DEPT:                          SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY:                  EDUCATION
COURSE CODE:        CSC 101


a.         Classical (digital)
b.         Non-classical (analogue)
(a.)      CLASSICAL COMPUTER: Classical Computer is focused on what we will often call a digital computer. It is the kind of computer that are all most familiar with. It is the kind that you use for example a Mac or a Pc.
(b)       NON-CLASSICAL COMPUTER: it is focused on computer like the connectionist computer, artificial neural network, analog computer and parallel distributed process of, to name few.
            Two of the properties that distinguish non-classical computer form a digital computer involved the way that information carried in the system. In a non-classical computer, at least some of the information is carried in analog rather than digital and the information is distributed throughout large section of the system rather than localized in specific places.
1.         ANALOG COMPUTER: It represent numbers as physical magnitudes such as voltage, resistance, temp, pressure e.t.c. In essence, they measure values of CONTINOUS VARIABLES. It performs the calculations, which the operator manipulates through the computer framework. Some of the computer are:
-           potentiometers, -operational amplifiers,
-           integrators, -fixed-function generation.
Examples of analog computers that have been constructed or practically used.
-           Nomogram, Astrolabe, - The slide rule, mechanical integrator,  -  water integrator, Norden bomb sight and many others.
2.         DIGITAL COMPUTERS: It is used to represent data using discret expressed in a numbering system.
3.         Hybrid Computers: These are special purpose computers that incorporate digital computers into analog processing elements. That in essence means that they can function both as a digital computer as well as an analog computer.

(2a)     Super computer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Super computers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching) for example, weather forecasting requires or supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g in petrochemical prospecting)-perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer is Cray Research.

2.         Mainframe Computer was a term originally reggering to the cabinet containing the contract processor unit or  “main frame”. Of a room filling stone Age batch machine.
            After the emergence of smaller “minicomputer” designs in the early 1970’s the traditional big iron mechanics were described as “mainframe computer” and eventually just as mainframes.
            Nowadays, a mainframe is a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The Chief difference between a super computer and a mainframe is that a super computer channels all its power into executing a few programmes as faster possible, where as a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.
            In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than super computers because they support more simultaneous programmes. But super computers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines.

3.         Mini computer: It is a midsize computer in the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputer and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, minicomputers is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting form up to 200 users simultaneously.

4.         Workstation:  It is a type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software developments and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing powers and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, at large amount of “RAM”, built in-network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but special type of workstation called a diskless workstation) comes without a disk drive. The most common separating systems for workstations are UNIX and windows NT like personal computers. However, workstation are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems. But is networking, workstation refers to any computer connected to a local area network. It could be a workstation or a personal computer.

5. Personal computer:  It can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual uses. In price, personal computers range anywhere form a few hundred pounds to over five thousand pounds. All are based on the micro processor technology that enables manufacture to put an entire CPU on are chip. Businesses use personal computers for world processing, accounting, desktop publishing and for running spreadsheet and data basic management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is for playing games and recently for surfing the internet.
            Personal computer first appeared in the later 1970s. one of the first and most popular personal computers was the Apple II, introduced in 1977 by apple computer, during the later 1970s and early 1980s, new models and computing operating systems seemed to appear daily. Then in 1981, IBM entered the fray with its first personal computer, known as the IBM PC. The IBM PC quickly become the personal computer of choice and most other personal computer manufacturers fell by the wayside. P.C is sort for personal computer or IBM on slaught was apple computer which remains a major player in the personals” computer marketplace. Other companies adjusted to IBM and dominar a by building IBM dones, computers that were internally almost the same a the IMB Pc, but that coatless.
            In recent years, the term PC has became more and more difficult to p in down. In general, though, it applies to any personal computer base on an intel microprocessor, or on an Intel-compatible micro process.
            Today, the world of personal computers is basically divided between Apple Macintoshes and PCS. The principal statistics of personal computers are that they are single-user systems and are based on microprocessors.

