The advancement of sustainable development in a Country like Nigeria has brought about consciousness for individuals, both rich and poor alike to make rational use of resources in the environment. Man depends on resources in his immediate vicinity for sustenance. But these resources are depleted without adequate or any consideration for their conservation or replacement. As population increase, industrial production and trade also grow.
This means establishment of new factories, chemicals, et. Cetera. Humans have also come to realize that environment belongs to all generations, present and future. Chapter one of this work will introduce the subject matter. Also, the chapter highlights the purpose of this research work, the statement of the problem and the significance of the study to other scholars and researchers. Chapter two deals with protection of trees, forests, protection of animals and endangered species respectively. Chapter three looks into environmental degradation. Chapter four covers possible development through management of wastes. Finally, chapter five generally over views the project work, makes recommendation and draws the conclusion.

Title page
Approval page
Table of contents
Table of statutes
Table of abbreviation

1.1             Background of the Study
1.2             Statement of problem
1.3             Purpose of Study
1.4             Objectives of the Study
1.5             Research Methodology
1.6             Significance of the Study
1.7             Delimitation/ Scope of the Study
1.8             Limitation of the Study

2.1       Literature Review
2.2       Concept of Environment
2.3       Environmental Law
2.4       Sustainable Development
2.5       Natural Resources
2.6       Basic Theories of Sustainable Development
2.7       Facts on Natural Findings

3.1       Environmental Degradation
3.2       Pollution
3.3       Air Pollution
3.4       Marine Pollution
3.5       Oil Pollution

4.1       Economic Value of forests and Trees
4.2       Protection of Forests
4.3       Protection of Animals
4.4       Protection of Endangered Species
4.5       Reasons for Extinction and Solution

 5.1      Recommendation
5.2       Conclusion

National environmental standards regulation and Enforcement Agency Act, 2007 (NESRAA)
Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act, CAP 131 L.F.N. 1990 (F.E.P.A) Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 199 (CEA)
Environmental Impact Assessment Cap E12 LFN, 2004
Harmful Waste (special Criminal Provisions) Act, cap HL LFN 1990
Oil in Navigable waters Act, 1968
Endangered species (control of International Trade and Traffic) Act, Cap 108 LFN 1990
African Charter on Human and People’s Rights Ratification and Enforcement) Act, Cap A9 LFN 2004
Pollution waste Management Regulations
Oil Terminal Dues Act, Cap 339 LFN 1990

AEDE                     Afrique Environmental Development and Educaiton
AU                  -           African Unity
CAA               -           Clean Air Act
CEPA              -           Canadian Environmental Protection Act
CO                  -           Carbon Monoxide
CO2                 -           Carbon Dioxide
DW                 -           Dangerous Waste
E.T.C             -           Et Cetera
EHW               -           Extremely Hazardous Waste
EIA                 -           Environmental Impact Assessment
Envtl.L           -           Environmental Law
EPA                -           Environmental Protection Agency
FEPA             -           Federal Environmental Agency
GBAF             -           Green belt African Initiative
HC                  -           Hydro Carbons
IDW                -           Infections Disease Waste
NESREA        -           National Environmental Standards Regulation Agency
NO2                 -           Nitrous Oxide
SOX                -           Sulphur Oxide
WCF               -           World Conservation Fund

