The review of related literature will be carried out under the following sub-headings.
*          Conceptual framework
*          Theoretical framework
*          Review of empirical studies
*          Summary of review

This will be reviewed under the following sub-headings:
Business Studies;
Universal Basic Education (UBE);
Funding of UBE;
Nine-year Basic Education Curriculum;
Curriculum Implementation;
Adequacy of Material Resources and Curriculum Implementation;  Adequacy of Human Resource (Teachers) and Curriculum Implementation;
Provision of Human and Material Resource: Rural /Urban Dichotomy.

Business Studies
Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981, 1989, 1998 and 2004) put in place the 6-3-3-4 system of education with the global aim of equipping students at all levels of education with the required knowledge, skills and attitude for gainful employment towards self reliance and national development. Asoga-Allen in Onou and Shabi (2008) stipulates the broad goal of secondary education to be the preparation of the individuals for useful living within the society and higher education. Onuo and Shabi (2008) opine that business education is an important tool for the realization of this broad goal. In agreement Azih (2008) affirms that business education plays an important role in the economic growth and development of any nation. Agreeing with this view, Eze (2008:113) insists that, “the introduction of business education in JSS in Nigerian schools was targeted primarily at  providing students with the training that will make them ready for the world of work, as well as provide opportunities for further education”. In the same vein, Nwaokolo (2000) sees the goal of business education as the provision of skills to the youths in an effort to fight unemployment, poverty, urban migration and ignorance. Cementing this idea, Aina (2002) opines that business education is mainly concerned with the development of personal skills and attitudes, communication and computational skills, technological literacy, employability skills and occupational skills and knowledge. Oborah (2005), Okwuanaso (2004) and Osuala (2004) join this view by asserting that business education bequeaths to the recipients necessary skills and knowledge needed to take active part in entrepreneurial ventures.
Business education is a part of vocational technical education which manifests at the upper basic education (JSS) level in the form of business studies. Business education at this level is sub-professional in nature. According to Ogunmayi (2008), business studies is a prevocational elective subject which relates to business education. Agreeing Okpanku and Uchechi (2008) opine that business education is offered at junior secondary school as business studies. Identifying with this idea, Azih (2008:135) affirms that ‘business studies is a prevocational subject for business education’. Similarly, Onuo and Shabi (2008) submit that business education manifests itself at JSS level in the form of business studies. These submissions imply that business studies is business education at the pre- vocational level.
Business studies is a prevocational subject introduced by the 1981 National Policy on Education. It is an integration of five business subjects namely: Bookkeeping, Shorthand, Typewriting, Commerce and Office Practice (Ukor, 2008). Collaborating with the above Ogunmayi (2008) asserts that business studies which is taught in an integrated manner as a component of technical education is made up of typewriting, shorthand, book keeping, commerce and office practice. Similarly, Nwachokor and Akiti (2008) opine that pre- vocational business subjects offered at JSS level are typewriting, shorthand, bookkeeping, commerce and office practice which are put together under the heading ‘Business Studies’. Stepping further, Onuo and Shabi (2008) hold that these subjects are seen and taught as areas of knowledge in a single subject (Business studies) and not as individual entities. At this juncture, Azih (2008) opines that business studies is expected to  form a solid root for students offering business subjects especially the skilled ones like shorthand, typewriting and bookkeeping.
FRN (2004) reviewing the mandate of business studies at the secondary school level reveals that on completion of secondary school, students:
(i)        Will secure employment either at the end of the whole course or after completing one or more modules of employable skills.
(ii)       Set up their own business and become self- employed and be able to employ others.
(iii)     Pursue further education in post secondary (tertiary) technical institutions such as science and technical colleges, polytechnics or colleges of education (tech.) and universities.

Nwachokor and Akiti (2008)  and Ogbaekirigwe (2010) state the objectives of JSS business studies to include: acquisition of basic knowledge of business studies; developing basic skills in office occupation; preparation for further training in business studies; provision of orientation for basic skills for a life of work; provision of basic skills for future personal use; and relation of knowledge and skills to national economy.

However, all these point to and agree with the submission of Ogunmayi (2008) that business studies as a component of technical education lays emphasis on practice. Still in keeping with the above, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC 2007:iv) states the general objectives of Business Studies as to:

Provide the orientation and basic skills with which to start an occupation for those who may not have opportunity for further training. Provide basic business skills for personal use now and in the future. Prepare students for further training in Business Studies. Relate the knowledge and skills to the national economy. Develop basic skills in office occupations.

In order to achieve the foregoing lofty objectives, inter alia, it becomes imperative that the existing curriculum should be reviewed, re-structured and re-aligned. Then the National Council on Education (NCE): approves a new curriculum structure- lower basic education curriculum (Primary 1-3), middle basic education curriculum (Primary 4-6), and upper basic education curriculum (JSS 1-3); listed relevant subjects for each level; and directs the NERDC to review, re-structure and re-align the curriculum to fit into a 9-year basic education programme (NERDC, 2007) 

