(a)    Ammonia Poisoning
Ammonia poisoning is caused by the buildup of organic waste due to overfeeding, fish or plant deaths and decay, or improper cycling. Ammonia poisoning especially occurs when the pH exceeds 7, when benign ammonium becomes ammonia. Symptoms of ammonia poisoning include sluggish behavior, panting, and gill discoloration (gill burn). Fish may hang just below the water surface. The easiest way to confirm ammonia poisoning is by testing the water. Ammonia poisoning can be reduced by reducing feedings, making water changes, lowering the pH, using zeolites, and increasing aeration.

(b)    Nitrite/Nitrate Poisoning
Nitrite/Nitrate poisoning is caused by the same activities as ammonia poisoning. Nitrite/Nitrate poisoning has the same symptoms as ammonia poisoning, and can be tested by a Nitrite/Nitrate water test kit. The best course of action, is to reduce feeding, make frequent partial water changes until the compounds are reduced, and increase the aeration in the water.

(c)    Chlorine Poisoning
Free chlorine, present in most tap water, is toxic to fish. Chlorine affects the gills and causes death by asphyxiation. Chlorine can be removed by boiling the water, letting the water stand for a few days, vigorously aerating the water, or by adding a water conditioner.

(d)    Heavy Metal Poisoning
Heavy metal poisoning can result from old pipes and/or metal in the fish tank. Heavy metal poisoning is evident when fish gasp at the surface for air and breath rapidly. Tests are available to measure the amounts of heavy metals in your water. The best way to remove heavy metals is to utilize a reverse osmosis system, although filtering the water through activated carbon and using water conditioners can be substituted.

(e)    Medication Poisoning
Medications are meant to help fish recover, although when misused, can be harmful than helpful. Medications can have adverse effects on many types of fish including catfish, tetras, Mormyrids, Loaches, and other sensitive fish. Copper-based medications have harmful effects on invertebrates, so always remove snails and crustaceans from the tank before treating it. Always be sure to read the label on the medication to confirm that it is suitable for your fish. If a medication appears to be harming your fish, make a partial water change and filter the water with activated carbon.

(a)   Dip Treatment: Dip treatments usually involve capturing the fish and dipping them in groups or individually in one or more treatment chemicals.  Dips may last from a few seconds to a few minutes and usually involve fairly strong concentration of chemicals.  Following dip treatment the culture animals are returned to their culture chambers.
(b)   Standing Water Treatment: This treatment is generally used when the application time is longer than few minutes.  Supplemental aeration should be provided unless the fish load is light since water flow must be terminated for the duration of the treatment.
(c)   The Continuous Flow Treatment: is generally used when the application time is longer than few minutes and the water flow cannot be interrupted.  In this treatment the chemical is added directly to running water in the culture chambers at a strength somewhat in excess of that utilized for extended or intermediate treatment and often weaker than that of dip treatment.  The water is allowed to run so that the chemical is dilute and eventually completely removed.
(d)    Dietary Treatment: The feed treatment is generally used when an oral administration of the drug is required or if it is more economical to administer the drug orally than by water treatment.  As already noted, oral treatment of diseases and parasites consists of the application of chemicals to the feed.  This can be very effective means of treatment and indeed certain diseases can be treated in no other way.  This method requires that the feed be consumed if the drug is to be effective.  However, seriously ill animals will not feed, thus usually succumb to the disease.  Fishes in the early stages of the disease, on the other hand may continue to feed long enough for the treatment to be effective.
(e)    Injection: A final method by which drugs can be introduced to culture animal is through injection.  This method like topical application of drugs, calls for the capture of each individual animal followed by inoculation.  Although they approach is suitable for small numbers of animal, a large commercial aquaculturist of fish would find it too time consuming and expensive.
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