The environment of an organization is ever changing and ever evolving such that the only permanent thing about business environment is change Okafor, (2012: 37). Organizations do not exist or operate in the moon neither do they operate themselves; they exist among people and are operated by the same people. Generally, organizations operate in a multifaceted environment which is of itself subject to a large measure of change.  Work environment has many properties and variables that affect both the physical and psychological well being of the employee which if not well scanned and analyzed can lead to the collapse of any organization.

 Mondy and associates (1993), these environmental factors are inter-related and they impact on human resource management at any level and anywhere in the world.
            For an organization to survive in this constantly changing environment, it must recruit, select and motivate its workforce with utmost care. The human resource manager must strive to create conducive working environment and this goes beyond aiming for strike free situation, the organization must also be constantly monitored in order to adjust to the threats and exploit the opportunities presented by the environment. 
            The concern of this paper is to study and know, how and to what extent, the  business environment affect or influence human resource management  using Ebonyi state broadcasting corporation (EBBC)as a case.
The name Ebonyi State Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) is relatively new in the world of broadcasting. The history of EBBC cannot be correctly told without having a glimpse of the history of Ebonyi State because it is (Ebonyi State) the authority establishing the corporation.
The history of EBBC is synonymous with the creation of Ebonyi state by the government of late Gen. Sani Abacha on 1st of October, 1996.
With the creation of the young Ebonyi state, the government of Commander Walter Aye Feghabo (the then military administrator) took the bull by the horn in establishing various structures for effective takeoff of his administration. The electronic media was not an exception. Consequently, the state government enacted edict in 1999 making EBBC a legal entity. That is to say that EBBS became a corporate body capable of suing or being sued in its corporate name.
Before the enactment of the 1999 edit, the EBBS had already started testing transmission of its commercial program. As a follow up, the EBBS aired its first news bulletin on the 5th day of August, 1997.
Ebonyi state was carved out of Enugu and Abia states, these states already had effective and functional electronic media. So the composition of the staffing/ staff of EBBS was the fusion of staff from the broadcasting corporation of Abia and the staff from the Enugu broadcasting service respectively.
The EBBS as at then was operating on 22 kW transmitter on frequency modulation 98.1. The station when it was established acquired a 30 kW transmitter which was yet to be installed as at then.
                              THE STRUCTURE OF EBBC
Like the structure of any other formal organizations, the management of EBBS is stratified in nature. It is structured into eight (8) departments; at the top of the management is the general manager with seven other departments headed by directors under him. The structure or management of EBBC is as follows:
                                I.            General manager
                             II.            Administrative department
                           III.            News and current affairs
                          IV.            Radio service department
                            V.            Engineering service department
                          VI.            Commercial service department
                       VII.            Accounts department and
                     VIII.            Television department
It was a dream born out of the desire of His Excellency Navy    Commander Walter Aye Feghabo the then military administrator of Ebonyi state to establish a city TV that would provide for the viewing pleasure of the people of Ebonyi state.
In 1999, when Dr. Sam O. Egwu took over the mantle of leadership as the first civilian governor, he consolidated the desire and made the dream come true by establishing the Ebonyi state cable television. A TV network that started its full operation in 2000. Between the year 2001 and 2011, ECTV was the only TV station in Ebonyi state offering 60% foreign content and 40% local content.
In 2011 under the leadership of Chief Martin Nwancho Elechi, he established Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) and fussing the ECTV and EBBS which was carved out from Abia broadcasting corporation and Enugu broadcasting service when Ebonyi state was created in 1996, we have what is today call and address as EBBC.

Business organizations operating in a dynamic environment are confronted by a number of problems which affect their performance. Such as the need to constantly change the company’s products or services, to keep pace with technological trends, high expectation from the customers and employees, good working conditions, fair and equitable remuneration, union activities, unstable political activities, demographic and lifestyle, organizational culture and climate,  Inability of some employees to understand the policies, mission and vision of the organization. Interest of shareholders/ board of directors; presentation of false and ambiguous information on the organizational operations and all other factors that constitute external and internal environment.    

