1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will guide the research:
1. Why do people move to urban center?
2. Is the cost of living at urban center better than rural area?
3. What type of social amenities do you enjoy in town?
4. What are the major problems wising as a result of the impact of urbanization on the socio-economic development of Ezzamgbo indigenes?
5. Do urbanization and rural-urban migration affect the socio-economic life of Ezzamgbo community?
6. How can the problem be resolved?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the impact of urbanization on the socio-economic activities or development of Ezzamgbo indigenes. As we earlier mentioned, urbanization in currently one of the most widespread phenomena processes taking place in Nigeria today. In view of this therefore the study seeks.
1. To unfold the pre-urban socio-economic activities of Ezzamgbo indigenes.
2. The factors responsible for urbanization and now these have acted on the socio-economic activities of Ezzamgbo indigenes.
3. To identify major problems wising as a result of impact of urbanization on the socio-economic development of Ezzamgbo indigenes.
4. To make meaningful recommendations and suggestion on how such problems could be resolved.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study, it is hoped will contribute immensely to the understanding of the effect of Urbanization on the socio-economic activities of Ezzamgbo indigenes. Much work has been done on the impact of Urbanization on rural areas, but none has been in Ezzamgbo rural community as a case study, this study will therefore, serve as a pioneer study in this area.
The study will be theoretically significant, as a number of atternpts to document the effects of Urbanization on rural ureas is ywe. In this study, it is hoped that the peculiwity of the Urbanization effect on the socio-economic lives of Ezzamgbo will be unveiled. It will also be of relevance to students of rural sociology as well as researchers such as the NGO’S community based organization and local government administrators etc.
This study will also be of benefit to social psychologists who we interested in studying the dynamics of group interaction. This study then confirms and attests to Talcott parson’s Pattern variables. It shows human relationship is dominated by economic and social exchanges of values based on the principles of equity.
1.6 DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
Urbanization could be seen as a shift from animate to inanimate of production. This definition implies that, urbanization is the movement from animals production like donkeys, cattle and even manual to inanimate way of production that involves the use of machines. (warren Thompson 1985).
Development for the purpose of this research would be taken to mean the processes of change particularly change of a structural native, towards the enhancement of a people’s socio-economic welfare and the fulfillment.
It involves the society’s transformation through its institutions, organizations, social rules, customary usage and the work attitudes of individuals to an extent that makes the society more and more positively responsive to socially desired modern changes (emelukule 1978).
A combination of various social and academic characteristic. The social life of the people refers to the way they live in the society, the social interaction and their social structure, the socialization pattern, values and norms.
It includes the facilitates they enjoy, the population shift as well as the evils prevalent in the area.
The economic life of the people refers to the productive, consumption and distributive activities of the people. Agriculture, trade and other territory occupation provide a living for the people.
This term refers to population living in the area of low density and small settlement. It is characterized by primary agricultural production. An example is ohaukwu neighboring communities who migrate to Ezzamgbo town for survival of the fittest.
Migration involves the movement of people from a particular residence or settlement to another settlement at a particular time. Rural-urban migration therefore involves the shifting of residence from rural to urban areas.
A sociological approach to studying cities that examines how the social uses of urban land are the results of interactions between various groups of people and their physical/geographic environment.
A population knit together by common values and interests relatively dense and enduring ties frequent face to face interactions, and a sense of being close to one another.
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Many scholars have done very useful work on the impact of urbanization on rural areas. Through most of those writers are outside Nigeria, it is hoped that the materials under review, will provide necessary comparative information for the understanding of the impact of urbanization on the socio-economic development of Ezzamgbo indigenes.
These have been arguments by scholars who define broadly the perspective in which could view the role of cities in third world development.
Richard D. Kambest (1962:117) doing is survey on the impact of urban society upon village life in India, asserted that cities act as catalysts, introducing suitable changes in rural areas. This means that life in the cities influence villages and bring about changes in the rural people.
Davis (1955) and others have vigorously defended the viewpoint that urbanization is a concomitant of transformations in a society. The main agreement of this school of thought revolves around the fact that, the components of urbanization in the third world we of easting in a different mix from the manner they operated in the west. Urbanization in the third world is largely a product of mass rural-urban migration which has accelerated in the last two decades because the rural areas we little affected by modernization influence and lack of opportunities for self-improvement. It is in view of this that much of the literature on migration in African has stressed the fact that economic factor plays a dominant role in the migrants decision to leave the rural areas to the urban centers.
