A microprocessor: is simply a computer processor that has been configured into the design and function of a microchip. Sometimes referred to as a logic chip, this small component functions as the means of executing the command to start booting up a computer. As part of the process, the microprocessor initiates the activation of all the components necessary to allow the computer to be used, such as waking the operating system.

The basic functionality of this processor is all based on its inherent ability to respond to and generate mathematical and logical operations. This is made possible with the use of registers, within which resides all the data required to execute such basic functions as addition and subtraction. The configuration of the registers also allows the microprocessor to handle tasks like comparing two different numbers and retrieving numbers from various areas and redistributing them.
The microprocessor in a computer activates the operating system and performs the calculations that keep it running. 

PERSONAL DEVICES: Cell phones, watches, Calculators, Cameras Ipods, (Itouch, Ipads, Zune, other mp3 players, etc), Metal detectors, Remote-controlled airplanes.
COMMERCIAL DEVICES: Treadmill (incumbent bike, elliptical), supermarket bar code scanners, film processors, movie projectors

BUSINESS DEVICES: Printers Faxes, Copiers, Environmental control systems, Automatic door openers (supermarkets, hotels), Credit card processors
ATM machines.

HOME DEVICES: Clock/Radios, Stoves/ovens, Microwave ovens, Washing machines, Driers, TV's, DVD players, DVD recorders, DVR devices, Air Conditioners, Water pumps, Burglar alarm systems, Fire alarm systems.

GAMES DEVICE: Children's toys (like Simon says, remote controlled things)
hand-held games (game boys, etc), WII and X-boxes (and other gaming systems), Telescopes (my MEAD has software that can track earth moment, etc)
halloween (and other holiday) decorations electronic signs billboards (like at ball games and Times Square).

MEDICAL DEVICE: Pace makers, Insulin auto-injectors, Heart monitors
hearing aids.

MUNICIPAL DEVICES: Traffic lights Walkie-talkies (and other fire/police/emt communication devices) train switching devices
EZ-pass readers (and other simiar toll-paying devices)
train ticket purchasing machines.

MILITARY DEVICE: Smart bombs, Missiles, Guns.

Household Devices: A complex home security system or the programmable thermostat neatly attached to the wall contains microprocessor technology. Technology-based home security system microprocessors assist with monitoring large or small properties. The simplest programmable thermostat allows you to control the temperature in your home. Entering the preferred degree and achieving it on a consistent basis requires some intelligence on the part of the thermostat. A microprocessor in the system works with the temperature sensor to determine and adjust the temperature accordingly. Dishwashers, washing machines, high-end coffee makers and radio clocks contain microprocessor technology.

Calculators were arranged from the beginning so that the lowest digits were on bottom which is how the computer is based. On the phone, if the lower numbers were on the bottom, the alphabet would then start on the bottom.
RAM:                   it is the main memory.
Hard-disk: It is the storage required by the computer
Motherboard including processor:  It evolves all the jobs or processes in the computer.
Different buses and wire lines for communication between all the devices.

Drives and input pins.
No in the sense that the basic function of a cell phone is to trasmit data (voice in the form of electronic signals inside the cell phone, and as electromagnetic waves thereout), and not to convert raw data into meaningful information, which is the function of a computer. Thus, you should rather compare a cell phone to a walkie talkie, or a two-way radio, because it works on the principle of receiving incoming voice at a frequency, and sending outgoing voice at another frequency.

However, as technology developed, cell phones have become more versatile with new features, and nowadays, most of the cell phones also do conversion of raw data into meaningful information, e.g. in mathematical calculations, inbuilt dictionary (T-9 in Nokia phones), composer, etc. As such, cell phones can be considered as computers in certain ways, even though computing is not their essential feature. The costlier cellphones have even more features like surfing the internet, etc. Cell phones also have operating system like computers (Nokia phones use Symbian OS mostly). A cell phone is not essentially a computer, but a transmitter and receiver built into one. However, due to its accessory functions which convert raw data into meaningful information, it can be considered a computer.

Radio operation
Part of a cell phone's function is to interact witht eh sellular antenna it recognizes which is closest to it. Soem of that interaction is the data stream (the sounds, ans sometimes images, being trnasmitted or received), but quite a lot of it is negotiation. For instance, to anthropomorphize shamelessly, I'm this particular cell phone (phone number such and such, with this and so properties) and I'd like to talk over your antenna and radio equipment to the telephone system. Most modern cell phone systems include both some kind of encryption (to prevent easy eavesdropping) and soem way to maximize the use of the radio channels avaialble at any particular time. So the next thing the phone and the nearest cell radio must do is to negotiateone or several crypotographic keys, and a frequency (often several) and a power level (oftne adjustable to prevent unnecessary interference) for the phone call. This is often redone every so often, during the phone call, especially when the cell phone moves out of range of one cell radio and into the area of another. Nearly all of that negotiation is done between computes at the cell radio and in the cell phone. speical purpose computers which can't do anything else, to be sure, but computes nonethelss. The usual term in the industry is 'embedded computers' in that they are so tied to the equipment they run as to be 'buried' within it.

Cell phone non-radio features
And most cell phones allow their users to use several databases (phone numbers and names, ringtone to use for this user or that, menu choices to change this or that setting, a micro editor for text messages and doing the database entry, simple games, downloading, uploading, or displaying and storing images, and so on. Again, these matters are handled by software running on very low poered and not very powerful computers inside the cell phone. Embedded computers.

Differences from desktop computers
So your answer is certainly yes, but your cell phone isn't much like your PC. You can't change its behavior, to add or delete any of the programs. They're stored in non-volatile memory which keeps its content even when the battery is taken out weeks or months without a battery might be too long, but for all practical purposes the software in the phone, which runs on the computer, is permanent.

Changes in the programming in a cell phone

However, because misteaks are made -- in the programming or in fitting the cell phone into a carrier's system (Sprint phones don't interact with their cell radios the same way Ceingular phones do, and both are different from Veriszon) and so on -- it's very useful to be able to change this or that part of the software. if necessary, the changes can be downloaded to the cell phone when it connects to the cell radio. This means that the memory which stores the software must be changeable. It's usually a type of Programmable Read Only memory called Flash ROM. Very mcuh the same thing is used in USB 'thumb drives'.
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