The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of environment on human resource management with a view of creating an organizational friendly climate for proper management of human resource in EBBC, Abakaliki. However, the specific objective of this study shall include the following;
                          I.            To evaluate the extent to which environment influences human resource management.
                        II.            To identify the environmental factor that influences human resource management.
                       III.                To evaluate the nature of relationship that exists between the environment and human resource management.              
                  IV.   To relate how effective utilization of human resource in a dynamic environment can improve organizational performance.

The research question to be used in this research work shall    include the following;      
 I.  To what extent does environment influence / impact on human resource management?
  II.            How does an environmental factor influence human resource management?
 III.    What is the nature of relationship that exists between human resource and environment?
 IV.  To what extent the effective management of human resource in a dynamic environment result in organizational performance?

In the light of the objectives and research questions above, the following hypothesis were considered useful;
Ho1:  The extent to which environment influence human resource management is not significant.
Ho2: Technological advancement, culture and economic factors influence human resource management.  
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between human resource management and environment
 H04: There is no significant relationship between effective management of human resource in a dynamic environment and organizational performance.

The significance of the study cannot be overemphasized in the sense that the findings, recommendations, and conclusion drawn from this work shall be beneficial not only to the corporation but to the general public and to all managers who may wish to improve on the study. However, the following are some of the benefits of this research work.
First and foremost, the research will benefit the management of EBBC and other broadcasting houses in Nigeria in understanding how important it is for a conducive working environment to be created for effective and efficient organizational performance.
Secondly, from the academic point of view, the research will present empirical evidence on how environmental variables affect Human Resource management in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the research will equally benefit future researchers who may wish to use it as a source of secondary data.
Finally, the research is of great significance to the researcher as it serves as a partial requirement for the award of Master Degree in Business Management.

For the fact that the researcher was fully aware of the cost of conducting a research, he was able to plan and organize all it would require ahead of time; hence there were no limitations to this study.
The research covers the workforce of EBBC with the view of identifying and evaluating the impact of  environment on human resource management and to ascertain the degree of relationship that exist between environment and human resource management.
The researcher decided to use EBBC, because, it is located at Nkaliki, the headquarters of Abakaliki local government Area which is about 2km from Abakaliki town and it is seen as the closest local government to Abakaliki main town.
History has it that the choice of Nkaliki as the headquarters of EBBC was because of the topography of the area which was seen by experts to be conducive for smooth and uninterrupted transmission of media services. 

        In this chapter, we reviewed works of other researchers/authors that are relevant to this study for the purpose of examining the impact of environment on human resource management using EBBC Abakaliki as a case.  The review covered articles published in academic journals, textbooks, periodicals, seminar papers, and other published researches. The issues discussed in this chapter are based on:
        i.            Academic review
     ii.            conceptual framework
   iii.            Theoretical review
   iv.            Environmental factors and their impact on human resource management
      v.            The role of human resource manager
   vi.            Utilization of human resource in  organization
2.2 Academic Review
       The environment of business has never been so complex and challenging as it is today, the business environment, posits kotler (1980) vitally affects organizations through the fact that it is changing, constraining and uncertain. For kotler, environment is continually in a flux, spinning off new opportunities and threats and instead of changing slowly, the environment is capable of producing surprises and shocks. It is for this reason that Drucker (1969) states that we are in the age of discontinuity. That is why, Mike Oldroyd (1997) states that Managers more than ever before are finding themselves confronted by increasing pressures and demand which they seek to understand and respond to.
Internal and external environmental influences play a major role in human resource management. Organizational climate and culture; help to shape human resource management policies and practices which in turn, have an impact on the quality of candidate that an organization can attract as well as its ability to retain desired workers. The economic environment, labor market condition and unions also play a role in determining the quality and variety of employees that can be attracted and retained. There are external challenges that are dramatically changing the environment of human resource management, however, and requiring it to play an ever more critical role in organizations. These challenges includes; demographic trends and increased workforce diversity, trends in technology, increased government involvement in the employer-employee relationship, globalization and changes in the nature of jobs and works, organizational strategy, culture, leadership styles etc. to understand and be able to discuss issues related to the environment of human resource management, we need a well definition and classification of the term “Environment”.
The term “environment’’ has come to mean different things to different people at different levels depending on their understanding of the subject matter.
   Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2000) defines environment as the condition that affects the behavior and development of somebody or something; the physical condition that somebody or something exist in: Example, a pleasant working or learning environment.
    E. U. L. Imaga (2000) sees environment as the supra-system of the business which is a small sub-unit or system. Enudu (1999) adds that organizations are affected by the environment in two ways; they set limit for the organization and at the same time provides opportunities and challenges to organizations. Onuora (1991) shares the same view that environment of an organization is consisting of a set of  conditions and forces which  surrounds and have direct  influence on the organization. Unamka and Ewurum (1995) define environment as those forces that are largely or totally outside management’s control. Udu A. and Okafor L. are of the view that business environment can be seen as persons, group, forces, actors and or their agents whose actions directly or indirectly affects the operations of an enterprise. Environment can also be seen as those variables that can make or mar the existence and operations of organizations.

    Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management process of an organizations workforce, or human resource. it is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees while also overseeing organizational culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws.   Human resource management can be said to simply mean “management of people at work”. It is the process which binds people with organization and helps both to achieve their goals. Various policies, practices and processes are designed to help both employee and organization to achieve their objectives or goals.
Human resource management is the field of management which plans, organizes, controls the functions of procurement, development, maintenance and utilization of workforce so that;
I   organization goals can be accomplished
Ii   objectives of human resource can be accomplished
Iii objectives of society can be accomplished.
Edwin B.   Flippo, (1984) human resource management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and reproduction of human resource to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.
Ile (2010) citing (stoner and freeman, 1992:374) Human resource management is the management function that deals with recruitment, placement, training, and development of organization members. Eze (2006) citing Armstrong (2002), Human resource management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of organization’s most valued asset – the people working there, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Similarly, the Oxford dictionary of business (1996: 246) defines human resource management as the management of people to achieve individual behavior and performance that will enhance an organization’s effectiveness. Ile (2010: 157), continues, human resource management is a staffing function. A human resource manager advises line mangers throughout the organization. The human resource management process is an ongoing procedure to keep the organization supplied with the right people in the right position when they are needed.

          The activities of human resource management or simply put HRM process are those duties that characterize human resource management.
 Ile (2010: 159), the HRM process includes seven basic activities:
I. Human resource planning
Ii. Recruitment
 Iii. Selection
IV. Socialization
V .Training and development
Vi. Performance appraisal
Vii. Promotion, Transfer, Demotion and Separation. Below is the diagram 

                SYSTEMS THEORY
This research is anchored on the systems theory due to the dependency and inter-relativity of the various factors of environment and those of human resource management which if well managed will lead to organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
  System theory emphasizes the way in which organized systems (human and non human) respond in an adaptive way to cope with significant change in their external environment so as to maintain their basic structure intact.
Ile (2011) outlined the key concept of system theory as sub-system, synergy, open and closed system, boundaries, flow and feedback. He further states that systems approach to management views the organization as a united, purposeful system composed of interrelating parts. This approach gives managers a way of looking at the organization as a whole and as part of a larger environment. Systems theory tells us that the activity of any segment of an organization affects in varying degree the activities of every other segment. The point of the systems approach is that managers cannot function wholly within the confines of the traditional chart.
A system is a complex of interacting element (Von Bertalaffy, (1956). Ng, Maul and yip (2009) define a system as an entity, which is a coherent whole such that a boundary is perceived around it in other to distinguish internal and external element and to identify input and output relating to and emerging from the entity. The focus is on the interactions and on the relationship between parts in order to understand an entity’s organization, functioning and outcomes. The above statement tends to explain that no organization can stand firm and operate very well without managers making a good scan of their environments to determine the opportunities and the threats.
Ile citing Akpala (1998:36) the systems approach to management also helps attempts to correct the insufficient attention given to related variables in different subsystems in the environment. Thus systems theory places emphasis upon integration of all activities while recognizing the importance of efficient system performance.
The synthesis of a well formed organizational climate and culture, adherence to the legislation guiding operating in a certain geographical area , good understanding of the organizational policies and practices, good labour relations, and labour force, socio-cultural factors and adapting to the technological advancement, will not only result in improved human resource management but also in the overall organizational performance which inadvertently will boost the competitive advantage of such organization.    
Human resource management faces some of the biggest challenges since its definition as a separate staff function some decade ago. This renew vigor is a result of numerous environmental factors which forces human resource management to be transformed from a narrowly defined specialty into a more strategic function. Changes in social and political trends and recent economic development around the world helps to account for the growing importance of the human resource department to organizations. These trends development intensify the importance of all managers role in selecting and managing human talents, they represent ongoing challenges in contemporary human resource management. (Eze 1999).
     At this point, we wish to x ray these environmental factors and how they impact on human resource management.
There are two major classifications or types of environment that impact on human resource management, they are:

1        External environment and
2        Internal environment
        This is the type of environment that exists outside the boundaries of the organization. They have direct or indirect impact on human resource management. To be effective, human resource managers must monitor the environment on an ongoing basis; assess the impact of any changes; and be proactive in implementing policies and programs to deal with such challenges. Here are the components of external environment LABOUR FORCE/ ECONOM IC ENVIRONMENT
The economic environment has a major impact on business in general and the management of human resource in particular.
Eze F.C (2006: 113) Organization is not in the position to determine the number and characteristics of persons available in the labor market. This demographic factor is certainly beyond the control of every company within an environment.
It is clearly an external factor dependent on several other factors including government laws and state of the economy. The number of people in the labour force is a factor of several other inter-related issues. What is the population growth? What is the compulsory school age? What is the health of the nation like? Is the population ageing or youthful? What is the rate of participation in labour force for men and women? Is the rate rising or declining? There are jobs that are traditionally reserved for men into which women are now moving. What kind of workforce does a particular organization require and how much of this workforce is available in the relevant environment? Are job opportunities increasing or decreasing? Is the new labour force able to adjust to the skill requirement of the relevant organization?  Is the organization flexible enough to contain and manage change occasioned by the new labour force? These are relevant questions for a human resource manager practioner.
Noorasiah (2012) identifies the following ways in which the economic conditions can influence organization and its human resource.
1        Government Fiscal Policy: Is the level of government expenditure, debt management and tax structure during a given time period while monetary policy is the changes in the stock of money, interest rate and credit policy during a period. For example by increasing government expenditure or varying interest, output can be stimulated or contracted.
2         Interest Rate: This is the price paid to borrow capital. Since many business organizations depends substantially on borrowed funds, the level of interest rate and changes in it affects their cost of operation. When organizations are in shortage of funds, rewards, benefits and bonuses due to employees, such organization will not be able to meet it, thereby resulting to job dissatisfaction.
3        Unemployment Rate: This is another economic factor that influences organization and its human resource. In a situation where there is high level of unemployment, the aggregate purchasing power is low and hence lowers both the demand and sales for organization.
4        Exchange Rate: This is the price of domestic currency for unit foreign currency. Business enterprise import most of their equipment, spare parts, and raw materials. The implication of unstable interest rate to human resource is that it retards effective forecast for man power planning and development.            SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR
This as one of the factors affecting human resource management involves the belief, values, attitudes, opinion and lifestyles of persons in the external environment as develop from the cultural, ecological, demographic, religious, educational and ethnic conditioning. Socio- cultural factors are not static; rather they are dynamic with content changes which result from the efforts of individual to satisfy their desire by either controlling or adapting to environmental factors.            LABOUR UNION
Labour union is an officially recognized association of employees, practicing in the same trade or employed in the same company or industry, who have joined together to present a united front and collective voice in dealing with management, with the aim of securing and furthering the social and economic interests and well being of their membership.
Eze F.C (2006; 115) one may wonder why organization participants are considered external to the company. They are because under trade unionism, they operate as “third party “and negotiate as such. Their memberships in external organizations influence them and where necessary, join them in flexing muscles. It is not individuals as organization’s participants, who go into negotiation with management (government) but the union. Union’s exert a lot of influence on organizations and unionization has become a common feature of Nigeria work environment.
Gareth et al (2005) Unions exist to represent workers interests in organization given that employers have more power than rank – and -file worker and that organization have multiple stakeholders, there is always the potentials that employers might take step that will benefit one set of stakeholder such as shareholder. Although, unions exist to represent the interest of employees, but their activities at other times hinders organizational performance. The continues controversies that tussle between labour union and management has posed a lot of challenge for human resource management. For example, Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and Federal Government struggle over salary, Allowances, poor infrastructural facility, retirement age etc, has crippled educational sector.
In their opinion, Eze F. C. continues, Union’s agitation for better condition of service and higher wage also affects the operations of a firm. This is because of the fact that their activities may bring human resource to a halt, thereby affecting organizational performance. Over the years, we have seen this happen inform of strike.