Little (1977) observed that “more generally, a person requires money to live in a civilized way, to buy good clothes, manufactured products and to acquire modern housing. It is needed for taxes, to pay dues to local association, to educate oneself or one’s children and so on. The present of industries in these areas have encouraged migration, people are attracted to the town because at the prospect of employment.
J.H. Wob and Edmund D.E.S. Brunner (1975:167) in their own contribution wrote, “out at the end of the road stands the city with its smokestocks and its jagged sky line, the traffic on the great Amercian highway moves into the two directions towards the country. Moreover, it is not simple a physical highway for the interplay of ideas and attitudes. This implies that ideas and attitudes are transported from the urban center to the rural areas.
A.M. O’ conner (1971:159) argued that the change that is commonly associated with economic development is the growth of towns and cities, and such urban growth is undoubtedly and of the most widespread processes taking place in tropical African today. The towns have been expanding rapidly throughout most of this century and the region now roughly doubt every ten (10) or twelve (12) years. This a more rapid rate of increase than in any other large region of the world and is in some ways a rather disturbing phenomenon. The growth had taken place from such a low base that the preparation of the whole population that lives in towns is still small, yet these towns play a role in the life of most African countries quite out of preparation for the size of their population. They act as local points in the political social and economic affairs of each country and even people who have never visited a town are profoundly affected by decisions made there and by transaction undertaken there.
Mackensie (1925) a classical social ecologist have noted processes common to urbanization in many societies, they include concentration, segregations, invasion and succession. Concentration, the first phase of urbanization occurs when many people settle in a relatively small space. This phase leads to over crow ding in turn promoting a decentralization of activities, so that people and industries spread from the center of the city to outlying areas with the decentralization of activities comes economgical differentiation, in specific with particular areas of the city and are physically isolated from others. In this fashion, the city develops a district financial district, a retail-trade center and a residential sector each separated from the other.
Cities we never static. Any differentiated areas open to ecological invasion by new activities or populations. For example industries may overtop a residential neighbowhood a ware house district may be concentrated into luxwy condominiums or a traditionally black neighbowhood may be resettled by puerta Ricons. Once this process of ecological invasion is more or less complete, succession has occurred that is activity or group of people have replaced another.
Robert Redfield (1974:453) in comparing a rural peasant village and a large city in yucatan mayas, argued that culture change could be studied a long a rural-urban continuum. He further viewed the cities as centers through which cultural motivations are introduced into tribal areas, cultural disorganization he said emerge as a folk community moved to urban. By cultural disorganization we mean that there is a loss of original culture and increase on the acquisition of new culture.
Stanley A. freed (1977:411) in discussing a paper titled. “Attitude, behavious and urban influence” in shanty; a North india village Nagar the capital city of Delhi, pointed out from his survey that kinship ties have not become attenuated but there are some slight tendencies in this dissection. To some extent, obtaining work in the city, is no longer as dependent on kinship as before. Urban oriented men are more likely than other villages, to mix and form friendships with members of other (castes groups) and that the extended family persists in shanty Nagar as a few functions of the family have been taken over by the city. The first of these is the formal education of children, primarily aimed at their urban employment as a goal, is super seeding the self-supportive agricultural family.
May Ebihara (1971:369) in her article published, she carried out her findings in a study between west sobay (a small village new the city) and the capital, phenompenh, pointed out that the village had influences in the various spheres of activity as a result of urban contact. The capital town (phenompenh), acts as the main job of both national and international commerce of the village. Villages are therefore, involved in national and even international trade, as both procedures and consumers. Further more, villages who never particularly cared for urban living, have started using property that are marks of prestige-pressurelampls, wrist watches, sewing machines, motor caws and scatters. Finally, that the idea of urban employment is not new to sabay villages.
