DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
The total of 300 copies of the questionnaire is distributed. 286 are retrieved, 6 were not filled, because the respondents claim to have been busy, 4 were unreturned, while 4 were invalid for this study. It means that 4.67% of the questionnaires were invalid, leaving 95.33% as the response rate to this research. Data are examined with reference to questionnaire responses obtained and the research questions, as formulated in chapter one.
4.1 Table 1: Gender Classification Sex Male Respondents 176 Percentage 62% 38% 100%
Female 110 Total 286
From the table, 176 respondents representing 62% are males while 110 (38%) are females. It shows that more of the responses are from males than from females. Table 2: Age
Distribution Age 18-24 25-34 35-50 Respondents 50 70 90 Percentage 17% 24% 32% 27% 100% 50&above 76 Total 286
The table indicates that 90 of the respondents, which is 32%, are between the ages of 35 and 50. Those within the age of 50 and above are 76, representing 27%. Next to this, in order of descendency, is other 70 respondents (24%) who are between the ages of 25 to 34, while the young people in the age bracket of 18-24 are 50 in 30 number, accounting for only 17%. This implies that more adults responded to the issues in the questionnaire than young people. Table 3: Educational Qualification Qualification SSCE Diploma Degree and Above Total Respondents Percentage 80 95 111 286 28% 33% 39% 100%
From the table, 80 respondents, representing 28% are SSCE holders. Diploma certificate holders who are 95 in number account for 33%, while those with degree and above are numbering 111 (39%). It appears that acquisition of higher certificates has a positive correlation effect on interest in radio messages.
Table 4: Occupational Distribution Occupation Civil servant Respondents Percentage 100 35% 31% 26% 8% 100%
Businessmen/women 90 Students Others Total 74 22 286
In the table, 100 (35%) of the respondents are civil servants. Businessmen/women are 90 in number representing 31%. They are followed in descending order by 74 students who represent 26%, while "others" are 22 in number (8%). This shows that more civil servants are interested in EBBC programme.
Table 5: EBBC Programme Listenership Question Do you listen Responses to Yes Respondents Percentage 251 20 15 286 88% 7% 5% 150% programmes on EBBC, Sometimes Abkaliki? No Total
From the table, 251 respondents listen to programmes on EBBC. This is 88% of the total. 20 of them representing 7% listen "sometimes", while the remaining 5% is represented by 15 respondents who do not listen to EBBC programmes.
Table 6: Level of Listenerhip Question How often do Frequency you Regularly Respondents Percentage 45 141 100 286 15% 50% 35% 100% listen to programmes Occasionally on EBBC? Rarely Total
This table shows that 141 respondents (50%) have an occasional listenership level to EBBC programmes. But while 100 respondents, the percentage of which is 35, listen rarely, 45 respondents, representing 15% listen regularly. This implies that EBBC has a low listenership level. 4.1.1 Research Question (1) "Does ownership structure relationship between the have any effect on the audience and a media organization". Items 7, 8 and 9 in the questionnaire answer this question.
Table 7: Message Trustworthiness Question Responses Respondents Percentage 64 22.4% 60.1% 17.5% 100% Do you trust the No messages you hear Sometimes 172 from EBBC? Yes Total 50 286
This table indicates that 60.1% of the respondents numbering 172 trust the messages from EBBC "Sometimes." 22.4% of them which is 64 in number answered that they do not trust the messages at all, while 17.5% representing 50 of the respondents agree that they trust EBBC messages. This shows that the programmes of EBBC have low audience trust and confidence.
Table 8: Reasons for Low Audience
Trust Question Responses Respondents Percentage 65 23% 33%
What makes you Bad presentation not to trust the Undue ownership 96 message? influence Issues discussed 45 16% are not topical Lack of touch with 80 the stations 28% audience needs Total 286 100%
In this table, "undue ownership influence" makes 96 of the respondents not to trust EBBC programmes. This represents 33%. 80 (28%) of them say it is the station's lack of touch with its audience needs that makes them not to trust EBBC messages, while 65 (23%) hinge their reason on bad presentation. However 45 (16%) indicate that their distrust arises from the issues discussed not being topical.
Table 9: Relationship between Media Ownership and Audience
Question Responses Respondents 160 50 76 Percentage 56% 17% 27% Degree 2020 610 970 3600
Does ownership Yes affect relationship with EBBC? Total your No Not really 286 100%
The table shows that 160 of the respondents, representing 56% agree that ownership affects station audience relationship, while 50 (17%) of them say "No". However, 76, the percentage of which is 27 ticked "not really". A close look at the table reveals that those who say yes are more than the other two categories of respondents put together.
Figure 1 illustrates the data more clearly.
