SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES
DEPARTMENT: SCIENCE AND COMPUTER EDUCATION
DEGREE IN VIEW: M. Sc. Ed
TITLE OF DISSERTATION
EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL TEACHING APPROACH ON PUPIL’S ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Since Nigeria gained her independence in 1960 government has placed premium on the teaching of science and technology at all levels of basic Education. This is due to the realization that knowledge in basic science and technology is central and indispensable to the development of every Nigerian child. Science and technology play crucial roles in the child’s survival, adjustment, and adaptation to the child’s immediate and wider societies dominated by scientific activities. Any child that lacks the basic knowledge in science and technology cannot participate meaningfully in some social activities. For instance, for a child to utilize effectively the global system for mobile (GSM) communication such child must know how to manipulate number and scientific symbols, since the operation of mobile phone depends on the manipulation of numbers and scientific symbols. Based on this the Federal government of Nigeria (FGN) made the study of science and technology compulsory at all levels of basic schools. This is to ensure that every Nigerian child is science literate. Secondly it is aimed at laying solid foundation for children’s further study of science and technology and allied courses. For instance one of the objectives of the Basic Education according to Nigerian government is laying of solid foundation for scientific and reflective thinking (FRN 2004) to accomplish the above, government stated that “there will be entrenchment of basic science teaching in the basic school curriculum” (FRN 1986). But despite those lofty objectives in science and technology, records available indicated abysmal achievement in science by Nigerian basic school pupils. For instance, the 1999 UNICEF/UNESCO/FME study on monitoring learning Achievement (MLA) reported pupils’ national average score of 32% in science with males’ mean score of 32.73% and S.D 18.10 and female with mean score of 32.96% S.D of 18.29. Another MLA study conducted by universal Basic Education commission (UBEC) in 2003 reported the national mean score in science and technology of 40.33 with S.D 17.93, while the score of Ebonyi state in the study was 37.93% with S.D 16.58. The male mean score for Ebonyi State is 36.13 and S.D 16.43 while female had a mean score of 39. 43 and S.D of 16.63 (UBEC 2007). In 2006, another UBEC MLA study reported national mean score of 40.78 and S.D of 15.43 (UBEC 2009). UBEC (2007:145) attributed this pupils’ abysmal performance to “teachers” not teaching the subject well which leads to pupils’ dislike of the subject”. Teachers neglect the fact that science teaching and learning involves process skills. They rather adopt traditional method of teaching of science where the teachers supply all information and pupils commit the knowledge to memory. It is against this backdrop that made Nwazojie and Nworgu (2003), Ling and Boo (2007) to independently point out the current method of teaching science in basic schools is often didactic (teacher centred) and does not engage pupils ’ knowledge effectively. Nworgu and Nwazoji (2003:120) therefore lamented that such approach emphasizes rote memorization and regurgitation o f fact, pupil’s activities are given less emphasis”. UBEC (2009:409) lamented that “this causes for a great concern because low percentage of pupils having adequate knowledge and understanding of basic science is unacceptable if the country is to attain scientific and technological advancement”. Worried by this development, science Education researchers have been seeking for alternative teaching approach that will enhance the achievement of government’s science Education objectives. this study is one of those numerous efforts. The general objective of this study is to examine effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in science and technology while in specific terms; the study will investigates effects of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in Basic Science and technology, effects of experiential teaching approach on male and female pupils’ achievement in Basic Science Technology (BST) and interaction effect of methods and gender on pupils’ achievement in Basic Science and technology.
This study is a quasi-experimental study. The design for the study is the pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent, control group design. Intact classes were used for the study. The participants for this study were drawn from six basic (primary) schools in Onueke Education zone of Ebonyi State. The schools were chosen through simple random sampling. Three of the schools served as experimental group while the other three served as control group. Balloting was used to assign schools to experiment and control groups. The research instrument for the study is the Basic science and Technology Achievement Test (BSAT). This instrument was constructed by the researcher. It consists of 40 multiple choice items with four options; it measures pupils’ performance in selected topics in Basic science and technology. The items evaluated only the lower cognitive process because of the level of subjects in the study. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by experts in measurement and evaluation and some serving teachers. A reliability co-efficient of 0.83 was obtained from the instrument using Kuder-Richardson (K-R20) formula. It also has a stability index of 0.77 which was obtained form a test and retest carried out within an interval of two weeks. The researcher used regular basic six (6) teachers of the experimental schools as research Assistants. A training programme was organized to prepare them on how to use the experimental and control packages prepared by the researcher, as may be applicable to each group. All Necessary instructions were given to them. Necessary materials were also supplied to them. BSAT was administered to each group as pretest and post test, before and after the experiment respectively. In the experimental group, the children were divided into small groups of six children per group with equal number of gender. The experimental group was taught Basic science and technology using experimental teaching package while the control group was taught the same topic using the conventional teaching approach. However, the researcher supervised instructional delivery in the two groups the study lasted for two months. At the end of the eight weeks the research assistants administered the post test to both groups. They marked the scripts and handed them over to the researcher. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data.
The results reveal that the experiential teaching approach enhanced higher achievement in basic science and technology as the treatment group recorded X-57.7, S.D 14 against control group score of X = 41.46 and S.D 13.90. This result is statistically significant at alpha level of 0.05 as Fcal of 482.92 is greater than Fcv 3.84. Furthermore it was shown that the method enhances achievement for both male and female pupils as males recorded X = 56.58 S.D 13.68 while females had X = 59.03, S.D = 14.42. Even though there is slight difference in their mean achievement scores, the difference is not statistically significant as Fcal = 2.122 is less than Fcv = 3.84. Finally the result showed that there is no interaction between teaching method and gender on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology as means for males are 56.58 and 41.32 for experimental and control groups respectively the means score for female are 59.03 and 41.58 for experimental and control respectively. This scores are not statistically significant as Fcal=1.011 is less than Fcv =3.84. Those results therefore show that experiential teaching approach will lead to the achievement of government’s objectives in science education if teachers adopt it as a teaching approach in schools.
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