I said (1956) sees cities as essentially the points of expression of an economic system. Their efficient functioning is resfoicted by the detail characteristics of the economic system, which involves its productive capacity, its transport system and technology and the general level of income of the popular. These characteristics moveover determine the number, size and distribution of cities. He also postulated that, cities represents accumulated fixed investments which in conjunction with their vested social institutions, tend to entail major geographical inabilities and rigidities and for the most parts, preclude relocation. As societies become more indivtalized and urbanized, the internal structural units, which characterized them apparently undergoing change toward greater diversification and complexity, while at the same tending toward standardization and simplicity.
Hanna and Hanna (1971) in their study of urbanization in black Africa have identified relatively dense population, a large number of social roles and a relative permanence of population and socio-economic infrastructure as being criteria of towns.
Sorokin, zimmesman and Galpin (1920) observed that there is a reverse movement. Regarding this country ward tend these groups of authors stated that a small stream of migrants continue to go from city to country. These representative of the city carry with them. The culture and characteristics, the good and bad of the urban centers to the village too,”.
Similarly, economic, political and social development of Ezzamgbo indigenes. The migration of Amaike people to Ezzamgbo marked the beginning of development in this area. Infact, the arrival of money to the people, has catalyzed a great deal of economic activity in Ezzamgbo. This situation brought about different engagement in activities, which were unknown to them before. It could therefore be said that, the flow and movement of hundreds at the Amaike people to Ezzamgbo the headquarter of the local government has affected modified and changed some of the socio-economic development of the people.
While fisk (1975:1) and the overseas development institute see rural development only in economic terms to other factors.
Todwo (1977:282) holds a different view to him development does not only mean agricultural development rather it represents. “The transformation of economic and social structures, institution relation and process in the rural area”. Ideally, development will involve equitable distribution of rural incomes of now sowing rural-urban growth in terms of housing, health, education nutrition and a number of social service. It also involves the ability of the rural communities to sustain and transcend these improvements. So, what rural development may involve is a mixed grill of agricultural, non-agricultural development component.
Olatunbonsum and lele (1978:20) see rural development as the reorientation of strategy toward the betterment of rural life through a consciously sustained and coordinated programme of activities. This can be done through the mobilization and allocation of resources for the welfare and productive services in the rural area.
Beth Hess (1965:526) also identified some major steps in the process of modernization, which includes urbanization or the concentration in cities of large numbers of people with different occupations and backgrounds. To him urbanization has three major characteristics viz the size of the population in a geographic area and varieties of statuses;
Generally, the more people with different ascribed and achieved status are formed with in a defined geographic space, the more likely we are to describe the area as urban. The size of one’s home, the neighbor hood in which one lives, the cat one drives and the clothing one arears are more important in determining a person’s status and identity than in more rural loca lities.
Rossides (1969) has also shown here modern economic tends to be separated from the home both physically and psychologically. Individual’s participation in the economy is determined by and depends on his qualification. An industrial economy emphases and recognizes individual achievement. An individual credentials especially those acquired through education and work experience in order to get a job, work is not assigned to persons based on family status as it obtained in rural or feudal economy.
Pred, A.B. (1976:151-171) asserted that migration of some family members to cities and industrial centers coupled with their acquisition of skill and money has implied the attainment of new economic status (socio-economic status) the migrants (workers) thus become economically independent from his immediate and extended family. He is therefore constrained to act rationally in order to enhance good standard of living in the household.
While urbanization has resulted in several cases to the dislocation and disintegration of the family structures, it has well nominally extended the social boundaries of kinship unit and it definition; for instance, a man in the city could relate so well with his neighbor as if he was his brother about large-scale disorganization in the outlook of the family.
According to Hurd (1973( capitalism is associated with urban economy and this characterized commercial relations, broom (1968) associated capitalism with the extensive use of machine in view of the need for increase productivity and the desire to maximize profits.
2.2 REVIEW OF RELEAVANT THEORIES
a. Socio-historical theory
b. Ecological theory
c. Push-pull theory
d. Situational theory
The theories that will be picked for this study are taken from the area of social change.
According to maogovet peil (1977:336) she assert that “All societies experience ascertain amount of change in the social structure and culture ovestime. Societies cannot remain stable because they are in contact with other societies, which do things differently, ideas, norms and social institution spread from one society to another through culture beaver”.
