1.1 Background of the Study
It is not contentious issue that human capital in an organization is as important as the survival of the organization. This is because competition is so fierce and change is so fast, that any competitive edge gained by the introduction of new processes or technology can be short-lived if competitors adopt the same technology. But to implement change, the people must have the same or better skills and abilities for companies to stay on top of the global economy and they need to place more emphasis on the human capital in the organization. The most successful companies and most successful countries are those who manage human capital in the most efficient and effective manner.

To achieve efficient and effective use of human capital in an organization, the health and safety of the workers should be paramount in the organization’s agenda. This is because health of a worker is the main factor that maximizes the value of all other potentials of human capital such as knowledge, skill, morale. In Nigeria, the employee’s performance or output is very low as a result of inability of the employers to tackle industrial accident which reduces the morale of the workers in the organization. The effort by the Government and workers union to reduce industrial hazards and forestall safety in the working place have not yielded the expected result because the employers of labour have not paid adequate attention to the laws regulating working environment.


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Managers of business organizations should not be concerned only on providing organizations with the necessary financial resources for the day to day running of the organization and finding market for their products; they should also be faced with the problem of providing a conducive atmosphere and accident free working condition that will increase morale thereby enhance performance level of their employees.
The problem of accidental injury on the job has assumed tremendous proportions in Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC, Ikeja, Lagos. Agha (2007). It would not have attracted serious attention if not the enormous implication it has on workers performance, employee’s morale and business cost in general. Efforts however, are directed by astute managers to reduce accidental injuries to the barest minimum.
Accident is defined as the chain of events and assurance leading to unintended injury. It can also be viewed as an unpleasant and unintended happening sometimes resulting from negligence that may result in damages, loss or injury, serious enough to require medical attention. In general an industrial accident is an unintended occurrence which can cause disability or death in an industrial setting. It can occur inform of explosion, contact with extreme temperature, fall on a slippery floor, poor leading of equipment or machinery and struck by tools. Essentially, the overall problem of accident appears to be a matter of functional disharmony or imbalance between man and environment resulting in a stressful situation.
This situation aggravated as a result of more people taking industrial employment and since most of them are having their first experience, being exposed to automatic, overhead cranes etc, they are more susceptible to accidents. Some are prone to accident due to old age. It has been stressed that it is thrust that has brought into wake problem in terms of safety and health hazards for workers. It is also a fact that hazards if not properly checked minimizes the profitability of industries at the same time affect the economy.  One of the major consequences of industrial accidents is the cost of work related injuries and illness.
The above situation would have been partially avoided if they had been a safety and health programmes served to create awareness of occupational hazards and of the importance of safe work practices and use of available safety equipments. In developed and industrialized countries, industrial safety awareness and movement has been in existence right from the days of the industrial revolution but the government and employees of this country had only just released a few years ago the importance of forestalling the possible dangers or consequences of industrial accidents. This attitude might have been due to the common law doctrines of the 19th century where the safety of employees was considered to be his own responsibility and the employer was convened under the fellow servant” and also the contributory negligence” but common law today has imposed a duty on the employers to provide a safe system of work, competent staff, and a safe and suitable place and tool of operations and any breach of these duties leading to a worker suffering injury, the employer would be liable.
Even with all these impositions by law, the working conditions are still unsafe. One begins to wonder whether the ways employees carry out their job is not responsible for this. His inability to find solution to his problems, the efficiency with which he can use technological aids etc. if the employers fail to realize that accidents interrupt performance, reduce employee’s, morale raise operation cost, in the long run, the profit of the organization would be reduced. A low level of productivity means a reduction in the standard of living.
            Therefore every employer must gear efforts towards improvement through the provision of a possible means of  reducing the rate  of accidents in the work-environments and this will in the long run raise the standard of living in the country.