1.1             Background of the Study
The environment, of which man is part of, constitutes the complex whole of man’s existence and is as old as creation itself. Top priority has been given to it by the united nation and other international bodies. [1]
Presently, one cannot say with confidence, the extent at which certain features of man’s environment;remain natural, undisturbed, or untouched by one of the elements of the environment because there are very few areas on the surface of the earth where man has not left imprints of his activities.[2]
It has become necessary to control such generation for the interest of public safety and general conservation of the environment. Ecological questions that arise due to these human acts, therefore call for thought.[3]
Sustainable development is an organizing principle for human life on a finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural system and th environment, so that future generation may also have their needs met.
Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural system with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. As early as the 1970s, sustainability was employed to describe an economy in equilibrium with basic ecologicalsupport systems.[4] Scientists in many fields have highlighted the limits to growth,[5] and economists have presented alternatives, for example a steady state economy,[6] to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human development on the planet.
The term ‘sustainable development’ rose to significance after it was used by the Brundtlandcommission on its 1987 report, ‘our common future’. In the report, the commission coined what has become the most often quoted definition of sustainable development: “development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.[7]
The concept of sustainable development has in the past most often been broken out into three constituent domains: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability. However, many other possible ways to delineate the concept have been suggested. For example, the circles of sustainability approach distinguish the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability. This accord with the united cities and local government’s specification of culture as the fourth domain of sustainability.[8] Other important sources refer to the fourth domain as “institutional’,[9] or as good governance.[10]

1.2             Statement of the Problem
Following the Rio conference of 1992, most countries under took to draw up a national strategy for sustainable development. The implementation of these strategies has turned out to be tricky, because it must address very serious issues within economic and political contexts that are marked by strong inertia. The issues appear at every area of national policy. The various approaches reflect different points of view, and in particular: more or less constrained free market practices, a desire toplace people at the heart of the economy, the greater or lesser determination of the various countries in the world, and the balance between short, medium, long, and very long-term interests. Moreover, there is no denying that the interdependence of modern-day economies means that environmental problems must be dealt with on a worldwide level, which does not simplify the implementation of the necessary strategies, particularly because of differences in levels of development.
The aim of sustainable development is to define viable schemes combining the economic, social, and environmental aspects human activity. These three must therefore be taken into consideration by communities, companies, and individuals. The ultimate goal of sustainable development is to find a coherent and long-lasting balance between these three main factors, there si a transverse consideration, which is essential to the implementation of policies and actions with regard to sustainable development.
In the field of sustainable development, there are many major problems to be addressed. They require us to re-think our economy and our growth in favor of a society that is more economical in its use of raw materials and energy. Some of these problems include climate change, energy consumption, and waste production threats to publichealth, poverty, social exclusion, management of natural resources, loss of biodiversity, and land use. In this context, sustainable development approaches are now essential obligations. 

1.3             Research Questions
The following are our research questions:
1.      How can the concept ‘sustainable development’ be defined?
2.      What are we sustaining?
3.      Why should we brother about environmental management?
4.      Why should we value future generation’s needs as much as our own?
5.      What are the problems and challenges associated with sustainable development?
6.      What are the different types of activities or projects that fall under sustainable development?
7.      Are there any local sustainable development projects?
8.      What are some international sustainable development projects?

1.4             Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to appraise the relevance of sustainable development in Nigeria. And to specifically achieve the following:
1.      To fully examine the concept of sustainable development
2.      To determine the resources, which require sustainability
3.      To determine what measures are undertaken to ensure environmental.
4.      To determine whether solutions can be preferred to solvethe current problems and challenges associated with sustainable development.
5.      To examine the extent at which sustainable development can be achieved in the near future- 2020. 

1.5             Research Methodology
In this research work, we shall base our work on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. We shall also rely on the internet as much as possible. We shall consult law books, both foreign and Nigerian textbooks; law journals, law reports, periodicals, newspapers, published and unpublished legal and non-legal materials/ Articles, legal Dictionaries, Encyclopedia, et cetera. 

1.6             Significance of the Study
This study will be relevant in creating environmental awareness through education, teaching and sensitization of individuals
This study will also be relevant in understanding environmental behavioral change through communication.
            We believe that this study will serve as a guide to the ignorant and unsuspecting youths on the need for the protection of their immediate environment.
            Also, this study will be of tremendous assistance to lawyers, judges, corporate agencies and the general public at large.
            The study will also be a very veritable tool for easy referencing for those who also will like to research further into the topic. 