Scale: 1% = 3.60 Total: 360 = 100% 970 Not Really 610 NO
Figure 1: Pie chart showing relationship between media ownership and audience
4.1.2 Research Question (2) "Does such a relationship have any effect on the credibility of the mediated message?" Items 10, 11 and 12 in the questionnaire address the question. Table 10: Nature of Relationship Question How Responses Respondents Percentage 26% does Familiarity with the 75 ownership affect station programmes. your relationship Credibility problems 98 with the station? for the station's 34% programme Interest in the 60 21% station's programmes Respect station Total 286 100% for the 53 19%. From the table, the respondents share themselves in a close range manner among the four options. While 98 of them constituting 34% agree that credibility problem for the station's programmes is the effect of ownership on their relationship with EBBC, 75 (26%) say it is familiarity with the station's programmes. 21% of them numbering 60 opt for interest in the station's programmes, leaving the remaining 53 others representing 19% to maintain that their respect for the station is engendered by ownership.
Table 11: Relationship between Ownership and Media Credibility
Respondents 182 31 73 286
Percentage 64% 10% 26% 100%
Does ownership affect Yes credibility for a media No organization? Not sure Total
The table shows that 64% numbering 182 of the respondents agree that ownership affect credibility of media organization. Ambivalence is, however, the lot of 73 of them, representing 26% who ticked not sure; while only 31 (10%) say no. Below in figure II is a bar chart presenting the data in a clearer manner. Key 70 A Yes
Percentage in (10s)
60 B No 50 C Not sure 40 30 20 10
Figure II: Bar chart showing the relationship between ownership and media credibility
Table 12: Reason for Ownership Influence on Media Credibility Question Why Responses Respondents Percentage 35% do Owners have right to set 100 you think vision & mission for the ownership influences media media Owners decide to or not 76 to invest in the media 22% 27% credibility? Owners make policies 64 for the media Owners decide who to or 46 not to appoint Total 286 16% 100%
From the table, right of owners to set vision and mission for the media, forms the reason for ownership influence on media credibility to the highest number of respondents totaling 100, which is 35%. Next, in the same descending order, is 76 (27%) respondents who hold that owners' decision to or not to invest in the media is the reason for ownership influence on media credibility. 64 of the respondents representing 22%, agree that the right of owners to make policies influences media credibility, while 46 (16%) say the reason for influence is that owners decide who to or not to appoint in the media.
4.1.3 Research question (3) "What are the undue ownership influences that affect credibility of mediated messages". This is answered by items 13, 14 and 15 in the questionnaire.
Table 13: How Ownership Influences Media Credibility Question In Responses respondents Percentage 37% your Through deciding to 106 or not to invest can Through setting 60 opinion, how 21% ownership influence media credibility? visions & mission for the media. By effective 77 27% management patterns & practices By deciding who to 43 or not to employ. Total 286 100% 15%. The table indicates that 106 respondents representing 37% believe owner's decision to or not to invest influences media credibility. 77 (27%) respondents say media credibility is influenced by owners through effective management practice while 60 of the respondents accounting for 21% agree that the influence is through owner's right to set missions & visions for the media. Still, 43 (15%) of the respondents are of the view the influence on credibility is through owners decision of who to or not to employ. Table 14: Problems of
Respondents Percentage 180 36 70 63% 13% 24%
Are there problems to Yes owner's effort to boost No the credibility of Not sure mediated messages? Total 286 100%
In the table above, 180 (63%) of the respondents agree that there are problem to owners effort to boost credibility of mediated messages. 36 (13%) say no, while 24% numbering 70 are not sure. Table 15:
Nature of Problems
What can be Undue responsible ownership 98 in interference for widening media operations credibility Lack of touch with 73 26% 940 gaps between audience needs & media organizations and aspirations. Social 50 17% 610 830 3600 their irresponsibility Lack of requisite 65 expertise Total 286 100% 23% audiences?
From the table, 98 respondents making up to 34%, ticked "undue ownership interference in media operations" as responsible for widening credibility gap between media organizations and their audience, 73 (26%) say it is "lack of touch with audience needs & aspirations".
"Lack of requisite expertise" is identified by 23% numbering 65, while 50 remaining respondents, representing 17% ticked social irresponsibility. It is therefore evident that undue ownership interference in media operations is mostly responsible for widening credibility gap between media organizations and audiences.The pie chart in figure III further illustrates this information for more clarification.
Undue ownership interference in media operations 1220
Scale: 1% = 3.60 Total: 100% = 3600
Lack of touch with audience needs & aspirations 940
Lack of requisite. Expertise 830
670 Social irresponsibility
Figure III: Pie chart showing problems of media credibility
4.1.4 Research Question (4)
"What are the solutions to credibility slump?" is answered by item 16 in the questionnaire.