1.2       Statement of Problem
             Accident is an inescapable fact of organizational life. Therefore, the performance of any organization does not only base on the management ability to make business plan, it includes finding the solutions to industrial accident or how to reduce it to the barest minimum by providing health and safety programmes.
            The cost of the inability of the organization to implement safety programme can not be overemphasized. This is because accident in work place cost more than one can imagine. This cost can be classified into direct and indirect cost. Direct cost ; An accident victim  in a workplace may be treated instantly with first aid. The after effect of the accident however transpires more slowly. Here, workers who witnessed the scene will not have morales to resume their work immediately, production will stop until the damaged equipments cleared and replaced with new machinery. Sometimes, managers dismiss the injured worker, and call for replacement which will lead to induction and training at the same time. The supervisors will be requested to write reports on how the accidents happened. It can also lead the business owners to face litigations.
            On the other hand, indirect costs of accident can be ten times greater than the direct costs or even more. According to John .and Solvia (2009) It has so many cost to workers that it is often difficult to measure. One of the most obvious indirect cost is the human suffering caused to workers’ families, which cannot be compensated with money especially where it leads to the death of the victim. The costs to employers, accidents are also estimated to be enormous for business owners. Especially small business, the cost of even one accident can be a financial disaster. Some of the indirect costs are wages for lost time of injured person, workers adjacent to the accident scene who stop their work to watch or offer assistance or talk about the accident.  Repair or replacement of machine or equipment, this include the time to order, deliver, and test the new machines training workers for replacement  The lack of knowledge of the causes and cost of industrial accidents have lead to negligence on the part of management to develop efficient method of handling them.
1.3       Objectives of the Study
            The major objective of this study is to identify strategies for managing industrial accident with a view to improving workers morales and performance in the workplace. Specifically, this study seeks to:
i.          Identify the effects of industrial accidents on the employee’s morale in the company under study.
ii.         Ascertain the direct and indirect cost of industrial accident in the company understudy.
iii.       To identify organization’s compensation strategy for legal requirement.
1.4              Research  Questions
1.         Does industrial accident have any effect on employee’s morale
2.         To what extent does training reduce accident rate.
3.         Are there any control measure to reduce industrial accident in Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC, Ikeja, Lagos.
4.         What are the costs effects of industrial accident to Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC Ikeja Lagos.
1.5       Hypotheses
Flowing from the statement of the problem and objectives, the following hypotheses are formulated to guide this study.
Ho:     Industrial accident has no side effect on employee’s morale
H1:      Industrial accident has significant effect on employee’s morale
Ho:      The cost of industrial accident has no significant effect to the organization’s performance.
Hi:       The cost of industrial accident on performance is insignificance to the organizational performance
Ho:     Employees training has no significant impact in controlling accident rate in organization
Hi:      Employees training has an impact in controlling accident rate in organization.

1.6       Significance of the Study
            Generally, research efforts and endeavours are geared towards providing solutions to problems, improving on the performances of the existing system and providing solutions for the benefit of human kind.
This study is significant in the following ways.
i.          It will provide literature to other researchers who will be interested in the study of industrial accidents and employee morale.
ii.         It will help Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC, Ikeja, Lagos to identify better ways of reducing accident, improving workers morale and reducing cost.
iii.       Since Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC, Ikeja, Lagos runs an open administration, proper understanding of the work by other organization, will help them to develop effective management of industrial accident in order to reduce high cost and enhance employee morale.
iv.        The study will benefit the Government because if the productivity of the organization improves companies will be paying more tax to the government
1.7             Scope of the Study
The study covers only Guinness Nigerian Breweries PLC, Ikeja, Logas due to financial constraints and time frame required for the completion of the work. No attempts where made by the researcher to reach out to other companies.
1.8             Limitation of the Study
In order to carry out this research, the researcher faced series of problems
            Some of the problems faced by the researcher are paucity of finance, frequent power outages from the public power supply, communication problem from some of the staff of the Guinness Nigeria Breweries PLC. Here, some of the employees are semi-literate and so do not really understand what was required of them and they were also afraid of giving out information which they think might lead to the termination of their appointment

