Environment is the combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development and survival of organisms. Snail farming can be in-door or outdoor provided environmental conditions necessary for survival are ideal.

Temperature: Temperature influences the activities of snails such that temperature   above 200C will cause the snails to stiviate or hibernate in order to regulate the body fluid.  Sails thrive well under ambient temperature of 200C with considerable growth rate all year round with zero chance of aestivation. Temperature and humidity of 80% are very critical in the survival of snails.

Humidity: Humidity is a very critical factor to snails as they have to maintain a constant equilibrium between fluids.  A humid environment is required for snails to remain active and bred all year round. It is therefore, necessary to moisten the environment during dry periods. Humidity and water availability are very important in snail rearing and influence feeding.  During dark hours, air   humidity of 80% will promote good snail activity and growth. Even though snails need water their environment must not be water logged.

Light: Snails naturally require light for optimal growth. Lighting can be achieved by   natural and artificial means. At the level of our technological advancement, natural lightening is mostly employed. Light essentially is necessary for some biological process such as photosynthesis which is very vital in energy cycle in food chain. Intensive snail production involves artificial lighting system to prompt the snails into their natural reproductive cycle. Three environmental factors (daylight, temperature and humidity) influences the reproductive   cycle of snails (Yusuf, 2002).  Research  has  shown  that exposure   of  snails  to continuous  light  increased their  activity  and rate  of food consumption and thus promote  their  rapid growth  (Akinusi, 2002).

Soil:    Soil is a medium for reproduction of snails.  Good management practice involves   selection and mixture of soil.  It should be  recalled that soil harbours   a lot  of  pests and  predators,  and so should be properly  analyzed  before using  it  in  snail activities.  A mixture of sand  and  clay in a good  proportion retains water and therefore  not suitable because  during  raining season  it  becomes water logged  and cakes up during dry season  which makes it too hard  for snails to burrow through. Loamy soil is recommended as it contains enough organic matter with good retentive capacity. Acidic soils should be avoided. If   an acid   soil cannot be avoided, lining is encouraged. Periodic application of calcium is also encouraged where and when it is absent. The soil should not contain harmful soils or be so alkaline so as not to burn the snails (Akinnusi, 2002).


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