Table 16: Solutions to Credibility Slump Question What Responses Respondents Percentage 18% do Train media 50 you think is personnel the solution Total quality 155 54% to negative management ownership influence on media Professionalism 81 28% credibility? Total 286 100%
The table shows that an overwhelming number of respondents, 155 (54%) agree that total quality management will build media credibility. 81 of them representing 28%, however ticked "professionalism", while 50 (18%) ticked "train media personnel". The bar chart below helps to illustrate the responses very clearly.
Percentage in (10s)
A Train media personnel
B Total quality management
50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C
Figure IV: Bar chart showing solutions to credibility slump
4.2 Discussion of Findings Several striking findings are made from the data gathered in course of this research work. Three reasons account for this. First, the research instrument was administered face-to-face to the respondents in their homes and offices, and the convenience of their privacy raised the response rate of this research. Secondly, the topic under study and the choice of EBBC as case study was relevant as the station has been off and on recently. The choice of the sample also contributed. The following paragraphs will now interpret the findings of this research. It is discovered that the educated adults listen to EBBC programme occasionally. The research also shows that majority of the listeners are civil servants and businessmen and women who probably wish to know the activities in government (their chief employer and policy maker) and in the society at large. Of all the 286 respondents, 90 (32%) are between the ages of 35 and 50. Next in a descending order are 76 others aged 50 and above. They account for 27%. And 66% of these adults are civil servants and business men/women. This implies that EBBC programmes have a specialized audience. For Research Question (1), which sought to know whether ownership structure has any effect on the relationship between the audience and a media organization, the study discovers that there is a relationship between a medium and its audience. 160 (56%) of the respondents agreed to this. Such a relationship, according to the findings of the study, is tied mainly on ownership structure and dispositions. This is the consensus of 96 persons (33%). 28% say it is lack of touch with station audience needs. 23% are in favour of bad presentation while 16% ticked "issues discussed are not topical". Specifically, the study shows that owner's disposition and influence on mediated message can quite be undue and repulsive. Hence, such undue influence engenders distrust on the mediated message. One hundred and seventy-two (172) respondents (60.1%) say they don't trust EBBC messages "sometimes" as a result of the foregoing reasons. 64 respondents (22.4%) say they don't trust EBBC messages at all for the same reason. Lovas' (2009:1) research on "Credibility and Likeability" though not on media per se, but on business organizations, concurs that owing to dozens of bad apples which destroy the entire industry, right now, the world does not care about you or your values. They don't believe what you say and are skeptical about our intentions. From the above backdrop, the study juxtaposes ownership influence and credibility of mediated message, which is the thrust of Research Question (2) and discovers that media owners manipulate the level of credibility enjoyed by their media establishment mainly, through adoption of different management patterns and practices. This is the agreement of 64% of the respondents. By exercising their entrepreneurial/managerial right of setting mission, (35% of respondents agreed) making policies (according to 22%) and deciding investment rates, (in the view of 27%), owners influence the credibility of mediated messages. Little wonder that some audience centred management approaches and aggressive social positioning strategies have been developed by scholars and researchers to enhance operational efficiency. (Mboho 2005:7, Olaisen, 1990:92) For Research Question (3), which was on the problems of media credibility, 63% of the respondents agree that there are problems to efforts to boost credibility of mediated messages. Among other problems such as lack of touch with audience needs, which account for 26%, lack of requisite expertise and social irresponsibility, both of which are favoured by 40% of the respondents, 34% of the respondents from the findings of the study, pin-point undue ownership interference in media operations as mainly responsible for widening credibility gaps between media organizations and their audiences. Referring to this type of situation, Sawant (2000: 28) observes that internal pressures from proprietors play their own role in interfering with the impartiality and objectivity of the media. Interestingly, however, the answers to the fourth research question which was on solution to credibility slump, reveal that total quality management will wave the magic wand on negative ownership influence on media credibility. This is supported by 54% of the responses. Scholars such as DeFleur (1970) and Klapper (1960) have noted the importance of audience satisfaction in media output and agree that editors must be concerned with total quality delivery if they want to be adjudged as excellent by staff and audience. In consonance with the above findings, Lovas (2009:1) cautions that in your efforts to rebuild your reputation from the ashes, you need to learn what your prospects' values are. Then ask which of these values your values are also. It is the values you share that will be your most powerful connection with that person. That connection will buy you a moment in time, and in that moment you can begin to activate the process of developing credibility. So far, this research has established that ownership of media organizations affects credibility of mediated messages, most times on the negative side. The negative effect comes through undue interference in media operations, among other factors. It is discovered that total quality management is the solution to credibility problems. In sum, therefore, influence of ownership on media credibility is profound, most times degenerating to ultimate distrust of the mediated message. However, the key to building high credibility lies in total quality management.
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