RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: BUREAUCRACY AND PROBLEMS OF INEFFICIENCY IN NIGERIA’S CIVIL SERVICE


CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1                               RESEARCH DESIGN


                     Research design is determined by the nature of the research problem and purpose of study. The research design sampling survey method which entails the distribution of analysis of question to arrive at a dependable answer to any problem.

3.2                               AREA OF STUDY


                     The area of covered by the research is limited to only the Enugu State Civil Service.

3.3                               SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION


                     The researcher used two major sources to collect the necessary data for the analytical review of Bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency. These sources are primary and secondary sources.

PRIMARY SOURCES:

                     One of the primary sources as the administering of the questionnaires. The researcher adopted the method of setting out questionnaire which were designed specifically to get useful information for the analysis of Bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency. The question was set out in simple and direct language devoid of ambiguity to avoid misunderstanding by the respondents which may lead to incorrect information. The information required in the questionnaire includes: sex, qualification, length of service, age, grade level.

                     Another primary source of data collection was through personal interview. The workers were personally interviewed by the researcher. The advantage of this to get some facts that were not provided in the questionnaire. The interview conducted was deliberately designed to checkmate the tendency of questionnaire being filled by other workers different from these that were given the questionnaire.

SECONDARY SOURCES:

                     The secondary source of data was gathered from textbooks, journals newspaper, magazine and pamphlets. 

3.4                               INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION


                     For this study, the instrument employed includes questionnaire which was purely structured questions. The method was preferred in order to obtain clear information. It allows respondent to air their own individual opinions.

3.5                               POPULATION OF THE STUDY


                     The total population of the people under study amounted to five thousand (5000) which represents the Enugu State Civil Service staff strength. But because of the limitations mentioned earlier, only the Enugu State Civil Servants at Enugu, the State headquarter were used for the study. The 5000 workers are made up 1100 serious staff, 1800 intermediate and 2100 junior staffs.

3.6                               SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE TECHNIQUE


                     The sample size of this research work is determined using Yaro Yamini formular
 
 
 n = N   .
1+ N(e)2
 
Where n=sample size

                     n=population of study

                     i=constant

                     e=minimum error in calculation or margin of error (0.052)

n = ?

N = 5000, e­2 = 0.052


n =      5000     .

1+5000(0.0025)

=         5000     . = 400

          12.5

3.7                               VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT


                     An expert in educational administration and supervision critically examined the instrument for relevance of the context and effectiveness to the problem under investigation. Corrections were made and irrelevant items were discarded.

                     To establish the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used a text retest technique. The materials were administered to the respondents at the intervals of ten days. It was discovered that most of the answers get co-related with the first result of questionnaire. It was this result that convinced the investigator to pass a judgment that the instrument used was reliable.

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