Universal Basic Education
Delving into history, Ocho (2003) traces that in 1976, Obansanjo launched the Universal Primary Education (UPE) scheme at Sokoto but regrets that, 27 years later, primary education had not become universal in Nigeria. Continuing, he (Ocho) states that in 1999, the same Obasanjo launched another education programme with another universal tag, the Universal Basic Education (UBE)in the same Sokoto. Once again he (Ocho) regrets that President Obasanjo did not give a critical comparison of the two schemes, an analysis of the reasons for the failure of the earlier scheme and the basis for the expected improved chances of success of the latter scheme.
            The above comparison becomes more necessary on the realization that, from the name, the UBE is certainly a more ambitious and more demanding programme than the UPE. While the UPE scheme concerned itself with getting all children of primary school age (6-12 years) in Nigeria into the school, the UBE scheme is concerned with giving basic education to all Nigerians who have not attained that level (Ocho, 2003).
Still in his historical approach, he traces that basic education predated western system of education.  He asserts that the traditional society tried to ensure that all citizens received basic education comprising:
(a)              Communication education for effective interpersonal interaction;
(b)               Moral training that enabled society to live in peace, solidarity and unit;
(c)              Doctrinal training, dealing with issue of life after death;
(d)              Occupational training that ensured gainful employment for everybody (total
absence of unemployment);
(e)              Leisure education that ensured everybody participated in leisure activities
(dancing, singing, games, athletics, storytelling, etc); and
(f)               Citizenship education that ensured selfless services to the society.    
He further assesses that basic education in our society must include the six major areas of traditional education, differing only in details, instrumentation, universality, diversification, and formal systematization, since it aims at proper adaptation of the individual to his society for his own survival, growth and development, and for that of his society.  He concludes this assessment by proposing the content of our current basic education to include (among others): occupational education for gainful employment, and science and technology education to enable recipients make use of scientific and technological equipment.

Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC, 2006) defines universal basic education (UBE) as an educational reform programme of the Nigerian Government that provides free, compulsory and continuous 9- year education in two levels: 6 years of primary and 3 years of junior secondary education for all school-aged children. The Commission explains that the legal framework for the UBE programme is the UBE Act, 2004 signed into law in May 2004 by President Obasanjo. This Act provides for compulsory, free universal basic education for all children of primary and junior secondary school age in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It also stipulates penalties for parents who fail to comply with its provisions.
UBEC (2005) traces the legal justification for the UBE Act to section 18 (1) and (3) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which provides that:
(1)       Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels;
(2)       Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy and to this end, government shall as and when practicable provide;
(a)       free, compulsory and universal primary education
(b)       free secondary education
(c)       free university education; and
(d)       free adult literacy programme

The Commission observes that this section of the constitution imposed a duty on all the tiers of government to strive to eradicate illiteracy and provide free and compulsory basic education but notes that this duty is non- justifiable. Item 60(e) of part 1 of the second schedule to the constitution confers exclusive legislative powers on the National Assembly to prescribe minimum standards of education at all levels (FRN, 1999). The foregoing forms the legal framework for the UBE Act.
Universal Basic Education programme, according to Osadolor (2007) is a reform measure of the Federal Government aimed at rectifying the existing distortions in the basic education sub-section of Nigerian education system. Tahir (2005) opines that universal basic education is intended to actualize the ideals in the 1998 National Policy on Education. He asserts that UBE programme will enable Nigeria to be committed to genuine investment by investing in the younger generation. Obiweluozo (2007) argues that UBE was adopted as a tool for reducing the incidence of drop- out from formal education as well as eradication of mass illiteracy. Nwachokor and Akiti (2008) agree with both Tachir and Obiweluozo when they state that UBE comprises a wide variety of activities  and programmes designed to enable learners acquire functional literacy. They (Nwachokor and Akiti) assert that UBE indicates restructuring and reorientation of the nation’s education system focused on technological, economic and social development. They as well, insist that UBE aims at equipping the individual with such knowledge, skills and attributes that will enable him live a meaningful and fulfilling life, and also contribute to the development of the society. In fact Nwachokor and Akiti (2008) and Abiara (2010) give the objectives of UBE to include:
1.         To develop in the entire citizenry, a strong consciousness for education,  and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion;
2.         To provide free, compulsory universal education for every Nigerian child of school-going age;
3.         To reduce drastically drop-out rate from the formal school system through  improved relevance and efficiency;
4.         To cater for drop- outs and out-of- school children /adolescents through various forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education;
5.          To ensure the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying the foundation for lifelong learning.
Consistent with the above, UBEC (Nd) held that UBE  was introduced to remove distortions and inconsistencies in basic education delivery and reinforce the implementation of the National Policy on Education as well as provide greater access to, and ensure quality of basic education throughout Nigeria. The Commission gives the aims of UBE as:
(a)       Ensuring an uninterrupted access to 9-year formal education by providing free, compulsory UBE for every child of school-going age;
(b)       Reducing school drop-out and improving relevance, quality and efficiency and;
(c)       Acquisition of literacy, numeracy, life skills and values for lifelong education and useful living.
Similarly, the Commission expresses that UBE vision is that ‘at the end of nine years of continuous education, every child should acquire appropriate and relevant skills and values and be employable in order to contribute his/her quota to national development. UBE is actually an education reform programme which places great emphasis on acquisition of psychomotor skills especially in vocational and technical education.
            FRN (1999) states about ten basic features of this reform programme among which are: emphasis on curriculum diversification and relevance to effectively and adequately cover individual and community needs and aspirations; disarticulation of junior secondary schools from senior secondary schools; realignment of junior secondary with primary education; and appropriate continuous teacher professional development. UBE (2006) opines that one of the twelve key issues in the UBE Act (2004) is that services provided in public primary and junior secondary schools shall be free of charge. These are tuition, books, instructional materials, furniture and mid-day meal. In a broader sense, Maduewesi (2005), Udofot (2005), Tahir (2005) and Afe (2005) identify services delivered in basic education to include: facilities supply/instructional aiding, supervision, access, personnel provision and retention, capacity building, product assessment/certification, mobilisation/consensus building. Others are: community partnership, research and development; collaboration, private sector ventures, legal /policy matters, recreation and health. These services are expected to be completely free of charge. The UBE Act even provides that a person who receives or obtains any fee commits an offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding N10,000 .00 or imprisonment for a term of three months or both.