We would also look at some theories of urbanization and development in this study the break down of traditional economy (farming) the change in the land tenure system where communal laws no longer exist and the introduction of the new way of life like individualism are glaring examples of change among the people under study.
SOCIAL –HISTORICAL THEORY
According to our study of social change the proponents of this theory are Ibn khaldun, Arnold Toynbee and Oswal Spengler. We are going to look at their views in the study of urbanization on social changes in our society. These scholars assert that changes in society are at stages (physical movement) that is human life is thought of as enmeshed in vest historical cycles, rather in a particular linear direction. They see the process of changes coming as birth stage, stangnated stage and disintegration stage in social life.
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), a 16th century Tunisian philosopher and one of the pioneers of sociological thought. He explained this theory of change from the perspectives of two forms of social organization.
a. The nomadic, which is characterized by aggressions, self-determination, solidarity and co-operation.
b. The sedentary, which is also be found in “the muggaddimah”. Where he explores the manifold factors included in social change.
The processes of change are described in fow stages namely.
a. Overthrow: this has to do with previously existing system (culture) and establishment of a new one.
b. Consolidation which has to do with security control.
c. Leisure and tranquility. It has to do with stability and expansion in size.
d. Peace and preservation of what has been obtained (established) traditionalism
e. Degeneration has to do with waste, recklessness and alienation of the formal stage.
His theory of change is incisive with the following insights. He asserts that the historical method offers the best approach to understanding change. And the factors included in change are many and diverse, no single factor can ade quately account for change.
He continued that differencing forms of social organization created differing personality types.
Arnold Toynbee (1889) he sees a process of birth, growth, stagnation and disintegration in social life. Toynbee was interested in the study of society and civilization and sees society in the process of civilization in “dynamic motion along a course of change and growth”. To him societies (or civilization) arise out of responses to challenges that is in response to adverse conditions. A civilization emerges in the theories of struggle, and comes into being only by surmounting berries.
He assets that, the process of the growth of civilization refers to as “etherialization’s” meaning a shift of emphasis from some lower spheres of being to a higher. This implies the conquest of initial obstacles so that energy is released for responding to challenges, which are now internal rather than external and spiritual rather than material in native. Such growth means increasing self-determination and it involves differentiation between the parts of the society.
Oswald splengler. He also studied the socio-cultural changes in terms of a cyclic variation. He assert that. “The life cyclic of cultures”. Culture civilization pass through stages of birth, adolescent, nativity and delay and then birth or rebirth etc.
RELEVANCE TO STUDY
Socio-historical theory tend to study society from her primitive stage to when such society has attained urbanization processes which arises from the process of innovation found in the society. The theory also exposes where a particular stage is un-functional for another stage of change to take place.
The exponents of this theory are concerned with human ecology as regard man’s relationship to his environment so the human ecologist looked at the geographic conditions in the rise of cities. Scholars like Robert part, Ernest Burgess were interested in studying the rise of cities. The ecological theory is most represented by the Chicago school of human Ecology.
According to these scholars, the rise of any settlement is on concentric nucleys. Robert part a notable figwe of this school came up with a publication in about 1916. “Suggestions for the study of human behaviours in urban area” the following issues were raised by him, planning local organization, industrial organization and the moral order, secondary relations and social control. Temperament and the urban life and social stratification distinction.
RELEVANCE TO THE STUDY
Based on the argument from scholars, we have been able to conclude that, cities expand out ward from a single business district in the center, as was commonly true of industrial cities as a particular settlement begins to acquire commercial activities, such settlement begins to be urbanized.
We have also observed that, each model or stage has an important role to play for the development of a place.
This models that propel changes in the society bring about specialization among individuals of that place by getting involved into different businesses.
According to this theory we have “Bright light hypothesis which state that, they are certain basic infrastructure that attract individual from a particular residence to another.
We have the “pull” factors, which are these factors that could discharge individuals to with draw from an environment like violence, fear, unemployment, epidemic crisis whether religious or political.
While push factors are those that propel movement like education, industries, companies, infrastructure like good rads, electricity, good water and other social amenities that attract individual to change residence.
This movement could bring about more concentration of individuals in a particular area. This will tend to bring about urbanization process in that area.