2.1       Introduction
A review of the massive literature on industrial accident shows that it causes disastrous damage to the life of the employee. Industrial safety and quality of work life are sources of morale to every employee in any industry. Therefore, prevention of industrial accident should be an objective of the management of any organization in order to protect employee’s morale and promote human relation movement and socio-technical movement which forms the basis for industrial safety today.
Thus, this chapter seeks to sought the literature review and will group it into; Academic and Empirical reviews as well as theoretical framework of analysis.
2.2       Empirical Literature
            There is sizeable empirical evidence which has linked the effect of industrial accident on employee morale. In particular, the rate of output growth of the industry is said to be determined by the effectiveness of the employees’ effort to work, the efficiency of resource utilization and the ability to acquire and adopt modern technology. Nnanna (2001).
            Levine et al (2006) examined the effect of industrial accident on employees morale in a British Columbia Forestry and logging organization using time series data, found that accidents on employees morale deepens exerts a statistical significant influence on production rate of any industry. They also observed that countries with small and medium scale industries are more prone to accident.
            Amos and Amuche (2009) Analyzed the employees risk at Guinness breweries Plc with the objective to ascertaining the relationship between the quality of work environment and the growth of employee morale in their countries. They observed that a safe, visually appealing and well lit environment can allow employees to focus exclusively on performance without constantly worrying about how an accident might boost their health care costs.
            Denizer (2005) examined the pathway to occupational safety and risk factors using a cross-country data, found that from a broader societal perspective, the decreasing social acceptance of risk leads to new collective demands and improves occupational safety. In a similar vein, Uchenna and Abuchi (2008) investigated the relationship between quality of incentives to workers and employees’ morale towards such incentives. Using cross section panel data, observed that there is position effect of incentives on employee morale. That is to say that making more money can be an obvious morale booster.
                        Egbo (2004) examined the corporate systems for measuring process safety performance, investigating incidents and near misses, auditing system performance. Addressing the issue, Egbo (2004) identified that addressing previous identified process safety related action items and ensuring sufficient management and board oversight will help to prevent industrial accident employee morale of any industry.        Nwosu (1994) studied the link between global diversity and industrial safety using across-country and panel data of 49 developed industries for the year 1960-1990 periods. The study founds that global diversity among departments in any industry is a significant determinant of employee morale, only with cross-sectional estimates and that the reduction of industrial accidents on employee morale is kenneled mainly through an increase in global diversity co-operation.
            Demetriades and Hussein (2010) found the evidence that supervision is a leading factor that affects employee morale in any industry. They further found that for majority of the advanced industrial nations, quality of supervision encourage open communication in the office and performance-related feed back to their subordinates.
            Odunukwe (2000) investigated the casualty that led to the collapse of Satzenbrau beer in the country. The study indicated positive impact on industrial accidents caused by the inability of the top-management to relate effectively with the junior cadre.
            Morris (1999) showed that there exist a positive effect associated with the performance evaluation, corrective Action and corporate oversight, they found that maintaining and improving a process safety management system requires the periodic evaluation of performance and the correction of identified deficiencies.
            Gloria (1992) specified and estimated the relationships among managers, employees and communication in a panel of 82 industries covering 1972-1992 using as model the Translog production function. Evidence shows that the data are profitable and specification facts favour the random effect of employee estimation procedure.
Dominic (2011) in his study of the effect of industrial Accidents on Employee morale will provide solutions to employee safety in her place of work.
Academic Review
 Conceptualizing industrial accident and morale.
An accident is a specific, unpredictable, unusual and unintended external action which occurs in a particular time and place, with no apparent and deliberate cause but with marked effects film et al (2000).
The definition above implies a generally negative outcome which may have been avoided or prevented had the circumstance leading up to the accident been recognized and acted upon prior to it occurrence. Shanmukha (2001) agreed with the above assertion but added that they are some accidents that can be predicted. According to him, accidents of particular common types (crashing of automobile, event causing of fire etc) are investigated to identify how to avoid them in the future. This is sometimes called root cause analysis, but does generally apply to accidents that cannot be deterministically predicted.
George (2004) in an annual report, tracing the origin of the concept from 20th century sees accident as something that causes disastrous damage to the life and property of the people. According to him, in order to avoid accident, safety programme should b introduce in an organization he defined safety as “protection of physical health of people in the organization and prevention of work related injuries and accidents.
Washburn (2010) in his view, sees accident as unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity, according to him, it may (or may not) include injury or property damage. He emphasized on the important of accident investigations to find out the causes for easy prevention.
Joseph (1990) making reference to industrial Act, 1948 agues that an industrial accident is “ an” occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person which makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours”. In other words, it is an unexpected event and is always sudden. He noted that the event or occurrence should be something to which a definite time, date and place can be assigned. It must arise in the courses of employment in a factory or an industrial establishment. From the above augment, self- inflected injuries or injuries inflicted with the consent of a person cannot be regarded as accidents.