Funding of UBE
The Act provides that services provided in primary and junior secondary schools shall be free of charge, but it is realistic to accept that according to Enyi (2004), nothing, including education, is ever free. Somebody always has to pay for it in one form or another. Enyi (2004) argues that no government has been able to fund education single-handedly. He decries that, as at 2004 Ebonyi State government seemed to assume full financial responsibility for the UBE programme. Agreeing entirely with this view, Egwu (2004) posits that education is so capital-intensive that government cannot fund it alone. She insists that free education is only free in relative rather than absolute terms.
            Commenting on sources of fund, UBEC (2006) states that UBE programme is funded by the states and local governments with support from the federal government through its intervention fund. The UBE Act provides that the Federal Government shall set aside 2% of its Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF) to support the states in the implementation of the UBE programme. The 2% of the CRF amounted to N24.3 billion in 2005, N30.48 billion in 2006, and N35 billion in 2007.
            This Act, according to UBEC (2006), provides that the 2% CRF shall be disbursed to the states in the following proportion:
i.                    70% Matching Grant to states on equality basis
ii.                 14% Fund to address Educational Imbalance among and within states
iii.               5% fund for the implementation of the Home Grown School Feeding and Health Programme
iv.               5% Incentive to States for Good Performance
v.                  2% Fund for the education of the Physically and Mentally Challenged Children
vi.               2% Fund for Monitoring of UBE Programme
vii.      2% Implementation Fund.

In order to qualify to access Federal Government’s UBE intervention fund, the state is expected, among other things, to: enact the state UBE Act and establish state basic education board; provide matching grants to the intervention fund; draw up state UBE Action plans; and establish adequate mechanism for programme implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
            The Act (UBE) further provides that 5% of the Matching Grant be utilized in the implementation of Early Child Care and Development Education (ECCDE), 60% for primary Education and 35% for Junior Secondary School (JSS) Education. It still provides that the Matching Grant be applied for: construction of classrooms/furniture etc. 70%; procurement of textbooks, instructional materials etc. 15%; and teacher professional development etc. 15%(UBEC,2006).
            The state herself does much in the funding of UBE. Speaking on this, Egwu (2006) poses that  Ebonyi State had done exceedingly well and that it was only Ebonyi State that had accessed all the quarters of 2005 matching grant at the beginning of 2006. Igidi, Chukwu, Eze, Ngele and Nwizi (2006) hold that Ebonyi State government had always met its counterpart funding obligations. They further state that education attracted 46% of Ebonyi State 2006 budget as Governor Egwu’s top priority.
Besides the federal matching grant and the state allocation to UBE, there are other sources of fund available for the implementation of UBE. Igidi et al (2006) name UNICEF and ETF as other sources of fund for the execution of specific education projects in Ebonyi State. Similarly, Egwu (2006) discloses that UBEC inspects the utilization of intervention fund together with other funds available to the state from UNICEF, UNESCO ,World Bank etc. These, however, prove that the funding of UBE programme in Ebonyi State is now jointly done not only by the three tiers of government but also by other local and international agencies.

Nine- year Basic Education Curriculum
            Curriculum according to Akuma (2005) has no universally accepted definition but curriculum experts and educators have agreed on what curriculum should be. Onwuka in Akuma (2005:1) defines curriculum as “a total experience with which the school deals in educating young people”. Similarly, Mkpa in Akuma (2005:3) defines curriculum as “a vehicle through which the school strives towards the achievement of educational ends, be they those of the nation, state, local governments or even the community”. Still in that line, Pattison and Berkas (2000) opine that the school curriculum provides a plan of instruction that indicates structured learning experiences and outcomes for students.
Going a step further, Smith, Stanley and Shores in Akuma (2005) observes that the curriculum has a set of educational goals and objectives and a way of determining whether or not the objectives have been achieved by the learners. Towing the same line of thought, Tyler and Taba in Akuma (2005) propose four components of curriculum to include: goals and objectives, content, learning experiences and evaluation. Similarly, Pattison and Berkas (2000) hold that curriculum specifies the details of student learning, instructional strategies, the teachers’ roles, and the context in which teaching and learning take place. They (Pattison and Berkas) further assert that researches (on teaching and learning and on the characteristics of successful schools) had broadened the scope of curriculum to include everything that affects what happens in the classroom and consequently affects students learning. Congruent with the above, Oteh and Akuma (2010) opine that a curriculum consists of the totality of experiences that learners are exposed to in order to enable them imbibe the culture and tradition of a society, conform to all its norms, and participate in efforts to ensure its continuity.
            Synthesizing existing curriculum development models, Oteh and Akuma (2010) come up with a modified, cyclic curriculum process that is made up of:
1.         Needs assessment,
2.         Selection of aims, goals and objectives,
3.         Selection of content,
4.         Selection of learning experiences,
5.         Organisation of content and learning experiences, and
6.         Evaluation
Amadi (1999) and Onyemerekeya (2004) agree that needs assessment is a logical starting point for it is carried out to identify needed changes or gaps in the learner or society. Taba (1962), Nicholls  and Nicholls (1972) and Skilbeck (1984) in Oteh and Akuma (2010) hold that needs assessment involves collection of information that can be used to develop a profile of needs in order to be able to make decisions regarding the expected outcomes as well as the educational programme. Identifying with this position, Oteh and Akuma (2010) hold that situation analysis involves collecting information about the context in which the curriculum is being designed, in order to arrive at decisions regarding the why, what and how of the programme.
The Federal Ministry of Education (FME) in Igboke (2002) while conducting situation analysis, identifies curriculum deficiencies as one of the factors responsible for the failure of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme which was tried two decades ago. The first Policy document on Technical and Vocational Education, according to FRN in Ukor (2008) emphasises the need to widen and enrich the curriculum in a way that it will help the youth prepare for the world of work, develop skills and interest and be able to contribute more to the life of the community.  Olaitan (1996) asserts that Business studies can help the graduates of JSS to be self-employed if the curriculum is reviewed to include enough entrepreneurial training in the content.  He believes that this will lead to reduction to unemployment rates, improved standard of living and a decrease in poverty level.    
            This author identifies curriculum review as a critical condition for achieving self-employment through Business Studies. In agreement, Nwachokor and Akiti (2008) opine that the laudable objectives of the UBE programme will not be achieved except the barriers of inadequate and un-updated curricula are looked into. They specifically insist that the business studies curriculum for the Junior secondary school at the UBE level needs to be revised in order to make it more current and up-to-date. In support of this view, Atakpa (2008) insists that it is imperative to introduce reforms into business studies curriculum for the pogramme to successfully train youths with relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them fit well into modern offices.
            According to Hornby (2004), reform means to improve a system by making changes to it. Similarly, Adeboye (2008) sees reform as setting out an ideal standard that people think is acceptable. In a broader sense Nwafor (2007) opines that reform is a widely adopted innovation. This author sees innovation as a change that is deliberate, purposeful and can be on a small or large scale. This opinion is in line with the definition of innovation in Adams and Chen in UNESCO in Nwafor (2007:14) as “any persistent change in the patterns of behaviour of members of an identifiable social system.” We live in a constant changing world, hence education requires continuous evaluation and revision. Therefore any form of resistance to this need for dynamism leaves a gap between education and reality. Innovation is a novel or a departure from a customary practice that can be sustained for sometime. It is situational and relevant to a group in time or place (Nwafor, 2007).
            Ezekwesili in FRN (2007) reveals that it is the mandate of the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to develop curricula for use at all levels of the educational system in Nigeria. In line with government declaration of a 9-year basic education programme, the NERDC was directed by the National Council on Education (NCE) to re-structure and realign the existing primary and junior secondary school curricula to meet the targets of the 9-year Basic Education in the context of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Confirming this position Obioma in FRN (2007:11) states that:

following the decision of the federal government to introduce the 9-year Basic Education Programme and the need to attain the MDGs by 2015 and, the critical targets of the NEEDS, which can be summarized as: value reorientation, poverty eradication, job creation, wealth generation and using education to empower the people, it has become imperative that the existing curricula for primary and JSS be reviewed, restructured and re-aligned to fit into a 9-year basic Education Programme. The NCE at its meeting in Ibadan in December 2005, directed the NERDC to carry out this assignment.

This led to the production of 9-year Basic Education Curriculum which according to Obioma in FRN (2007) reflects depth, appropriateness, and interrelatedness of the curricula contents. Similarly, Ezekwesili in FRN (2007) gladly recommends the curriculum to all for the purpose of producing the best textual materials, the best in teaching performance and the best learning out come, and most importantly, for attaining the goals we set for ourselves. Confirming this FRN (2007) reveals that the alignment of the curriculum took cognizance of the need to provide students the ability and skills to be gainfully employed as well as prepare them for setting up their own businesses. The thematic approach to content organization was adopted in order to provide the learner a holistic blend of theory and practice of Business Studies.

Curriculum Implementation 
            Curriculum implementation, according to Okello and Kagoire (1996: 124) “is a network of varying activities involved in translating curriculum designs into classroom activities and changing people’s attitudes” to accept and participate in these activities”. Pattison and Berkas (2000) hold that the final step into curriculum planning consists of implementing the curriculum in the classroom and continued monitoring, reflection, and evaluation to improve it. These authors explain that teachers are responsible for implementing the curriculum as it evolves and determining if it is having the desired effect on student learning. Okafor (2007) believes that curriculum implementation is the act of taking actions towards the realization of the intention of a curriculum plan.
            The planners of this curriculum did not lose sight of the fact that a curriculum cannot be implemented in a vacuum. Hence FRN (2007 : v) explains that “as one of the pre-vocational elective subjects at the upper basic education, it is crucial that adequate provision be made in terms of human and material resources in order to promote saleable skills acquisition and employment generation possibilities”. These planners did not stop at that, they went ahead to allocate time as another very important resources saying “five periods a week should be allocated to business studies to enable all the contents in the integrated subject to be covered”. Nwafor (2007) opines that those elements operating in the system to enable it to achieve specified goals together with the surrounding environment constitute the inputs in an educational innovation project. Facilities and equipment help to stimulate interest and also enhance retention of ideas especially when they are optimally utilized (Okpanku and Uchechi, 2008). Soba (2007) sees school facilities as a pillar in support for effective teaching and learning to take place in ideal environment. Adeboyeje (2000) and Emetanon (2004) describe school facilities as the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which will increase the production of results.
            Nwafor (2007) enumerated educational innovation inputs to include plants, buildings, equipment, technology and other materials. Saba (2007) lists school facilities to include: the school building, classrooms furniture, libraries, laboratories, recreational equipment and other instructional aids. Onou and Shabi (2008) list facilities for business education in the secondary schools to include :
1.         Standard and well-equipped typewriting laboratories,
2.         Standard and well-equipped shorthand laboratories,
3.         Adequate and functioning manual typewriters,
4.         Adequate and functioning electric typewriters,
5.         Adequate computer sets,
6.         Audio tapes and cassettes for shorthand dictation,
7.         Relevant textbooks for typewriting and shorthand theory and practical lessons,
8.         Relevant textbooks for typewriting and other business subjects,
9.         Headphones for shorthand dictation,
10.       Sufficient lighting and ventilation, and
11.       Uninterrupted power supply (UPS).
Similarly, Ogbaekirigwe (2010) lists equipment and materials considered as basic to the teaching of business studies to include: typewriter, stapling machines, perforators, alarm clock, stopwatches, tape recorders, bulletin boards, file jackets, ruled chalkboard etc. FRN (2007 53- 54) lists the materials needed for teaching and learning of business studies as an appendix to the curriculum under review to include:
                        1.         typing room
                        2.         domwell desks
                        3.         swivel typing chairs
                        4.         typewriters
                        5.         ink duplicating machine
                        6.         photocopier
                        7.         filing cabinet
                        8.         stapling machine
                        9.         perforator
                        10.       guillotine
                        11.       stop watches
                        12.       tape recorder
                        13.       alarm clock
                        14.       bulletin boards
                        15.       adding | listing machine
                        16.       punch (with single and double holes)
                        17.       incoming register
                        18.       dispatch book
                        19.       visitor’s book
                        20.       telephone message pad
                        21.       request form booklet
                        22.       store  record book
                        23.       postage book
                        24.       shorthand pens
25.       chalkboard (ruled and unruled. Ruled side should have 3 inches between lines),
                        26.       sound tapes | cassettes
                        27.       shorthand note books
                        28.       file jackets
                        29.       carbon paper
                        30.       reams of plain typing sheets (A4 and A5)
                        31.       flimsies for carbon copies
                        32.       typewriter eraser/ mechanical eraser/Tipex
                        33.       file tags
                        34.       booklets of ruled ledger sheets
                        35.       analysis sheet for trial balance
                        36.       duplication paper A4
                        37.       typing sheets A4 headed paper
                        38.       typing sheets A5 headed and memo
                        39.       business document specimens
                        40.       stencil.