RELEVANCE TO STUDY
The bright light hypothesis expires the behavior of individuals in rural areas to urban amenities. This theory helps in observing the conditions for urban crowding and others urban problems.
This theory exposes the attraction of better political, economic and social opportunities and increased amenities influence the direction of movement. We have also discovered factors, which encourages and that which inhabit movement. The decision to move or not to move results from the evaluation of all these factors.
The proponent of this theory is wolpert (1965). He asserts that, majority of the studies of rural urban mobility are characterized by the situational theory. It has two theoretical thrusts the first rests upon the models of rural-urban differences and focuses upon the problem of migrant adaptation as they move from one mile to another. The second concentrates upon the decision of the migrant involved in movement. The first these is said not to adequately describe the movement of people from rural to urban area such movement brings to the city, people whose values, attitudes and institutions have been developed in the country side. These personal attitudes do not simply disappear in the urban environment, especially when the rural migrant moves within a network of close personal ties, which aids his assimilation into the urban environment.
RELEVANCE TO STUDY
The development of cities according to the theory depends on the situations of the individuals.
We have observed that individuals have both negative and positive impulses in every destination they find themselves into these impulses in individuals tend to propel or withdraw development in society.
The involvement into investment by individual is as a result of positive impulses to bring about change in the social and economic sectors of the society.
2.3 THEORETICA FRAMEWORK
PUSH-PULL THEORY: According to this theory we have “Bringht light hypothesis” which state that, they we certain basic infrastructure that attract individuals from a particular residence to another.
We have the “pull” factors, which are these factors that could discharge individuals to withdraw from an environment like violence, fear, unemployment, epidemic crisis whether religion or political.
While push factors we those propel movement like education, industries, companies, infrastructure like good roads, electricity, good water and other social amenities that attract individual to change residence.
This movement could bring about more concentration of individuals in a particular area. This will tend to bring about urbanization process in that area.
2.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. There is no significant relationship between infrastructural development in urban center and high rural-urban migration in Ezzamgbo.
2. There is a direct relationship between rural-urban migration and decreasing agricultural production in Ezzamgbo.
3. There is a direct relationship between urbanization and increasing role of market in Ezzamgbo.
The above hypotheses will be used to study the impact of urbanization on the socio-economic development of Ezzamgbo. These hypotheses are intended to provide the necessary research guidance and value with a view to achieving the stated research objectives.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
Nachmias and Nachmias (1996) of proofed research design as a logical model of proof that allows the researcher to draw inferences concerning causal relations among variables under investigation.
However, the study adopts the survey research design which is seen as a mode of inquiry that combines a distinct method of data collection with distinct from analysis. The survey design is seen as the best method available to the social scientist who is interested in collecting original data and designing a population too large to observe directly. More son the essence of choosing this type of design is because it is particularly well as suited for the study of individual’s attitudes feeling and opinions.
3.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research focuses on the people Ezzamgbo in ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state. The neighbouring villages are as follows:
Amaike villages in the Northern part with population of 3.659; Ntwuakpa in the south with a population of about 35.875. umuagwa in the Eastern part with a population of about 4.815 and umuoru in the western part with a population of about 23.761.
This population census was based on 1963 Nigerian population census volume 2. The Ezzamgbo people shave a common language a common mythical kinship, smilar customs, folk ways, norms mores, religious beliefs and practices.
3.3 STUDY AREA
The area today called Ezzamgbo (Ohavkwu) is large compact settlement, which lies between 11. 2 kilometres East of the Abakaliki Ezzamgbo is 140.8 kilometres North west of Enugu and is located between latitude 5.5 and longitude 801a East (forde 1964:44).
The land enjoys drainage from the Abakaliki which criss-crosses the area in the form of streams. As at 1935, ford report that Ezzamgbo occupied a territory of 54.52 square kilometers. There were at least 4.64 on 5.8 square kilometers of continuous forest on the eastern borders and 1.16 square kilomaters of swampland in the north west.
The remaining 46.40 square kilometers of land was penetrated by a web of farming parths, which gives access to periodically cultivated tracts of land on either side as well as affording routes to neighboring village.