Labour unions affect organizations in several ways management has less discretion and flexibility in implementing and administering human resource policies, practices, and procedures when dealing with unionized employees, since a negotiated collective agreement govern most term and conditions of employment, including wages and benefits working conditions and job security. Often, organizations with a mix of unionized and non-unionized employees institute a policy ( whether officially or unofficially) to ensure that similar or even slightly better terms and conditions of employment are provided for non-unionized staff to encourage them to remain their non-union status.
Labour unions also influence HR policies and practices in non-unionized organizations wishing to remain union free. Such organizations monitor bargaining activities in their community and industry, and ensure that their employees are provided with terms and conditions of employment equal to or better those being negotiated by unions.
When some or all of an organization’s employees unionized, the human resource department is responsible for helping to develop sound human resource process, and practices that will promote good labour- management relations, and create and maintain a harmonious working environment. Knowledge of collective bargaining, contract administration and pertinent labour relations legislation becomes imperative.            QUALITY OF WORKFORCE
Workforce diversity refers to the mix people from various backgrounds in today’s labour force. More and more unions are working, for example, resulting to a new gender mix that is nearly balanced instead of being male dominated (Hellriegel e tal 1999).
Moorhead and Griffin (1995) Workforce diversity is the difference such as age, gender, ethnic, heritage, physical ability, race and sexual orientation that make up employment of organization. Their differences are reflected on how people conceived of work, what reward they are expecting from the organization and how they relate to others. Often the human resource tends to stereotype people in organizations.
A stereotype is a generalization about a person or group of persons based on certain characteristics or traits.                 STATE LEGISLATION
No organization operates in isolation rather all operate in a territory with defined rules and regulations, laws are both threats and opportunities to management of organization.
Gareth etal (2005) opined that state legislation forces are the outcome of changes in the law and legislation. The results from political and legal development in some society significantly affect managers and organizations. Political pressure shapes both recruitment process and reward administration.            TECHNOLOGY
It is through technological innovations that firms develop new products and services and or improve existing ones, in order to remain competitive and gain productivity and quality needed for competitive advantages.
Eze f.c (2006) Firms endeavor to avoid obsolesce and to promote innovations. The state of the art is another external factor, which impacts on human resource management. How firm operate depends on the technology that is available. Today computing technology is the in-thing and human resource managers are asking for competence in computing. The interest has ushered in E- Banking, E- commerce, E- mail and so on. Rapid changes are taking place at all around us in terms of how we communicate and how we conduct business. How do we train workforce to pace with the rapidly changing technology?  This is the greatest headache facing human resource managers now. We need new knowledge and skill to meet the demand of new technology. There are vacancies in specialized areas of our economy, yet we are faced with the large army of unemployable university graduates and school learners. The knowledge and skills being currently acquired are in most case already out of date. We need to update the content of our educational programs, retain our training programs and invest in re-training and carrier development.
It is through creative technological adaption that new products can be created and improvement on the existing products can be achieved. HRM cannot now ignore the impact of technology or fail to respond to adequately to technological pressure in recruitment and staff- training and development.
Laurie ( 2005) quoting Mackenzie and wajcman, believes that technology is a vital important aspect of human condition, because it provides some basic amenities such as clothing, food and shelter, transportation, medication and basic wealth and of leisure,  adversely, technology pollutes our environment and kills. This not only true in our daily living, it is also true of organization as artificial being.
Gareth et al (1998) see technology as a combination of skills and equipment managers’ use in design, production and distribution of god and services. It is worth to mention here that, in era of stiff competition; no organization can survive without embracing not only an aspect of technology but fully adapting his firm to information technology. Which helps organizations transforms inputs into outputs. That is why Hellriegel et al (1998) says, technological changes build on the present helps create the future. He further said that many new technologies are radical enough to force organizations especially manufacturing and services firms to reconsider their purpose and methods of operation or face extinction. Changes in the information technology also change the nature of work itself within the organization and in addition, the management job adjusting. The workforce to the changes in the information technology falls within the domain of human resource department. This adjustment does not only put cost on the organization but it could result to resistance on the part of workforce, who may judge  such changes and adjustment will result in loss of benefit, status and comfort.