Commenting on human resources, Adeshina (2005) affirms that the quality of business education teachers is a very good determining factor for how far the programme will go. Quality teachers, he says, will turn out quality students of business studies. In view of this assertion, the business studies teacher is required to be well prepared and well informed for the achievement of the mandate. Similarly, Akene (2002) states that business studies teacher should possess the knowledge, skills and attitudes desired of all educated persons, the technical competencies required in one or more areas of business studies, a knowledge of the principles and methods of teaching and some practical experiences in business occupations. In his own contribution, Ali (2004) speaks of provision of adequate number of trained and qualified teachers of the subject to meet approved student/teacher ratios and student-classroom teaching (number of periods per week). Then, Igboke (2002) opines that the teacher occupies a prominent position in the learning process and that the success of any programme or course of study depends on how successful the teacher had been in the application of his skills and knowledge. According to Mkpa (1987), the teacher’s success in the discharge of his lesson presentation and other duties depends on his physical, emotional, psychological and intellectual competencies. Lillis (1988) warns that paper qualifications are not reliable indicators of the performance of individual teachers.
                        Alumode (2002) assesses that teachers have always continued to be fundamental assets in all forms of education process. He specifically opines that UBE programme is an attempt to educate the populace which requires that teachers be developed since no education system may rise above the quality of its teachers. FRN (2004) instructs that all teachers in educational institutions shall be professionally trained. Teacher education programmes shall be structured to equip teachers for effective performance of their duties.

Adequacy of Material Resources and Curriculum
The success or failure of curriculum implementation depends on the availability of required technical infrastructure, field trial and utilization of its results in taking decisions, the prompt delivery of the required quality of materials, adaptability to the socio-cultural environment and their cost of procurement and maintenance in relation to the country’s financial capacity (Nwafor, 2007). The Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) Committee on Business Studies in Ogbaekirigwe (2010) recommends that adequate material and equipment be made available to a class of forty (40) students while industrial visits should be undertaken by students to relevant places. This committee believes that Business Studies is a practical subject and should be taught practically.
                        Attah in  Esene and Okoro (2008) sees teaching materials and equipment as devices used to supplement or complement teachers’ talks. This author gives the range as from simple/inexpensive to more complicated/expensive one, and further explains that teaching materials include office supplies like stationary, typing papers, carbon papers, file jackets and tags, while teaching equipment refers to typewriters, demonstration table, swivel chairs, wall clock, duplicating and photocopying machines etc.
                        In their own view, Ivowi (2000) and Odigbo (2005) agree that adequate facilities ensure meaningful teaching and learning. Adeogun in Akomolafe (2005) believes that teachers’ confidence relate positively with the quantity and quality of instructional facilities. Availability, maintenance and adequacy of teaching facilities are described by Ulifun (1986) as sine-qua-non for the attainment of all educational programmes. This author believes that learning would be less meaningful without teaching facilities because students would grope in darkness for long before grasping what the teacher says. On this note Akinsolu (2004) warns that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities.
                        Chiaha (2011) appears more holistic describing school plant as the entire physical facilities including the school physical environment, and infrastructural facilities like the school outlook, flowers, trees, roads and paths, fields, farms, sporting facilities, furniture, structure, laboratories, library, classrooms, toilets etc. Oboegbulam and Chiaha (2007) assert that in addition to aesthetic view and beautification of the school environment, school plant facilitates teaching and learning. Onyene and Salusi (2008); Ayeni, Jaiyaba and Atanda (2008); Asiyai (2008); and Okoroma (2006) agree that school plant is a very essential factor in students’ academic achievement as well as teachers’ attitude to teaching and classroom management. Olutola in Akumah (2011) adopts a comparative approach by indicating that more importance should be attached to the impact of facilities on educational experiences. Similarly, Fobis et al in Akumah (2011) stating the importance of school facilities affirms that it is difficult to implement the curriculum without the school plant; and that it enables both the learners and teachers to improve their work performance.
However, Hamza (2000) and Nwagwu (2007) regret that the short supply of instructional materials in Nigerian secondary schools hinders teaching and learning. Igu (2007) joins by stating that school libraries, where available, are filled with old and obsolete books that are irrelevant. Mustapha (2011) complains that in addition to dearth of relevant and curriculum compliant textbooks, majority of the teachers in the south-east zone are still battling to catch a glimpse of the new curriculum. This author warns that for the new 9 year basic education curriculum to succeed, relevant authorities must provide enough copies of the curriculum and embark on textbook revision, development and writing in order to meet the demand of the new curriculum.
Towe in Okpanku and Uchechi (2008) believes that for Business Education to have any meaning, equipment and machines to be used should be made available. On this Aliyu in Okpanku and Uchechi (2008) asserts that, being a vocational education programme, Business Education cannot do without adequate supply of material resources. Agreeing with the above, Ile (2001) insists that business education departments should be adequately and sufficiently provided with instrumental facilities and equipment if optimum teaching and learning should take place. Adeshina (2006) observes that most of the equipment provided in public secondary schools is nowhere near those in the world of work. In support of this, Onou and Shabi (2008) assert that it is generally observed that most of the facilities and equipment provided are grossly inadequate and outdated.
This condition is not peculiar to Nigeria but rather characteristic of developing nations. Sibulwa (1996) complains that in developing countries, the number of pupils and teachers have kept on rising but government money available for education is less. Mkandawire  (2010) observes that in most government schools in Zambia, with an exception of the newly built, infrastructure is in deplorable condition. In agreement, Kelly (1999) describes the schools in Zambia as dilapidated, unsafe and sometimes unusable. The latter further states that furniture is also inadequate in most schools and in some cases, seats and desks are battered or totally absent. He concludes that instructional materials and equipment are in short supply or may not be available at all.