However, increase in population has reduced the amount of land that was previously uncultivated. The population in 1935 estimated to be 10, 900 by 1953, the figure is supposed to have risen to 17,567 in 1953, the figwe supposedly rose to 44, 945. Whereas the ohaukwu are thought by themselves and many observes to be increasing rapidly Dr. O.A. Ubi has cautioned on the danger of extrapolating based on these figures for certain years, may be under-estimated, and those for others over estimated.
Population pressure on residential land predisposes the Ezzamgbo people to build hamlets on the nearest tract of the farmland belong to the group. The extension is one of the residential testimonies and does not signify gradual separation from the parent linage. The (“umuoru”) as it is called, recognizes the strength of the “umuagawa”. The “Umuagwa “ is low mound of small bouders swmounted by some chalk-stained pots usually set in the shared of tree.
The “umuagwa” symbolizes the corporate identity of the patrician called the “imunwa nukwu” which means the people that born planty children. This traces linage from the man.
The Ezzamgbo traditions of origins are intricately connected with those of the izzi people as a whole (that is including Ntwuakpa, umuagwa, umuebe, Amaike, Amovu, umoru, Amachi). The common tradition is that the Ezzamgbo fore bears had initially settled in the East, in a place called “Isheke”. They has as neighbours the people of isheke junction, a settlement some 58 kilomiters away from Ezzamagbo territory, up the Abakaliki.
There are variations in the accounts of the place of original settlement. Chessman (1939) implies that the isheke had not migrated, which is to say, only the Nturuakpa and umuagwa had migrated from presumably somewhere close to isheke settment.
Rosemary Hovries (1965) suggests that the Ntwuakpa lived first in the hilly country to the Nouth of the Ebonyi State, or Abakliki, possibly in the region of the oshegbe hills and the umuoghwa hills, together with the people of Ntwuakpa and umuagara. Other neighours included the Isheke, ukwuachi, and Ezza Oshebe villages of present day isheke development center. Other were the umuoghwu “whose present location is known.
A contrasting academic view places the original settlement at Abakaliki urban CAS, called permanent site by the Ntwuakpa. Dr. Sam Egwu formal his excellency notes the bettermate involved as this name at the same time refers to the highland in the neighbour hood the isheke.
This bring development to Ntwuakpa and isheke which resulted that many people come to isheke and Ntwuakpa and live.
THE PRE-ECONOMY OF (EZZAMGBO) FARMAREAS
The farm lands in umuebe like it is called by the people of Ntwuakap are held by advent men individually and a man of middle age would have established rights to half a dozen sets of plots only one fifth of the aggregate area is however cultivated in any one year while the rest remain in bush to fallow.
One of the curliest task in “Ezzamgbo” was that of finding a method of estimating with reasonable accountancy the size of these farm plots. But the native of the cultivation and the laying out of the farms in “Ezzamgbo” permitted safe generation as to the mean once and variation of farm areas.
The process of clearing hoeing and planting farmlands proceeds piecemeal on each plot as the collective labour of a group of kinsmen becomes available to each individual in two. Apart of a dozen or so men clear a small stretch of bush day by day for each of their number in two.
According to forde (1964:p. 27) probably every household in Ezzamgbo produce some swflus, which is disposed of by sales. But the variation in the amounts areas great as the means of disposing of them various and some analysis is necessary before an attempt can be made to asses the importance of exchange production within the households or to estimate the amount of cash in come that are secured.
In the village market women made in a petty trade in foodstuffs, but it is very difficult to estimate this amounts of produce involved nor is there any hard and fast line between cash sales and barter. About half the women of the village dispose of small surpluses in this way as they become available. The traffic in yams, the stable foods, appears to be small in relation to the total harvest. Investigation of a sample group of household in 1935 revealed not merely a high degree of self-subsistence in yams, but also that surpluses we normally small and largely disposed of by gifts and sales among kinsfolk. Only 15 percent of men produced a surplus sufficiently large to be offered for sale to an outside trader for export from the village, while less than half the men and a quarter of the women sold any yams in quantity. Excluding yams disposed of in petty barter, the aggregate surplus probably amounted to less than 3 percent of the main harvest and of this less than half left the village, on the other land on account of their value, a man with a considerable yam surplus, such as sea, could at a typical village price of 7:5 per sales of palm-kernels.