CLASSIFICATION OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS: It can be classified by size and chassis/case. Then are two basic flavors of chassis designs-desktop model & tower models-but there are many variations on these two basic types. Hen come the “portable computer” that are computers small enough to carry. Portable computers include notebook and sub notebook computers hand-held computers, maintops and most popular computers used today.

* Tower Model:  It is a type of computer in which the power supply, mother board and mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. This is in contrast to desktop models, in which these compact box. The main advantage of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints which make installation of additional storage devices easier.

* Desktop: This is a type of computer designed to fit comfortably or top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer.

Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall, because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices. Desktop model designed to be very small are sometime referred to as slim line models.

Classes of portable computer
1.                  Notebook computer: It is an extremely lightweight personal computer. Notebook computers typically weightless than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a brief case Aside form size, the principal difference between a notebook computer and a  personal computer is the display screen. Notebook computers use a variety of techniques, known as flat panel technologies, to produce a light weight and non-bulky display screen. The quality of notebook display screens varies considerably. In terms of computing powers” modern notebook computers” are nearly equivalent to “personal computers” they have the same CPU, memory capacity and disk drives. However, all this power in a small package is expensive. Note book computer cost about twice as much as equivalent regular-sized computers. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to run them without plugging them in. however, the batteries need to recharged every few hours.

2.         Laptop computers: It is a small, portable computer-small enough that it can sit on your lap. Nowadays, laptop computers are more frequently called notebook computers. Laptop computers are lightweight and portable. A person sings a laptop should be able to run the same software on the laptop as well as on larger desktop computers. Desktop computer of operating system as desktop. Modern laptops can have floppy drives, CD-Rom drives and CD rewriters and even DVD drives. They often have a full sized; or near full size, keyboards and a mouse or a touch-sensitive mouse pad. The screen is usually a large liquid crystal display (LCD). Laptops are usually much more expensive than desktop computers. They have expressive battery packs that have to power the hard disk, CD drives and LCD screen. The batteries generally don’t last as long as those in a packet computer and may need recharging more than once a day.
            The main advantage of a laptop is that the person using it can have all the programe and data from their desktop computer on a portable computer.

3.         Sub Notebook Computer: It is a portable computer that is slightly lighter and smaller than a full-sized note book computer. Typically, sub note book computer have or smaller keyboard and screen, but are otherwise equivalent to notebook computer.

4.         Hand held computer: This is a portable computer that is small enough to be held in one’s hand. Although extremely convenient to carry, hand held computer have not replaced not a book computers because of their small keyboards and screens. The most popular band-held computers are those that are specifically designed to provide PIM (personal information manager) functions, such as a calendar of address book in some manufacturers are typing to solve the small keyboard problem by replacing the keyboard within electronic pen. However, these per-based devices rely on handwriting recognition technologies, which are still in their infancy. Hand held computer are also called PDAs, palmtops and pocket computers.

5 Palmtop: It is a small computer that literally fits in your palm. Compared to full-size computers, palmtops are severely limited, but they are practical for certain functions such as phone books and calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for input are often called hand-held computers on PDAs. Because of their small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives. However, many contain PCM CIA slots in which you can insert disk drives, moderns, memory and other disk drives, moderns, memory and other devices palmtops are also called PDA, hand-held computers and pocket computers.

6.         PDA: these are short for personal digital assistant, a hand held device that combines computing, telephone fax and networking features. A typical PDA can function as a cellular  phone fax sender, and personal organizer. Unlike portable computers most PDAs are pen-based, using a styles rather than a keyboard for input. This means that they also incorporate handwriting recognition features some PDAs can also react to voice input by using voice recognition technologies by Apple computer, which introduced the Newton Message pad in 1993. shortly thereafter, several other manufactures offered similar products. To date, PDAS have had only modest success in the market place, due to their high price tags and limited applications. However, many experts believe that PDAS will eventually become common gadgets.
PDAS are also called palmtops, handheld computers, and pocket computers.
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