Brody (1971) sees accident as part of some people with what he described as accident proneness. According to him, some employees are more accident prone compare to the other. He defined accident proness as a condition which a “human being is mentally inclined, strongly disposed, attitudinally addicted or personally destined to become constantly involved in an on going and never ending series of accident injuries” thus some people may be more often involved in accidents than others they get involved in accidents, muscular weakness, emotional instability, visual disability, recklessness, hostility, and indifference.
Harrell (1980) viewed accident as “undesirable” because of both humanitarian and economic reasons in his words, “Even a minor accident may bring down the morale of the employees involved in the accident and that of the organization” accident are not only expensive, but they also lower the morale of the workers and result in lower production.
            The behaviour of individuals employed by an organization is driven by employee’s morale which according to finger (2005) is the spirit of a person group exhibited by confidence, cheerfulness, discipline and willingness to perform assigned tasks. Ewton (2007) sees morale as a fuel that thrive the organization forward or the fuel that feeds the fires of employee discontent poor performance absenteeism, cost of opportunity, illness and problem. Greenleaf (1996) in an attempt to define low morale, emphasized on some of the problem faced by leaders of organization who fail to address the morale issues. They are decease in productivity increase rates of absenteeism and associated cost, increase in customer’s complaints as a result of dissatisfaction of customers, increase in employee turnover rate and cost associated with injuring and training replacement staff.
            The literature on industrial accident shows that the world of work is changing. The importance attached to the possible impact of recent changes in the world of work on accident prevention probably finds its origin in the growing speed in which they take place and the changing scale of industrial activities. Seillan (2001) States that the growing complexity of multiple changing factors that take place simultaneously threatens the presently established organizational structures. Totterdill (2001) pointed out that companies can no longer concentrate on optimization of safety approaches in a stable environment but have to anticipate charge, new knowledge and new evolution.
Saari (2001), states that there has been a considerable improvement in occupational safety during the past decades. The number of severe injuries has decreased. Some people may even consider industrial accidents a solved problem. The media often seems to present the idea that physical problems belong to the past and that nowadays workers are threatened by totally new risks. Saari (2001), further state that humans tend to underestimate known risks and overvalue new risks. Falls cause a large proportion of fatalities at the workplace. However, the risk is not new since humans have fallen and since they have learned to work. The risk of violence is new to many workers and therefore more interesting as topic of prevention and research. Both types of risks, new and old should be properly identified and kept under control.
Thebaud-mony, (2001), it is difficult to draw conclusions from statistics in order to give a good description of the impact of changes on the rate of the nature of industrial accidents. Sometimes, it is even impossible to compare statistics because of the use of different definitions of industrial accident. Also, the explanation of evolutions is often very difficult. Decreasing rates of industrial accidents might be explained by better prevention strategies or by the exportation of dangerous activities. They might be explained by the use of new technologies/products and/or better training or by the increase in illegal employment (the so-called black labour market) of which no statistics are available (work life, 2000).
For some workers, who have moved to temporary work, subcontracting or self-employment this shift might even have positive effects because of increased specialization and greater job satisfaction. For others though, it might create uncertainty, lead to less involvement, having a negative effect on their job satisfaction and their safety behaviour.
Several other authors have looked at the impact of temporary work on safety (Francois and Lievin, 2000, Morris, 1999). They have observed a higher risk of industrial accidents for employees on fixed term contracts and temporary work. Whatever form the new contractual relationships take, the determinant element having an impact on safety is the precarious character of the employment.
Survey of literature on the effect of industrial accidents on employee morale puts forward the size of companies and downsizing as the problems regarding to the possibility of developing efficient safety and health management and coping with change. The works of Snyder (1994), McCarthy et al (1995) and McCarthy (1997) states that accident risks are higher for those employed in small and medium enterprises (SME). The incidence rate for fatal accidents to workers in enterprises with less than 50 employees is about twice the rate of larger units. They identified the link between downsizing and organizational restructuring and increased occupational violence, building or aggressive behaviour at work.
Clifton (2000) states that new structures of enterprises can, in some respects have a negative effect on health and safety at work because,
-           Pressures are experienced by the informal management structures of every small form. This is because they mainly rely on the support of external health and safety services for the development of their prevention and risk management policies and they lack in-house expertise that may cause a deficiency of risk awareness, which may lead to neglecting health and safety standards.
-           Uncertainties arise from new organizational structures for example, the fragmentation of traditional large industry, resulting in complex structures involving many interfaces based on contractual relationships, gives rise to uncertainty about relationship.
-           Workers are consequently in more precarious employment relationships, they may suffer erosion of long term skills and competence.
            Clifton predicts that at the more sophisticated and successful end of the employment spectrum;
-           Larger and more sophisticated industry will not reverse the process of contracting out both core and non-core functions, but will continue to look to quality management approaches to retain control and to discharge their own legal responsibilities, in particular for health and safety at work.
-           The smaller industry that will survive may be those that can cope with complex and bureaucratic requirements of larger enterprises, but which is industry that can maintain a good record, particularly in terms of their performance in the field of health and safety at work.
            From a boarder societal perspective, the decreasing social acceptance of risks leads to new collective demands. Risks are no longer considered as an inevitably inherent side-effect of our industrial activities. As long as the harm exists, there is a job to do.