The trade in European goods varies even more in scale. On the one hand, there are a few well-established specialist traders who do not farm, have several assistants and cover a wide circuit of village markets.
At the other extreme are a considerable number of young men who with a loan of a few shillings travel to Abakaliki or Enugu to buy a few lengths of cloths which they attempt to sell at a profit on their, return.
Most traders have their favourite ‘lines’ but there is a good deal of overlapping. The majority sells cloth and combines this with other goods as opportunity offers. The outstanding trade goods brought to the village are clothes and others clothing in considerable variety, salt, stockfish, yellow soap, hardware, especially animal boulds and machetes, matches, lumps of sugar, consumed by the women and children as a sweet med, gunpowder patent medicines and miscall aneous personal articles such as beads, combs, mirrors and pomades.
With the development of carrying road services in the country west of the Ebonyi state; Enugu and Abakaliki have largely markets from which cloth traders get their supplies but kernel and oil traders taking supplies to Abakaliki frequently buy trade goods there fore resale at Ezzamgbo, to all cases these are mostly brought at their ordering retail prices in the European or Syrian stores.
In summary, according to forde (1964:47). The level of output and consumption in Ezzamgbo (ohukwu) have been presented above, for a small household unit of one man, one wife and two young children. It should, however be emphasized that the more energetic and prosperous men have in the recent past had two or three wives.
At the same time a considerable number of the petty traders are young men who have not yet taken up farm of their own and contribute to their parents household outputs both from their trading receipts and by help in farm work at busy times. There are therefore a considerable number of households containing from three to six adults and these are generally the most active in the community.
From the sales of palm products and considerable surplues of yams, they appear to secure a cash income hundred drive there from a comparatively large item of cash income.
Most constructional materials such as raffia poles and thatching leaves are produced by the men of each household, but there is a considerable demand for dried liames and other fibres for use as roping in house-building and yam typing. This is in parchment by supplies provided by the younger men who will collect for sale up to a dozen or so bundles at about 6 each in the course of the year.
Palm-wine is reduced for local consumption edible. Palm-oil is made from fresh fruit for local use and most important of all, palm-oil and palm-kernels are produced for expert. Nearly all the more active men tap palm-trees for wine and a very large proportion of them sell part of their supplies to others in the village. A fairly active palm-wine producer can probably make los or so in the course of the year by sale of his surplus win at the local price which varies from 1/2d to 11/2d calabash as about half a gallon, while those concentrating on palm-wine-collection, who we, however few can even more than in this way.
TOTAL HOUSHOLD SALES
According to forde (1964 p:30). An inquiry into retions from production for exchange among the 81 men of one king group showed that three in four produced and sold a surplus of any of the leading exchange products, but non of them produced surplus of all. The quantities and values after each category of produce exported from the village was appropriately 60 percent of the total value of sales. Since the number of men deriving considerably cash income from other activities remunerated outside the village, i.e a fuel itinerant traders, road laboures, etc is very small, the bulk of the cash-payments for locally purchased native produce must be ultimately derived from the sales of produced leaving the village. In other words, sales a of produced outside the village are the only substantial source of new funds.
If the group studied be taken to be a representative sample of the village as a whole, the average cash income per house hold from sales of men’s products, omitting petty traffic and occasional and exception items such as stock would be appreciated 75.5.
While the sum reviewed from external sales average only about 9.5 per household. These estimates omit one important source of household income from produce, namely that received by wives from more their proportionately greates than the norm for a small household as estimated above.
On the other hand, there are ‘poor relations’ generally members of small households who through disability or misfortune, have out puts well below the general level. In many such cases both the men and women offer their labour at times of planting and harvesting in ration for payments in yams which enable them to make up the differences in their own farms outputs.
The economic condition of Ezzamgbo (ohaukwu) of the household ranges from that of a prominent man who may be head of his word, and a leader in one or more clubs, with several wives and males dependants and whose income from various sources, including consideration money in connection with court cases, may exceed $10 a year, with saving at between $20 to $40, to feed very poorly, and can barely afford to buy a single cloth and a few utensils in the course of a whole year.
According to forde (1964:p:53), the socio-political composition of the people of Ezzamgbo (ohaukwu) is made up double-lineages. The family (“Ogbaekirijwe), the patrician (Nwaforodono”) or matridan (“Amadi”) the village (“Okenwakpu”) and (chibueze Agbo”) and (Okenwaugama”).
