VARIOUS FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN NIGERIA: COMPLETE PROJECT TOPIC



CHAPTER ONE
1.1                                    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
            The preamble to the charter f the United Nations sets as are of the organization central goals the re-affirmation of “faith in fundamental human rights in the dignity and worth of the human person in the equal right of men and women[1]
            Article 1 proclaims that one of the purposes of the United Nations is to achieve international co-operation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to sex.

Article 6 of OIC[2] declaration of human rights in Islam states
“Woman is equal to man in human dignity and has rights to enjoy as well as duties to perform; she has her own civil entity and financial independence and the right to retain her name and lineage”
            Article 1 of the United Nations convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against woman of 1979, (heretofore referred to as the 1979 convention or CEDAW)[3] as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women irrespective of their mental status, on a basis of equality of men and women of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, society, cultural, art, or and other fields.
            As defined by the CEDAW, discrimination is symptomatic of a situation where patterns of structural inequality are maintained by rules, norms and procedures that dictate a subordinate role for women in all spheres of society. This call for an end to all forms of discrimination against women emphasizes the need for radical re-definition of the process and content of economic, social and political development.
            The constitution[4] provides in section 42, that a citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, region or political opinion shall not, by reason end that he is such a person.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
            The discrimination against women in relation to the rights of women in Nigeria, stresses the need for a holistic orientation which acknowledges the vital role of women in development and Engineers their integration into development processes as equal partners with men. The legal and substantive protection of women on both domestic and regional as well as international levels must be coordinated for more meaningful enhancement of both the status and situation of women.
            The cultural differences and approaches towards the rights of women as well as the international rights and their existence thereof. The existence and defence of national, regional and international rights of Nigerian women against discrimination then must necessarily be located within Nigerians particular historical experience form the pre-colonial and to contemporary times. The international human rights literature tends to view discrimination as been conceptualization as involving the denial of self determination to women. The discrimination as resulting from the creation, maintenance and perpetuation of structures of inequality against women as opposed to men. The legislative and governmental discrepancy of being more responsible to the international regime of human rights, do not pay sufficient attention to indigenous philosophies and traditions about respecting human rights, perpetuating the notion that the only way to generate human rights in Nigeria is to blame all contemporary human rights abuses on the persistence of traditional mores.

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTIONS


This research work tends to poise the followed questions;
·        What are the roles and contribution of the convention against all forms of discrimination against women and its effect on         Nigeria women?
·        What is obtainable in Nigeria as regards access to justice in issues pertaining discrimination against women?
·        What are the cultural, traditional and ethnic barriers limiting the basis for the accession of the convention in Nigeria?
·        In what ways, have structures of inequality been created in       the society and how do these structures affects the role of women in contemporary Nigeria?
·        How is compliance with existing law to be enhanced in order    to generate practical results?

1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.   This research work seeks to identify various forms of discrimination against women in Nigeria
2.   This research work further seeks to identify and find out the factors responsible for the discrimination against women and their rights in accordance with international, domestic and cultural laws.
3.   The research work also tends to identify the role of the international convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women on the rights of women in Nigeria.
4.   The research work seeks to identify the various rights of   women in Nigeria and all other applicable statutes regarding           human right specifically discrimination against women.
5.   The research work most importantly seeks to strengthen the applicability, ratification of the convention to eliminate discrimination on the rights of women in Nigeria and the measures that should be undertaken by the government and private sector to redress the menace.

1.5       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
            With regards to this research work, materials will be drawn from sources which have been classified to primary and secondary sources.
            Under the primary sources, reference will be made to various textbooks on rights of women, fundamental human rights case books, journals and statutory enactments most importantly the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women 1948.
            The secondary sources include the views of various legal scholars and articles on the topic of discrimination against women in Nigeria, there is also reference to quite a number of internet sources and also newspaper reports and articles.

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY   
            This work after all research and analysis aims to achieve certain aims and solve problems which are being encountered by Nigeria women in all works of life.
This study aims to provide solutions which include;
·        The adequate and equitable representation of all women all         over the country in all respects of our national life, the             affirmative action of proportionate representation of not less             than 30% will be pursued.
·        Pursuing legislation for the abolition of all forms of harmful        practices against women.
·        Empowerment of women through sustained advocacy main          streaming women concerns and perspective in all policies and             programmes.
·        Domestication of all United Nations resolutions bothering on      The Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
·        Incorporation of the CEDAW Act in Nigeria being pursued           with    giant strides

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY
            The areas covered in this research work are basically issues pertaining to the rights of women in Nigeria with particular reference to the international convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. This is the geographical scope of the study.
            The various forms of discrimination against women in all works of life from rural areas to constitutional and work place discrimination with particular insights from jurists and eminent scholars on human rights. The reason for which this research is carried out is a result of the high increase in discriminatory practices against women in Nigeria in relation to property acquisition and intestate matters.
            Furthermore, the barrage of reservation by state parties to the convention based on cultural affinities and religious sentiment to the convention based on cultural affinities and religious sentiments which offer them a loophole to easily escape from the very essence of the convention. The research work tends to align the varying concepts, issues and ground work available to proffer a relative solution to the issues of discrimination against women in Nigeria.

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
            The issue of discrimination against women is a well known human right situation with the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women being a renowned international convention is basically a law on paper which has no weight attached to it by the state parties.
            In Nigeria as a case study, the CEDAW Act has little or no legal backing in terms of enforcement therefore making it very tedious to carryout research, the unavailability of adequate case laws to support the research work is as a result of non implementation of CEDAW.
            Furthermore, lack of statistical data in the area of domestic violence, prostitution and women and children’s health limited the research work as empirical research was not attainable.
 

[1]  N Universal declaration of fundamental human rights 1948
[2] Organization of Islamic countries
[3] Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
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