Adequacy of Human Resource (Teachers) and Curriculum
FRN (2004) states that no education may rise above the quality of its teachers and that the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession shall be the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). Teachers are the most important human resource in curriculum implementation since they are the ones who adopt and implement the idea and aspirations of the designers. This implies that a sufficient supply of trained teachers is needed if the implementation of the curriculum is to be effective (Mkandawire, 2010). This agrees with the assertion of Alumode (2002) that teachers have always been and are likely to continue to be fundamental assets in all forms of education process. Stressing the importance of teachers, Esene and Okoro (2008) insist that for students to acquire the necessary skills and abilities, business studies teachers should be academically and professionally qualified. Then Anyaduba in Ogboekirigwe (2010) believes that a business studies teacher without the general knowledge of all the business subjects e.g Commerce, Office Practice, Bookkeeping, Computer, Shorthand and Typewriting, will be considered incompetent.
            The declaration of free and compulsory primary and secondary education in Ebonyi State in 1999 led to phenomenal increase in enrolment that the number of qualified teachers on ground becomes inadequate to march with the enrolment (Alumode, 2005). This reconfirms the assertion of Edek (2001) that Ebonyi Sate does not have sufficient number of qualified teachers but falls into the temptation of filling the vacancies with unqualified teachers. Supporting this view, World Bank (2004) and Ocho (2007) state that staffing in Ebonyi State secondary schools is nothing to write home about both in quality and quantity. Ogba (2008) reports that Parents Teachers Association (PTA) employ auxiliary teachers in order to augment the deficiency of teachers. This agrees with the regrets of Udoh (2002) that many secondary schools are filled with National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) and PTA teachers whose devotions to duty cannot be guaranteed.
            Agwu in Ogba (2011) opines that qualified teachers are those teachers who went through and completed, in a formal teacher training institution, a planned programme of training among other areas in the principles and practice of Education and were exposed to an observed period of interrelationship as part of the period of training. This means that qualified teachers must have registered with the Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) or, at least, be registrable by possessing NCE, B. A. Ed., B. Sc. Ed. or B. Ed. Aguokogbue (2000) states that qualified teachers are expected to be competent in professional knowledge, skills, understanding students in all respects and in classroom management. Fafunwa (2002) believes that the problem of fallen standard in Education in Nigeria today is attributable to shortage of qualified teachers.
            According to Asonibare (1996), weak, misguided, incompetent, ignorant and unimaginative teachers will make the most creative modern curriculum to be of little use. Anuna and Obi (2006) assert that without the service of qualified teachers in the school system, education would be a curse rather than a blessing. Awoniyi in Ogba (2008) warns that educational institutions should not be polluted with unqualified and inexperienced teachers.
            Emenanjo (1992) observes that there is dearth of teachers which is worsened by those available being wrongly placed, overworked, poorly motivated and unevenly distributed. Agreeing with this observation, Ukeje (1992) states that the present education system lacks well qualified, appropriately placed, dedicated, committed and competent teachers. Reacting to this Ezeh (2006) explains that school administrators in this dilemma coerced teachers to teach subjects which they do not specialize in. Consequently Adeboye (2007) remarks that the teaching personnel in Nigeria is not only inadequate but also professionally unqualified.
            Training and development will help to acquaint these teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude to make them improve their performance. According to Oloyede in Ogba (2011), training is a process of imparting basic and specific knowledge, skill and ability that will bring desired improvement. Ndaba, Ogba and Ibiam (2010) see training as investing in the staff the necessary skills and competencies that will empower them to perform better and make the best use of their natural abilities. Conversely, Ogba (2011) describes development as a multifaceted process which concerns human resources and involves those learning opportunities that are designed to provide general knowledge and attitude that will help employees to grow. Similarly, Ominyi and Opa (2008) see staff development as the process of acquainting staff with necessary competence, responsibility, creativity and greater freedom that will enhance their commitment. However, these two concepts are either juxtaposed or used interchangeably. After all, Ogba (2011) who attempts to draw a distintion between them ends up using them interchangeably in her work.
            Madumere-Obike (2004) sees training and development as a means through which organizations meet their required obligations to workers, secure staff commitment, develop and manage workers for optimal performance. Again, Ominyi (2008) states that training and re-training of staff is a deliberate and systematic means of inculcating positive attitude and behaviour capable of achieving organizational goals. The only way to achieve quality instruction in the school system is to expose school personnel to training and development programmes (Odo, 2005). Ogba and Igu (2009) opine that one of the objectives of an educational system is to provide their products with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment.
            Training and development will help teachers get abreast of the changing situation in their environment. A well adjusted staff is an asset to self, organization of employment  and the nation at large. Some staff have adequate knowledge and skill prior to their employment but with increase in their tasks, they begin to lack skill and competence. Then in-service training is resorted to in order to help them adapt to the changes in their work place (Igu, Ogba and Ominyi, 2009). A teacher who is not exposed to training and development is bound to inculcate bad norms to students. Ukeje (1992) states that any practitioner who ceases to study ceases to be effective. The present knowledge explosion phenomenon, according to Okorie and Uzor (2009), demands that staff be exposed to in-service training and development courses. Ekpo, in Ogba (2011) believes that staff need continuous training and development irrespective of their pre-service training in order to take care of obvious areas of inadequacies. In his own opinion, Fafunwa in Oloyede in Ogba (2011) states that no significant change in education could take place in any country unless its staff is well developed, trained and retrained. Okorie and Uzor (2009) and Adedeji and Olaniyan in Ogba (2011) insist that in the 21st century, the development of a nation is measured by the level of training and development of its man power. Adeogun, Sabair, Salisu and Olisaemeka in Ogba (2011) trace the problem of inefficiency in secondary schools today to inadequate manpower to match school enrolment and failure to expose existing staff to training and development. Aderounmu and Ehiametalor in Ogba (2011) believe that staff development correct staff deficiencies, help experienced staff to develop further instructional skills, keep staff abreast of current trend in their area of specialization and up-grade their skills to match present administrative positions.
            Staff in public and private schools are provided with in-service training to enable them acquire more professional qualifications, skills, knowledge and competence  for efficient performance of their primary functions (Okafor, 2006). Nwachukwu (2000) insists that without adequate professional development staff stand the risk of stagnation which, in turn, hinders realization of educational goals. This implies that training and development programmes provide opportunities for staff to make-up for their inadequacies. Ominyi and Opa (2008) explain that in-service training for newly employed staff come in the form of orientation, induction courses, instructional supervision, seminars, conferences workshops and refresher courses while for  the staff, regular and properly conducted staff meetings, briefings, etc could be used. Efforts towards the improvement of quality of education according to FRN (2004) shall include: exposing teachers regularly to innovations in their profession; appointment of academically and professionally, qualified personnel as teachers and head teachers: and regular in-service training for teachers and head teachers.
    Mustapha (2011) notes that most of the teachers in the country have not been equipped with necessary skills and tools to implement the new curriculum. He advises that these teachers be trained and re-trained, pointing out that this training should go beyond mere presentation  of academic papers. Similarly, Mkandawire (2010) regrets that due to the problem of under funding of education in Zambia, training and re-training of teachers are not attended to. This author points out that the Zambian education system lacks adequately trained and motivated teachers. Okoh (2001) regrets that most of our N.C.E. and B. Ed. teachers are emptier than the children they are supposed to teach. In line with this, Igboke (2002) advises that teachers training agencies should raise the level of initial professional preparation of teachers and career- long development of serving teachers. Egwu (2006) regrets that many Nigerian teachers are uneducable and untrainable, and advised that retraining should start with those that are trainable and educable.
Teachers need adequate motivation to carry out their mandate of translating educational programmes  into practical experiences  (Aguba in Ogba,2011). Arikewuyo in Ogba (2011) believes that a desirable organisation is one that provides the staff with adequate remuneration, job enrichment, job satisfaction and job development for the attainment of organisational goals and objectives. Obi in Ogba (2008) sees motivation as the perceptions, methods and activities used by managers for providing a conducive climate for the satisfaction of the various needs of the employers to make them satisfied, dedicated and effective. Similarly, Okafor (2006) states that motivation is the willingness to exert efforts and ability to fulfil an individual’s needs. Mary in Abba, Anazado and Okoye (2004) refers to motivation as those forces within a person  that affect the person’s direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour. Again, Griffin in Abba, Anazado and Okoye (2004) sees motivation as a set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Similarly, Ganon in Abba, Anazado and Okoye (2004:142) defines motivation as “the act of directing an individual’s behaviour towards a particular end through the manipulation of incentives”. Deductively, every individual has particular needs the satisfaction of which affects the individual in a predictable way.
Incentive can be seen as an encouragement given to one to put more efforts in what one is doing. According to Onyene (2000) incentive packages in education include : commensurable  salary, pension, rules and regulations , social status, promotion and promotability, esteem and propensity to rise and professional development. Similarly, Onwurah and Anurugwo (2007) deduce that school incentive packages are as follows: adequate working salary, staff development opportunities, conducive working environment, upward movement within the structure of the education system, recognition, remunerations, benefits and allowances. The pertinent question here is how adequate are these incentives in the school system as to make for effective curriculum implementation and retention of teachers in the profession.
Onwurah and Anurikwo (2007) find that the roles of incentives include attainment of educational goals, shaping of individual and group behaviour, job commitment, job satisfaction and increased job performance. This result agrees with the findings of Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert (2000) which reveals that incentives do not satisfy teachers’ needs. Conversely, Okonkwo in Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997) and Ejiogu (1990) find that attrition is mostly caused by the inability of the teaching profession to satisfy the teachers’ needs. Osadolor (2007) believes that the inadequacies in the provision and retention of teachers result from lack of support from supervisors who ought to be seen as professional colleagues. In the same vein, Udofot (2005) posits that teachers in the system are traumatized and de-motivated, and when they retire, some of them are not paid their retirement entitlement till they die. He stresses that this phenomenon affect both job performance and the teachers’ psyche.
            Ene (2007) opines that teachers are not adequately motivated and linked poor performance of students in external examinations to this ugly situation. Fagbamiye (2005) observes that teachers labour under stressful condition and are generally poorly motivated. Confirming this, Ugwu (2001) states that lack of motivation of teachers by the school administrators has led to truancy on their part. Approaching this phenomenon from its implication point of view, Mgbodile (2005) and Ugwu (2007) regret that poor motivation of teachers has led to widespread and high rate of examination malpractice, poor learning achievements, high rate of students’ indiscipline, cultism, low teacher morale and students’ poor attitude to students. Collaborating with the above, Adamechi and Romaine (2000) and Ogbuanya (2005) see poor motivation of teachers as being characterised by boredom, drudgery, frustration and teaching just to earn small salary and not to impact knowledge.