2.2.1.  Factors Affecting employee Morale
            Considering the highly competitive nature of the modern business world, being able to maintain an employee base that is motivated, enthusiastic and satisfied have become one of the best ways to sustain corporate success. Both large and small companies are increasingly looking for cost-effective ways to keep employee morale high in an effort to simultaneously increase productivity while decreasing turnover.
            Jensen (2001), Hovden (1998) and James (2000) in their various authors, identified the following as factors affecting industrial accidents on employee morale.

2.4       Theoretical Framework
            Every practice rests on some identifiable theory. Theories offer explanation as to how things are or how we come to be the way we are.
            This work is anchored on safety theory known as competing theory of safety in the new workplace. The theory postulated by McGregor is called McGregor’s theory x and theory Y.
            Theory X, subscribed to by followers of scientific management principles, posit the average workers, as inherently Lazy and greedy. This represents a pessimistic view of human nature. According to this theory, Employees do not really want \to work. They have to be pushed, closely supervised and threatened with some type of punishment. The theory assumed that workers have little ambition, prefer to avoid responsibility and seek security as their major goal.
            The job of the management is to break down jobs into their various parts so that even the most inept and stupid worker can master them.  Management also needs to design incentive systems that will get even the laziest people to put in some effort.
            Theory Y by contrast, takes a humanist approach that sees the average worker as intelligent, creative and self-motivating. This theory reflects an optimistic view of human behaviour. According to this theory work is natural to people as rest. Employees attitudes toward work deepened on their previous job experiences and the conditions surrounding the job itself. When given the proper encouragement, employee will seek, rather than avoid, responsibility and they will often exercise considerable imagination and creativity in carrying out their duties.
            A healthy, mutually supportive relationship base on trust openness and mutual respect can create a work climate in which employees want to give more (Reece and Brantt 1996).
            Followers of theory Y believe that management’s job is to ensure that work is both interesting and challenging enough to bring out the best in a worker. This can be accomplished by given decision ability to the shop floor worker, creating teams, self-managed or otherwise and encouraging workers to make suggestions on how safety   can improve in the working environment.
            Both theories X and Y rest on the assumption that key to safety is to modify workers behaviour in the workplace. Theory X purposes that if workers are closely supervised and monitored that their behaviour towards work will impact positively on the working –environment which being careful in the handling of tools and machinery is part of, thereby reducing the rate of industrial accident and promoting safety. Theory Y in the other hand, proposes that safety culture in the work-environment will be improved if employees are incorporated in decision making in their work-environment.
2.5       Limitations and Motivation for Further Study
            The evidence provided in the literature seems to suggest that the subject have become an important empirical debate among researchers. It was evidenced from the literatures reviewed that industrial accidents on employee morale in developing countries industries has been a protracted dilemona. Some research considered treating the menace of industrial accident as important factor disrupting the employee efficiency in most of the studies reviewed. Prominent lines of research tend to treat causation as relationship.
            Different case studies and different methodologies tend to produce different results. Also most of the studies use cross-section data on industries that may be diverse, raising the possibility that the empirical findings could be distorted by heterogeneity braces affecting both industry and employees.
            Empirical studies have suggested global diversity plan as an important accelerator to industrial improvement and employee’s morale. Other studies have proved otherwise, spurring up the debate whether industrial accidents should be a sine qua non for less developed countries like Nigeria (Guinness Nigerian Breweries) in this condition.
            In Nigeria, no study has gone further to analyze the impact of global diversity plan and risk on employee’s morale and industrial hazards. This research fills the gap that has been overlooked by the literature on country-specific basis.
5.1       Discussion of Findings
            From the above findings, the researcher discovered that industrial accident is unavoidable in any industrial establishment, from the result of the questionnaires distributed among staff or Employees of Guinness Nigerian Breweries, plc Ikeja Lagos, it was discovered that no matter the level of prevention of industrial accidents, we cannot stop its occurrence. From the first hypothesis tested, the result shows that industrial accident has significant effect on employee’s morale. The second hypothesis put it that though industrial accident is unavoidable, the cost of  reduce the accident has a significant effect on the organization performance. Finally, the third hypothesis concludes that, Employees training has significant impact on controlling accident in the organization. This implies that expatriates are needed if industrial accidents are to be minimized in any industry. 