The village is the highest functioning political units is divided into woods which are divided into lineages, which in turn are divided into families-the minimal political unit within the family, “political loyalty was spoke n of in the idion if kinship and the political composition of the family was explained by reference to descent-matrilineal or pats rilianeal (Dr. O.A. Ubi, 1998:158), outside the patrician status is established at word level, not village as a whole.
The patrician was headed by a leader referred to as “Okenwa Ugama”. He was usually the oldest man traditional, and by implication the head of his extended family (“Ogbaekirigwe”). He was the custodian of the (“Nturuakpa” and “umuagwa” and performed rites to ensure peace among members of his family in dispute. It was his function to allot from land and to member of the Ntwuakpa and to generally represent the Ntwuakpa in meetings with other “Umu ebe”.
The several words (Ntwuakpa”), which made up the village were themselves composed of adjacent dwelling areas (“Aamaike”) of up to a alozen or more patrician “Amaike”). Patrician in a word “may have traditions of ultimate common descent, but this is exceptional and in no sense a sanction for membership of the same word. (Forde,, 1964:135).
The words had their leaders in the “umuagwa”. The “umuagwa” were” a self-requited and self-prepetuating body of notable including holders of prominent rituals offices.” The “umuagwa”, were expected to ensure peace and stability within their respective words. Those cases of inter-wards disputes usually including individuals of different’ umuoru’ and therefore defying # settlement by the “Amovu” were referred to the “umuagwa”. The “Amovu” was the head of the “umuagwa” and it was the “Amovu” who guaranteed peaceful political co-existence between his and other wards (Forde, 1964:143).
At the maximal level, the village, the council of “ofeobodo” priests (the “Obolobo”) featuked most prominently. The “ofeobodo” were the priests of fertility spirits with cults linked to the spirit. The priests were referred to as “obolobo” (Itutara dance). The council was composed of 10 priests of fertility spirit. Each fertility spirit )”Itutara dance”) was associated with one or more of the 23 dispersed materidans recognized in the village, people appointed to ceremonial offices became “obolobo” (for instance the “over ofeobodo” Head of the village magicians).
The “Itutara dance” of the Ezzamgbo” (fertility spirit) became automatically the head of the “ofeobodo” and as such, the “Okenwa Ugama” (Head of the village).
The fertility spirit of which he was the “Itutara dance) was not seen as being monopolized by one or so matridan-as is the case of other “Gisls” but was seen as belonging to the entire village as a whole. The prestige of the “Ezzamgbo” derived from the important rituals they collectively performed the “Ezzamgbo” announced times for commencement of seasonal activities. They imposed customary times for recalcitrance. Disputes, which proved reconcilable at the clan or ward level were referred to the “ofeobody”. The “ofeobodo” functions as a civil and criminal court. The authority of the “ofeobodo” was moral and derived in major poot from the supernatural sanctions if could invoke. A very severe punishment, which could be noted out by the “ofeobodo”, was to refuse the different entry to the “obolobo” of his own “Itumara dance play ground”). The “ofeobodo” and the possible extension of this sanction to other members of his Itutara dance play ground”. The “ofeobodo” could also prevent an offender from leaving or entering the dwelling until recompense was made.
In conclusion, the political administration of Ezzamgbo was initially premised on moral authority of the “Ntwuakpa” at the ward level. The ward was Ezzamgbo the leadership of the “Ogba ekirigwe” who was expected to intervene to compose any serious disputes between members of different patricians to maintain friendly relations with other wards and to represent their own matters of trespass on lands or other property involving wards (forde: 1964:143).
The “Ntwakpa” were priest of several mortician fertility spirit (“Itutara dance”). The primary “Itutara dance” was the “priest” and its (“Itwara dance”) (priest) was automatically the “ofeobodo” head of all the villages now called clan head.
The introduction of Native authority like courts, first at Nturuakpa in umuagara, then at Ezzamgbo further areakened the strength of traditional institutions, for instance warrant chiefs who were chosen on ward basis replaced the “ofeobodo” in importance from the British point of view and with time, the Ezzamgbo point of view as well.