Provision of Human and Material Resources: Rural/Urban Dichotomy
            Newmann and Oliver (1967) classify community into rural and urban. Taking a bipolar approach, Ayih (1988) classifies communities into modern or traditional, literate or illiterate, liberal or autocratic, orthodox or fundamentalist, secular or pluralistic, urban or rural. The latter believes that urban communities are comparatively modern, liberal, literate, rich and perhaps more receptive to innovation and change.
 According to Odoemenam (2011), the rural community is a close unit of generally self sufficient rural group whose extended family serves not only the function of procreation but also the functions of economic production, education, recreation, religion, care etc. She believes that rural dwellers know one another very well and share common experiences and tradition. Again, Odoemenam (2011) sees urban community as a mass group  of people  characterised by large number of people within an urban industrial environment, influenced by many institutions which perform different functions of education, religion, economic production etc. Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006:218) draw a vivid distinction between urban and rural communication in this table. 
Table 1: Major characteristics of rural and urban areas in Nigeria.
Rural Areas
Urban Areas
Poorer and sometimes extreme poverty
Richer in wealth or show greater influence
Agriculture based on land.
Factories and various kinds of industries.
Water supply:
Stream water where it exists, otherwise virtually none. Existing ones stink because or pollution
More abundant good source of water supply for homes and streets (although some taps are now dry)
Employment Opportunity:
Farming, mason, tapping of palm wine, petty trading, tailoring etc.
Abundant jobs, industries, ministries, firms, private business etc.
Sanitation and sewage system:
Inadequate sanitation and sewage system
Better sanitation and sewage system
Virtually non existent
Elaborate electrification system
Inadequate transportation system mainly bicycles, motorcycles, rejected buses and foot. No telephone, where they exist difficult to get dialing tones.
Adequate transportation system. Good buses, planes, trains (in some areas with rail lines), taxis, bicycles, motorcycles and many posh private cars.
Education institution/Schools:
Poor schools with inadequate facilities and unqualified teachers mainly primary and secondary schools
Richer, better – equipped schools. Have many primary and secondary schools and even universities and other higher institutions.
Social Amenities:
  1. Access Roads: Poor and dilapidated roads
  2. Recreational facilities: virtually non-existent. No centres like the stadium, standard hotels, clubs and cinemas. Where these exist, they will be few in number and ill – equipped.
a.        First class tarred and clean roads but sometimes (and in fact most times now) not maintained
b.        Abundant entertainment centres of first class standard