1.7             Delimitation/Scope of the Study
In this study, we shall cover the concept of sustainable development, its tentacles and the web that connects it with the society. Environmental sustainability, the need for a sustainable environment and resource management shall be covered in this study.
We shall make references to some states in the course of our research work.

1.8             Limitation of the Study
The following posed as limitation for the study:
1.      Financial problems: we spent so much money in ensuring that the work was done perfectly. At a point, we ran out of funds.
2.      Time: the time which was given for the completion of the work was insufficient but we managed to meet up.

In this chapter, we shall discuss, define and elaborate some literatures related to the concept of sustainable development. 

2.2             Concept of Environment
The Black’s Law Dictionary, defined environment as the complex whole of physical, economic, cultural, aesthetical and social circumstance and factors which surround and affect the desirability and value of property and which also affects the qualityof people’s lives.[11]
Another definition was given by the oxford advanced learners Dictionary[12] as it defines environment as:
“The natural conditions, for example, land, air and water, in which people, animals and plants live.”
Even the bible gave its own definition of the environment to mean the totality of the creation; the heavens and the earth and that is in it God created the trees, the animals, the flowers, water, deserts and every living and non-living things.[13]
A definition was given by the NESREA ACT[14] on environment, to include:
“water, air, Land and all plants and human beings or animals living therein and the inter-relationships which exist among these or any of them’’.
S.38 of F.E.P.A Act has a similar definition as it defined environment to include:
“water, air, Land and all plants and human beings or animals living therein and the inter-relationships which exist among any of them”.[15]
Another definition was given by Environmentalprotection Act 1990(EPA 1990), S.I of the environment to mean:
‘Environment consists of all, or any of the following media, namely, the air, water and land’.
Land, according to the well-established principle of law quic quidplantatur solosolocedit, consists of the surface of the earth, the susbsoil and the air space above it, as well as things that are permanently attached to the soil. It also includes streams and ponds.[16]
            The words of Theodore Okonkwo are not to be left out as he defined environment as:
‘Anything external to the perceiver which influences or may influence theperception process. The environment is made animals (man inclusive plant and microbes.’[17]
Environment was also defined by the C.E.A ACT[18] to include:
(a)  Air, land and water;
(b)  All layers of the atmosphere;
(c)  All organic and inorganic matter and living organisms and;
(d)  The interacting natural systems that include components referred to in paragraphs (a) to (c) 

2.3             Environmental Law
According to the Black’s law Dictionary, environmental Law is defined as:
“The field of law dealing with the maintenance and protection of the environment, including preventive measures such as the requirements of environmental impacts statements, as well as measures to assign liability and provide clean-up for incidents that harm the environment.’[19]
            Another source defined Environmental law, as a collective term describing international treaties (conventions), statutes, regulations, and common law or national legislation(where applicable)that operates to regulate the interaction of humanity and the natural environment, toward the purpose of reducing the impacts of human activity.[20]
The business Dictionary defined environmental law as the body of rules and regulations, and orders and statutes, concerned with the maintenance and protection of the natural environment of a country.[21]
            Environmental law was also defined by the Webster’s new world law dictionary to mean a body of law intended to protect the environment, by regulating activities that cause pollution, such as fossil fuel emissions and the dumping of waster; by prohibiting certain inconsistent uses of land designated as federal parkland; and by providing regimes of protection for endangered species.[22]
            Environmental law was also defined to mean a complex mix of federal, state and local laws, regulations, policy choices, science, and health concerns.[23]
            Also, another source defined environmental law as a complex and interlocking body of treaties, conventions, statutes regulations, and common law that operates to regulate the interaction of humanity and the natural environment, toward the purpose of reducing the impacts of human activity. Environmental law draws from and is influenced by principles of environmentalism, including ecology, conservation, stewardship, responsibility and sustainability. Pollution control laws generally are intended (often with varying degrees of emphasis) to protect and preserve both the natural environment and human health.[24]
2.4             Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.[25]
World Bank gave its own definition of sustainable development by stating that:
“Sustainable development is the passing on to the future generations, the same collection of natural wealth, for enhanced productivity.”[26]
            Another source believes that sustainable development is balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment.[27]
            Hamilton wentworth also gave his own definition by stating that:
“Sustainable development is positive change which does not undermine the environmental or social systems on which we depend.”[28]
Another definition of sustainable development was given to wit:
“Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend”.[29]
2.5       Natural Resources
            Natural resources, according to the free dictionary, means a material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit that occurs in a natural state and has economic value[30]
            According to Alber et al,[31] something is a resource only if it has value within a cultural technological context. In short, the horizon, fuels, ones human skills and energy which a country cannot tap are not practically speaking available resources.
            Another source, defined natural resources as anything that exists naturally in any environment, undistributed by man, in their natural form. They are considered valuableand useful to man in their natural form, depending on their quantity and demand.[32]
            A similar definition was given by another source as it says that natural resources are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form.[33]
            The oxford Dictionaries define natural resources as materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.

            Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.[34] As indicated by the I = Pat equation, environmental impact (1) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and  increasing human population (p), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence CA, and the application of resource depleting and polluting technology (T).[35]
            Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the high level threat panel of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation s “the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs.[36] Environmentaldegradation is of many types.  When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include: Environmental protection and environmental resources management. 

3.2       Pollution
            Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change.[37] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or non-point source pollution.
            There is pollution when materials accumulate where they are not wanted. Though the arterials which pollute May sometimes be naturally valuable, they constitute danger when out of place.[38] For many decades, man has held the erroneous belief that the environment, made up of land, air and water, can absorb waste products. The over hundred natural processes cannot however adjust to the heavy load of materials which man and sometimes natural, add to them.[39] As a result, when pollution occurs, it threatens natural systems, human health and aesthetic sensibilities, all of which make up the quality of life. 

3.3       Air Pollution
            Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the earth’s atmosphere possibly causing disease, death to humans, and damages to other living organisms such food crops, or the natural or built environment.
            The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life planet earth. Stratospheric come depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth’secosystem.
Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world’s worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 blacksmith institute world’s worst polluted places report.[40]
In 1979 an international convention was held to tackle the issue of the hazards of a polluted air. This was the “convention on long range trans boundary Air pollution” article I of the 1979 convention on long-Range trans boundary Air pollution defined it as “the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substance of energy into the air resulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, farm, living resources and ecosystem, material, property and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment”. Air is intangible, yet very much susceptible to abuse. Thus, because of air’s invisibility intangibility and fleetingness, it is often soiled, degraded and contaminated by dangerous pollutants. The effect is not usually noticed until it researches hazardous and even deadly levels. When it is noticed at all, no attention is often paid, until it researches its deleterious peak.[41]
Much as it is easier to taste or test or even to see polluted water, it is not as easy, in the case of polluted air. When air is polluted, there is no means of escape from it.  All human beings are affected.
There is no alternative to it. Whenthe air smells and inflicts burning sensation on the eye, nose and body, momentary hold of breath, as oftendone by people, is far from being escape from the reality of inhaling enough does of the messy stuff. We have to breathe, even when we know that the air is deadly. A renowned British environmentalist and author emphasized these facts with frightening statistics. According to him:
“An average person requires over 3015s of air a day or about 6 points of air every minute and he has to take it as it comes. He would not readily stand in sewage or drink dirty water, yet daily the individual draws about 26,000 breaths i.e. between 18 and 22 breath each minute, many of which if not all in some cases, are of filthy air.[42]
            Health effect of air pollution is more alarming than is generally known. The world is indeed in danger of being turned into a lethal chamber by air pollution.
            The reason being that the earth is gradually being enveloped by air pollution to the extent that it may soon become pointless to run away from it by locking one‘s self up in air conditioned homes because there is radon waiting in the room. Radon, an odorless radio-active gas commonly found in the atmosphere throughout the world, concentrates in residential homes. This indoor air pollution by random is said to be causing about 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the United States of America every year.[43]