HRM as we have noted is also influence by factors that are internally located. These factors include the mission and objectives of the organization, the policies which the organization has put in place, the general climate and culture of the organization, the structure and size of the organization.
The way human resource management interacts with other organizational units or departments is determined largely by these internal factors. MISSION AND OBJECTIVES
Every organization has a sense of mission, which informs the organization. This describes the reason for the existence. This reason for existence determines organizational task and the task affecting human resource management.
A company that is innovative, with commitment to technological leadership, will operate on very creative environment, which in turn lead to very dynamic human resource management. 
For a human resource manager to succeed in a given organization, he must be very well acquainted with the mission, goals, and objectives of the organization. Tasks are performed so as to achieve organizational goals. The nature of human resource capital depends on organizational tasks. HR planning takes organizational tasks into detailed account. Indeed all HR are affected by this important factor.    POLICIES
 Eze F.C (2006) every organization has a general statement, which guide the thinking in every decision making situation. This general statement (otherwise policies) establishes operational parameter which enables organizational participants to perform correctly in the accomplishment of their tasks. There are certain questions a human resource manger should not only have in mind but try to find solution when faced. Like, is the policy strictly on a “closed door” or an “open’ one? Can organization participants relate to one another and take problems to the top management by passing their immediate supervisor? What policies guide functional areas of a firm in discharging their function?
 Mondy and his associates (1983: 45) as cited by Eze F. C., indicate that organizational policy statement have significant impact on HRM. For instance, the following statement could affect the work of human resource manager. It is our policy:
o      To provide employees with a place of work that is as safe as possible.
o      To encourage all employee to achieve as much of their human potentials as possible.
o      To provide compensation this will encourage a high level of performance in form of increase quantity and quality of production.
o      To work aggressively towards ensuring that all members of labour force have equal opportunity for employment.
o      To ensure that organization members are considered first for any vacant position.  ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE
Whether the climate within an organization is warm and friendly or cold, harsh and unfriendly is important for human resource management. What kind of environment is prevailing? Where the climate is warm and friendly, organization participants are creative, open, communicative, and well motivated.  Where on the other hand the climate is cold and threatening, fear, suspicion and secrecy prevail.
Job performance is affected by organizational climate and as we know organizations where climate is harsh and cold, suffers from high labour turnover. The major factor influencing the climate are management leadership style,  HR policies and practices, and amount and style of communication. The type of climate that exist is generally reflected in the level of employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, and productivity, and thus has a direct impact on organizational profile and on-going viability.
HR department staff members play a key role in helping managers throughout the firm establish and maintain positive organization climate. The can help to develop policies and practices, for example, that encourage a spirit of team work and build employee commitment which can have very positive consequences.
Organizational culture in the other hand consists of the core values, benefits, and assumptions that are widely share by members of an organization. It serves a variety of purposes.
o                Communicating what the organization “believes in” and” stands for”
o     Providing employee with sense of direction and expected behaviours        ( norms)
o                Shaping employees attitudes themselves, organization and their roles.
o                Creating a sense of identity, orderliness and consistency.
o                Fostering employee’s loyalty and commitment.
          Culture is often conveyed through an organization’s mission statement, as well as through stories, myths, symbol and ceremonies.
All managers with HR responsibility play an important role in creating and maintaining the type of organization culture desired. Genuine concern and caring about employee can convey thorough orientation and training, program, promotion from-within. Policies, strategies, encouraging communication flow in all direction providing unique benefits such as free vacation and an on-site fitness center or offering free hotel accommodation to employees and families and having employees assistance program (EAP).    
How well an organization attains, maintains and retains human resource determines its success and failure.
            Federico and polese (2009) state that the effective utilization of human resource, often the most critical factor for the successful accomplishment of organization’s mission. Regardless of the amount of computerization that has taken place in the offices, or robotizations in factories, all organization require people to perform their work. It is the responsibility of the management team to provide the leadership necessary to recruit, select, orient, manage and develop organizational employees, who in turn will carry out their assigned responsibilities to help enterprise to achieve it goals. Managers are successful only if their employees are successful. The truly successful organization accomplishes its mission through using its human resource to their fullest potential.
It is worthy to note here that, the success of a manager and his subordinates depend entirely on his ability to respond maximally to the external factors moderating the organization’s activities.
Although the external environment is outside the control of the HR manager but his effectiveness is measured on how he adapts to these external factors. Bhasker (2005) states that human resource managers perform the following roles in adapting to environmental factors:

2.6.1 Evolving a Human Resource Policy
Just as strategies and policies have been developed for the utilization of non human resources, virtually all mangers now recognizes the importance of developing policies for guiding managerial decision in the field of HRM. A human resource management policy guide the management in identifying and implementing the appropriate learning and developing activities for resolving organizational problems or exploiting new business opportunities. It helps to establish career development mechanism and assesses learning needs so that both the growth potential of employees as well as the organization is released.  Human resource management policies helps managers to anticipate the future and resolve how to deal with it rather than being reactive policies help human resource managers to be proactive. 
Without a human resource policy, there is often a failure to assign specified management responsibility for the various human resource management functions. A lack of policy direction leads to human resource management function that are short- term, Adhoc, haphazard and sometimes irrelevant, unorganized and resulting in proper response to external environment.
2.6.2   Building Supportive Internal and External Relations
Maintaining relations is a key element in responding to labor union and employees grievances. It sometimes receives too little attention for it is not quantifiable and there is no direct relationship between it and the productivity of human resource management department. When seeking to maintain supportive relations, the human resource manager must avoid the hard- sell approach. Over projection is likely to have the negative effects of adverse reaction as well as resistance from the target group.
Maintaining relations involves both internal and external contact. Internally, there are supervisors, the union and different site personnel, special groups which could be both formal and informal. There are also numerous groups outside or external to the organization, with whom the human resource manger should maintain relation. These groups include other firms, labour unions, political organizations, government appointed committees etc. the major purpose here are, on one side, to keep oneself posted on what is happening outside the organization relating to human resource management, and on the other hand, to keep informed as to what is going on within ones organization. By maintaining good external relation, the human resource manger cannot only keep him own self updated on the latest development and innovation in the field, but also for warn his enterprise of future challenges and opportunities.