 Source: Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006).
            In agreement with the picture in the above table, Kelly (1999) states that some schools in Zambia, especially in remote areas have no buildings at all, furniture is also inadequate and, in some cases, the seats and desks are battered or totally absent. Similarly, U.S. Department of Education in Pattision and Berka (2000) regrets that shortages of qualified teachers are most prevalent in high poverty areas. Deductively, remote and high poverty areas correspond with rural areas.
            According to Egwu (2009) and Tyler (1998) there are significant differences in the management of schools in urban and rural areas. Fisher (1983) and Ogbodo (2004) see these differences in the provision of social amenities which undoubtedly affect the quality of educational facilities. In their own view, Ani (2005) and Strong (2006) see the difference between rural and urban areas in the provision of educational materials, adequacy of staff and conducive environment which, they believe, affect educational achievement. In specific terms, Starr and White (2008) affirms that schools in rural areas get little support and inadequate personnel in contrast with their urban counterparts. Again, Ezani (2001), Ani (2007) and Egwu (2009) report that most schools in rural areas are in a terrible state of disrepair and lack basic educational facilities.
            In contrast with the above, Cruzeiro and Morgan (2006) and Ogbodo (2004) agree that the situation is different in urban areas. Urban schools, according to them are better maintained and more equipped. Children of educational policy makers and highly placed government officials attend schools in urban areas. These parents show interest and easily influence the needs of these schools (Wright, 2007).
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