(i)        The Indirect Causes: This is due to attitude of people, otherwise perception of their immediate environments are littered most of the time because people don’t observe notice and instructions in public places. They normally do not understand the implications of the action. Such people need more enlightenment.

(ii)       The Direct Cause: This cause is attributed to population explosion in urban environment. The higher the concentration and agglomeration of people, the higher the activities performed and the higher the waste generated because human resources management is very difficult.

(iii)     Access to Waste Collection Points: Many sources of waste might only be reached by road or alleys, which may inaccessible to certain mode of transportation because of their width, slop, congestion etc. this can affect the readiness to carry waste to a shared container, the willingness to segregate waste to assist recycling, the frequency at which waste should be collected, the amount of liter on the street, the willingness to pay for waste management services, and the social groups from which waste management staff can be drawn. Also, from weak enforcement of legislation likes the sanitation and FPA Laws and edicts.  

(iv)      Urban Management: Mabogunje (1968) submitted that the most important problem of Nigerian cities is that of urban management (of which polythene waste management is part of )is still largely in the hands of the unenlightened and the inexperience or no- professional. In the survey carried out in Lagos, Okpala (1986) noted that 30% of the refuse were dumped in inappropriate places, open dumps, on the road sides, into drains and gutter which makes it difficult for waste management agencies to really perform effectively. Also, Adesanya (1986) noted that non-frequency in clearing of central refuse dump at regular intervals is a major factor influencing city’s solid waste volume.

(v)       Conflict among inter- government agencies in their duties: this is another problem of waste management in Nigeria for instance, the state Environmental protection. Agency, the Local Government authorities and ad-hoc task forces created here and there most time find it very difficult to cooperate in this joint venture.

(vi)      Finance and Equipment: Mabogunje (1968) also identified finance and equipment to be major constraint for the effectively performance of both the private and public agencies involved in polythene waste management. Nze (1997) categorized the factors into three heading; namely; inadequate structure for environment administration, Lopsided planning postures and disregard for basic aesthetic, industrial and commercial growth and the human factor as problem but argues that urban wastes, if effectively and scientifically managed could profitably support agricultural and industrial development in the country, while activities associated with its management could provide employment for the ever growing population of the unemployed in our urban centres.              
            According To Environment Quality, (1991), domestic waste management, collection and disposal have always been a universal problem; also in the U.S until the 1970 Federal Agencies had little authority to regulate hazardous and solid waste.
            Disposal often took place in an unsafe manner at landfills or in surface waters; refuse and domestic waste will not constitute s strange sight to Nigerians whose streets are littered with tons or garbage from animal to human carcass.
            Lately however, a lot of concern has been expressed by the well-meaning resident that the battle against refuse, especially on the streets, roads, and avenues is not being prosecuted in a way to guarantee a health environment. In his study, Michael (2003) recommended the use of recyclable polythene which will be sorted if disposed with other waste made from other products. More so, he advocated for laws to be established that will make it illegal and prohibitive for anyone to dump polythene waste indiscriminately. These laws should not just be there, they should be implemented (Florida litter study, 1998). In order to obey the laws, more waste baskets and trash cars should be provided (Armitage, 2005).
            Based on the field survey carried in Abakaliki Urban (Researchers field survey 2012) the observe disposal means of polythene waste include throwing on bar aground, dropping in waste bins or litter cans, gathering them for burning later, burying and even throwing them into refuse dump. From the foregoing, it could be seen that polythene materials are needed because of the use they can be put of and the advantageous qualities it has. But, there are stigmas associated with it which can only be reduced or controlled if properly disposed. Hence, the need for laws that will help its proper disposal.   

            Agukoronye (2005), defined waste as any unavoidable material resulting from domestic activity or industrial operation for which there no economic demand and which must be disposed off. In this context, Agukoronye conceptualized waste as being useless.
            Huang (2000), defined waste as material resulting from human activities that are useless, unwanted and hazardous.
            According to Uchegbu (2002) solid waste is classified into garbage and rubbish which rubbish further classified into degradable and non-degradable. Rubbish includes paper, cotton and wood. Non degradable on the other hand includes clothes, polythene, iron, glasses and ceramics. It then follows that polythene is a non-degradable, ‘rubbish solid waste’.
According to safeguard (2001), plastic waste generated in urban areas is derived from various sources such as household waste, commercial, institutional waste, street sweeping etc.
            According to Environment Quality, (1991), “Household account for about half of the solid waste generated i.e. by weight in the third world cities” which include Abakaliki it has also been noted that domestic waste disposal management has received considerable attention, collection, disposal, processing, treatment recycling and utilization have defies solution.
            According to Kaushik (1998), due to ease of use, harding, light weight, waterproof nature and low cost, polythene has found wide applicability in modern society
            According to Chandigarh (1998), polythene became popular commercially more than the other bags due its low price and portability. In his view, market mechanism drives people to use polythene because it is cheap and easily available. It is tough, water proof and easy to carry and store. It is largely used as carry-bags.
            According to international Rice Research Institute IRR(2002), polythene is bedeviled by various problems. It was observed that polythene bags prevent sunlight exposure on soil. This in turn destroys the beneficial bacteria causing gain of soil fertility.
            According to Roy (2001), polythene bags and other plastic materials, it burnt below 7,000 degree Celsius, create a dioxin-Like poisonous gas, which can cause cancer and skin diseases. Polythene bags dumped near households are the safe havens for breeding mosquitoes, which causes dengue fever, filiariasis and malaria, he warned.
            So, it is pertinent that polythene materials should be properly disposed. They can be thrown into trash cans, waste baskets or perhaps into recycling bins. Studies can be on, on how to produce biodegradable or degradable polythene, which will be used instead of non-degradable polythene (Marais and Armitage (2004). It is “equally better to use plastic grocery bags or reusable shopping bags instead of the non-degradable polythene”, they said.
In his study, Michael (2003), recommended the use of recyclable polythene which will be sorted if disposed with other waste made from other products. Moreso, he advocated for laws to be established that will make it illegal and prohibitive for anyone to dump polythene indiscriminately. This laws should not just be there, they should be implemented (Florida study, 1998). In order to obey this law, more waste baskets and trash cans should be provided (Armitage, 2005).
            According to Uchegbonam (2002), plastic waste management is tampered by a number of other factors such as in inadequate sings of infrastructure especially those that cater for direct services under sanitation system and lack of finance. He went further to say that the improper disposal of plastic waste lead to reduction of property values. Burning of plastic waste cause headaches, nervousness and lack of concentration, psychiatric ailment, psychological damage, respiratory problems, eye and nasal infections and reduced amount of energy.

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