3.4       Marine Pollution
            There are diverse ways by which one can categorize and examine the inputs of pollution into our marine ecosystems. A profound author patin (n.d)noted that there exist three main types of inputs of pollution into the ocean: run- off into the waters due to rain, direct discharge of waste into our water ways  and pollutants that are released from the atmosphere.
            We shall discuss more on this input but first, let us examine fully, the concept of marine pollution.
            Marine pollution usually erupts from the discharge of industrial, agricultural and human wastes into water ways, estuaries and seas. This usually results in the poisoning of aquatic organisms or the reduction of oxygen owing to the excessive growth of microorganisms(anthropogenic eutrophication) which makes it less habitable for fish. Toxic organic compoundsand metal pollution concerns human and environmental health and as a result of discharges to water, air, and terrestrial environment.[44]
            When harmful, or potentially harmful effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms marine pollution occurs. Some sources of marine pollution are based on land. They usually emanate from non-point sources such as agricultural run-off, wind-blown debris and debris. Another form of marine pollution, known as nutrient pollution, refers to contamination by excessive input of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal growth.
            When pesticides are introduced into the marine ecosystem, they are immediately absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, the pesticides mutate, as well as introduce diseases which can be harmful to human as well as the entire food web.
            A lot of potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are usually taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either filter feeders or deposit. The toxins, in this way are concentrated up ward within ocean food chain. Many particles combine chemically in a highly depletivemanner, causing estuaries to become anoxic.
            The inputs of marine pollution will now be discussed:
Land run-off
Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbors, can carry soil and particles laden with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals. This nutrient-rich water can cause fleshly algae phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas: known as algae blooms, which have the potential to create hypoxic conditions by using all available oxygen.
            Polluted runoff from roads and highways can be significant source of water pollution in coastal areas. About 75% of the toxic chemicals that flows into Puget Sound are carried by storm water that runoff paved roads and driveways, roof tops, yards and other developed land.[45]

Direct discharge
            Pollutants directly enter rivers and seas from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes. Inland mining for copper, gold, etc. is another source of marine pollution. Most of the pollution is simply soil, which ends up in the rivers flowing to estuaries, streams and even seas.
            Some minerals which are however discharged in the course of mining can cause problems, such as copper, a common industrial pollutant, which can interfere into the life history and development of coral polyps.[46]

3.5 oil pollution
            Oil pollution is the release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activities. The term, most often is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is discharged into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may due to release of crude oil from tankers, off shore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products(such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by larger ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
            Spilt oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of animals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Clean up and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and bio degradation) and the types of shorelines and beaches involved.[47] Spills may take weeks, months and even years to clean up.[48]

