondary schools (JSS) that offer business studies in the three education zones in Ebonyi State. 

Research Questions
            The following research questions will guide the study:
1.         What is the level of adequacy of business studies in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
2.    What is the level of adequacy of the provision of business studies curriculum compliant textbooks in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State? 
3.         How adequate is the quantity of business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?
4.    How adequate is the quality of business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State?

            The following null hypotheses that will be tested at 0.05level of significance will guide the study:
HO1:   There is no significant difference between the of adequacy of business studies facilities in public and private junior secondary.
HO2:   There is no significant difference between the adequacy of business studies curriculum compliant textbooks in urban and rural areas
HO3:   There is no significant difference between the  adequacy of the quantily  of business studies teachers in urban and rural junior secondary schools.

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