Welfare is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for all citizens, sometimes referred to as public aid. In most developed countries welfare is largely provided by the government, and to a lesser extent, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations.

The welfare state expands on this concept to include services such as universal healthcare and unemployment insurance.
            Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments, subsidies and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare system differs from country to country, but welfare is commonly provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, and veterans. A person’s eligibility for welfare may also be constrained by means testing or other conditions.
            Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both. Funding for welfare usually comes from general government revenue, but when dealing with charities or NGO’s, donations may be used.
The Rural Social Scheme (RSS) is a welfare scheme by the government aimed at low –income farmers. To qualify for the RSS you must be getting a social welfare payment. In return, people participating in the RSS provide services that benefit rural communities.
            The Department of Social Protection has overall responsibility for policy in relation to the Rural Social Scheme, including eligibility criteria. The Department monitors the implementation of the RSS and supports the various bodies that manage the RSS locally. The Department may also inspect any Scheme and visit projects. At a local level, the Scheme is managed by implementing bodies such as local development companies.

The type of work carried out by RSS participants includes:
·        Maintaining and enhancing various walking routes (that is, way marked ways, agreed walks) and bog roads
·        Energy conservation work for older people and those at risk of poverty
·        Village and country side enhancement projects
·        Social care and care of older people
·        Community care for pre-school and after-school groups.
·        Environmental maintenance work maintained and care-taking of community and sporting facilities
·        Projects relating to non-for-profit cultural and heritage centres
·        Community administration or clerical work
·        Any other appropriate community based project identified during the course of the scheme

            You work 19.5 hours peer week. These hours are based on a farmer friendly schedule. This is to ensure participation on the scheme does not affect a your farming activities. If you get a place on the scheme, you are offered a contract from your start date up to the following 31 March. You may be considered for a further term following the initial contract, if you continue to meet all the criteria for the scheme.
            The local management decides on your applicant. While it is not intended that anyone would remain on the scheme permanently, there is no definite time limit for participation.
            If you are eligible for the scheme but don’t wish to participate, your dependent spouse, civil partner or cohabitant may take the available place. However, this is only if neither of your are participating in any other similar scheme, (for example, the community employment scheme.) The rural social scheme operates independently of the community employment scheme (CE).

·        The rural social scheme provides a supplementary income for low-income farmers who are unable to earn an adequate living.
·        It provides job for the young unemployed in the community.

            The scheme aims to sustain rice cultivation and to augment the average productivity to more than 3 tones per hectare. To achieve this objective, a rice-based farming system approach is envisaged based on group farming concepts and group contact system enabling farmers to adopt improved production technology and scientific package of cultivation suited to each agro-climatic condition. The comprehensive State Food Security Project 90% centrally sponsored Rice development programme, RKVY programme for paddy development, Local Self Government’s paddy schemes etc. will be integrated with scheme wherever possible for enhancing productivity, reducing cost of cultivation and for increasing overall income from the land.
            The group farming smithies will be revitalized through the SHG mode and the activities will be concentrated mainly in the predominant rice growing areas of the state. Short and long term seed programme will be implemented under strict norms of seed legislations and monitored by seed Development authority. Infrastructure support will be provide with the active involvement of group farming Smithies. Support will be given to the II Paddy development agencies for inputs like seeds, soil ameliorants, purchase of modern agricultural machinery construction of goodowns etc. based on the approved plans. A revolving fund will be provided to seed Development Authority for creation of infrastructure facility, operationlisation of program and to make it self-reliant.
            The revitalization of group farming activities will be concentrated in 1.43 lakh ha predominantly in rice growing tracts of the community. The objective of the group farming programme is o implement a package of measures capable of making rice production more attractive by reducing the cost of inputs, providing infrastructure and adopting modern farming technology through a group approaches, as to instill confidence among paddy farmers. Under the group-farming programme, problems faced by individual farmers are eased out and solved by group activity. The farming activities in each padasekharam are undertaken in each season in a co-ordinate manner as per an approved plan.

Activities proposed for group action
1.   Mechanization of land preparation for cost reduction
2.   Use of uniform seed of an identified high yielding variety for each padasekharam
3.   Pre-planned sowing and community nursery rising
4.   Preparation of soil map for the padasekharam and need based nutrient application based on soil test data of padaskeharams following nutrient management practice with use of bio-fertilisers, organic manures, green manures and chemical fertilizers. The inputs will be arranged from depots to fields jointly.
5.   Community weeds control using weedicides
6.   Organizing joints plant protection operations following IPM
7.   Application of soil ameliorant to correct soil Ph
8.   Following uniform crop rotation practices including raising of pulses /green manure / vegetables in the rice fallows
9.   Mechanized harvesting and carrying out post harvest operation on a group basis
10. Organizing seminars, campaigns, harvesting meals participating the farmers and to highlight their achievements.

The advantages of the scheme in my community includes
There is a supreme percentage decrease in homelessness.
There is also a fall in crime rates.
Provides basic living needs for single parents, sufferers and disabled (basic apartment payed for by government partially taxpayers money), transport payed for and 45 pound a week.

The disadvantages of a welfare state system includes;
A person can receive payment without working or contributing to society eg. Charity work.
It can demean a child’s inspirations to achieve to earn money as they will end up with money.

R.M. Blank (2001). “Welfare Programs, Economics of,” international Encyclopedia of the social and Behavioral Sciences, pp. 16426—16432, Abstract.
Sheldon Danziger, Robert Plotinck (1981). “How income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Savings, and the Income Distribution: A Critical Review,” Journal of Economic Literature 19(3), pp. 975—1028.
R.11 Haveman (2001). “Poverty: Measurement and Analysis,: International Encyclopedia of the social and Behavioral Sciences, pp. 11917—11924. Abstract.
Steven N. Durlauf et al., ed. (2008) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition:
“social insurance” by Stefania Albanesi. Abstract.
“social insurance and public policy” by Jonathan Guber Abstract.
Welfare   state” by Assar Lindbeck. Abstract.
Nadasen, Premilla, Jennifer Mittelstadt, and Marisa Chappell, Welfare in the United States A History with Documents. 1935—1996. (New York: Routlege, 2009). 241 pp. ISSBN 978-0415-98979-4 
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