5.2       Implications of Review
 A major service sector that will improve the employee morale is the inclusion of global diversity plan to help communicate, among others, all the departments in the industry. This will help in the reduction of accidents as well as improve in the employee services delivery.
            Equally, from the literature, it was reviewed that distrust among top-workers and their level of relationship to their junior cadre affects the employee’s morale. To this end both sector should endeavor to come together to rescue the problems. The implication is that the industrial  management should endeavour to improve in managing their industrial hazard  for greater efficiency.

6.1             Summary
This study adopts an in-depth case study approach to address the very issues in order to inform appropriate analytical issues. It is motivated by the concern that the results from cross-country studies, while useful in detecting general empirical regularities for further analysis are unable to capture and account for the complexity of the industrial accident on employee morale.
This work-examines the effect of industrial accidents on employee morale-A study of Guinness Nigerian Breweries plc, Ikeja Lagos. Industrial accidents on employee’s morale are determined through the issue or questionnaire to Employee respondents. Using a chi-square to determine the effects of industrial accidents  on employee morale, the results shows that industrial accident has significant effect on employee’s morale, Also, that cost of industrial accidents has a significant  effect on the organization’s performance and finally that employees training has no significant impact in controlling industrial accident in the organization. 
That is to say, in Nigeria, government and the management of industries should embark on global diversity plant to communicate among staff from various departments to enable then control the erroneous work or industrial accidents as well as improve in their production rate.
Indeed, the sector is still faced with several challenges. However, appropriate policies that could improve the employee morale to deliver efficiently should be employed by industry management.

6.2             Conclusion
The objective of this study has been to investigate the effect of industrial accident on Employee morale A study of Guinness Nigerian Breweries, Plc, Ikeja Lagos.S We found firm evidence that in all the industries, industrial accident have an effect on employee morale that disrupt the smooth delivery of industrial output. it implies that with constant industrial accidents, employees will not find it convenient to perform their duties efficiently. The company should improve in the reduction of industrial accidents through training and quarterly workshops of in their employees in their own industry for greater output and efficiency of products.


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