2.6.3 Top Management Commitment
Human resource management efforts are not likely to succeed unless top management is highly committed, nor can it respond and adapt to external forces if top management does not corporate? The chief executive could have a high degree of commitment to human resource management and should be willing to communicate it to employees. Investment in developing people is not likely to give short-term, dramatic results. This is because both managers and workers require time to acquire new competencies especially managerial, human and conceptual skills. However, excellent human resource management system one may evolve, higher order competencies such as initiative, dynamic leadership or organizing ability develop only over a period of years. Such competencies if developed help position and stationed the organization against any adverse external forces.

2.6.4  Clear definition of human resource department
The responsibility of the human resource management department must be clearly defined as to the maximization of  cooperate profit through the better management utilization of people. The key issues are time, money and adaptability. The human resource function must concentrate on ways to make people more productive- especially on ways to improve the employee job skill, their motivation, quality of their work life and their adaptability to the environmental conditions. The human resource management function must not be diluted by saddling the HR department with unrelated responsibilities such as public relations or stress.
Summarily, HR function must be allowed to concentrate on people-related business issue involving productivity and cost containment.

        Human resource aim at obtaining and retaining people for the most effective role performance. Policies of recruitment, selection, training and allocation are designed to get the best performance of people. Management has an obligation to adapt policies and proactive measures which insure organizational effectiveness and as such provides for the fulfillment of, at least minimum need for security, maintenance of self esteem and opportunity to grow and develop, which are the needs an individual brings with him to an organization and expects to fulfill (Eze 1995).
        The allocation and effective utilization of human resources according to Nwagbo (1999) may also be pursued through two strategies which are fundamentally different and are based on different assumptions:
·        One strategy put its emphasis on selecting the right person and fitting him to the job. This strategy goes through the functions of recruiting, selecting, training and allocating people to jobs. The main point here is that the job is considered a constant while the human being is considered the variable one, the attempt here is to find those people who already fit organizational requirements or at least be trained to fit them.
·        The other strategy emphasis on redesigning the job and its physical environment to fit the limitations and capacities of the human beings. The human being here is considered a constant while the job a variable. 
Human resource are also utilized through authority influence and psychological contract; this implies that the individual has a variety of expectations of the organization and that the organization has a variety of expectation of him. The organization according to Ikeagwu (1992) implements the contract through the concept of authority. When an individual decides to join an organization, he commits himself to accepting the authority system of the organization. He or she must be ready to obey the dictates of some other persons or some written directives or rules and to curb his own limitations, even if they are contrary to the dictates. Authority implies the willingness on the part of a subordinate to obey because he consents, grants to the person in authority the right to dictate to him.
        The worker implements the psychological contract through his perception that he can influence the organization or his own immediate situation sufficiently to ensure that he will not be taken advantage of. He also thinks that he can affect the authority directly and can change his situation in the organisation.Thus the organization enforces its view of the contract through authority while the employee enforces it through upward influence.

This chapter gives account of the methods and procedures to be adopted in gathering and analyzing relevant data for this study. The research design to be used by the researcher, the population, sample size and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection and data analysis techniques will all be explained in this chapter.

The study will adopt a survey type of design. The survey approach studies a given population of the study and data will be generated from the respondents through structured questionnaires and interviews. Secondary source of data shall also be employed in collecting data.

The area of this study shall be the parastatals in Ebonyi State which is the macro scope of the title, with a particular focus on EBBC ( the microscope). Ebonyi state has more than 15 parastatals and EBBC is one of them.

      The population of this study covers all the staff of EBBC, Abakaliki.

          In trying to make good prediction of the population, we shall use random sampling techniques in the determination of the sample size. The use of random sampling techniques is to enable us give every member of the population an equal chance of been selected. This is necessary because it is impossible to get the opinion of all the elements in population. Since the numbers of employees of EBBC are not known, we shall adopt Pearson Product Moment correlation Coefficient Formula in determining the sample size.

  Both primary and secondary sources of data will be employed.                                                              
Instrumentation: A set of instrument will be used in data collection and it shall include; structured questionnaire, using likert 5-point scale and personal structured interview. Thus 18 - 20 questions may be structured and administered to the sample population of the respondents.

       The questionnaire will be subjected to validity test before it will be used finally for this study. The objective of the study, statement of the problem and the questionnaire will be given to human resource management experts to (e.g.) the supervisor and others to establish their validity. Their individual comments and suggestions will help in the modification of the questionnaire. To establishes the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study using test-retest approach will be adopted.

In analyzing the data to be collected, the researcher will adopt a statistical technique of pearson product moment correlation coefficient to determine the impact of environment on human resource management  in EBBC, Abakaliki.     

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