3.6 Waste Management
Waste Management is the method of disposing waste in an environmentally and sound manner, that reduces r eliminates   it harmful effect on man and his environment. There are several methods ands types of Waste Management, ranging from waste treatment, recycling land filling open dumping, secured land filling, and incineration composing, sesource recovery land filling incineration compos and toxic waster disposal and pollution control devices 16 .
            Waste Management is the organized and systematiz channeling waste through  pathways or other medilum to ensure that they are disposed of with attention to acceptable health, and environmental safeguard, 17 it covers the process of collection treatment, reuse, and minimization, reduction, identification, separation, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, disposal, treatment, sale and recycling of waste. Again, it involves maintaining records of quantities, Composition, designation and prong of disposal as well as regular monitoring and auditing of waste management    activities 19
            In view of the fact that industrial waste constitute hazards  to  health and the environment, it is necessary to control the management of such waste both administratively and statutorily in order to ensure that they are disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. 20
            Nigeria municipal waste collection and system refuse collection patterns
            Disposal of solid waste from some parts of old cities like Onitsha, Aba, Kano, Lagos and Ibadan presents serious difficulties because of the increasibilyt in congested areas. Long trek from family compound and foot paths to a far way refuse along stream banks and open areas, thereby contribution to the generally poor sanitation condition of the  cities. For efficient collection of refuse, proper storage is essential to expedite collection of solid waste and to safety of the public, in that it reduces increase of insects and rodents, odour nuisance, fire and accidents, which are determental  to the health of the populace. 22.
            The continuing process  of urbanization and industrialization increases the amount of solid waste generation, which demands disposal, but without corresponding facilities for the public. It has been argued that the collection of this rubblish does not correlate with the rate at which they are generated and ababdoned 23. The problems of refuse disposal start from the point of origin, transportation, to the point of final disposal, including them method of find disposal adopted. As a result there is a exigency for  the provision of sufficient there bins vehicles for transportation and utilization of effective methods of find disposal. However, the fact remains that when refuse collection is done manually and transported in outdated vehicles refuse collection becomes inadequate, and irregular.  
            Good environmental sanitation demands that refuse be collected regularly. Refuse collection should range from every other day to weekly in frequency 25. It is proposed that where combined or mixed refuse collection is practiced the service should be provided daily or at most twice a  week.
Disposal system
Refuse especially garbage decays much faster than other forms of refuse and offer greater attraction to rodents, flies and cockroaches. Then the need arises for prompt collection and disposal of refuse otherwise it becomes unpleasant to the senses, breads flies and furnishes food for animals such as digs and rodents. The need for adequate refuse management can be seen than imagined when the collection system fails to function as to realize hoe essential lates, gets decomposed, bad odour arise and rate and other vermin flourish.
            It has agued that the volume of solid waste generated perse does not invariably measure the degree to which the environment will be polluted if the waste can be evacuated and disposal off satisfactorily and as fast as it is generated, and collected, there would be no accumulation and no on sult, absue or pollution. But where the rate of evacuation and disposal perpetually lag behind the rate of refuse generation then solid waste become an incessant environmental nuisance, 26 .
Methods of waste reception and management.
There are several methods of industrial waste management; the selection of a particulars method depends on:
1.      The types and volume of waste
2.      Relative cost and
3.      Efficiency of each process to a particular case. Generally, some o f the methods that are commonly used in the disposal of industrial and petroleum wastes include:
a.      Recycling
b.      Refuse reclamation
c.       Land filling
d.      Surface impoundment
e.      Incineration
f.       Deep well injection 
g.      Chemical treatment
h.      Land treatment
i.        Solicitation
j.        Annular disposal of pumpable drilling wastes 27
Waste recycling
 It is clear that wastefulness is one of the major problems facing humanity; many of our natural resources used as industrial inputs in the production of goods are not available to us in unlimited supply. This particularly true when one reflected on many metals such as aluminum, copper, iron and steel, which are discarded in tremendous quantities all over the world and huge amount of money, spent annually in importing these materials into the country for various industrial uses. People in developed lands throw maintains of trash. Consider, for example , the  annual garbage out put of the united states. It has been said  “an equivalent weight of waste could fil 68, 100 Olympci-size Pools”  In Britain, it was once estimated that the average family discard six trees worth of paper in a year, 28
            Therefore, industries that converts waster to finished goods as done in most developed countries of Europe and the us should be established and a lot of encouragement should be given to them, where they exist. Paper, especially newsprint, could be recycled into fresh paper without following the environment. 
b) Land filling
            this method is commonly world over, especially in developing countries. It  involves dumping  wastes in  landfills, most times designated by retevant agencies and state times bodies. The principles is to tip the mixed refuse compactly in layers not more than 2m the deep, and to seal all exposed faces of each day’s typing with at least 0.25m of incombustible and non-putrescible materials, such as earth or dust.[49] The practice permits aAerobicand anaerobic organisms to break down the organic materials in the refuse. When this is properly executed, the tipped refuse is not unsightly or offensive, and the method can be used to re-claim irregular land for agriculture or some other purposes.
            This strategy is slightly an upgraded version of open dumping. It involves the use of land sit that is located to minize water pollution from turn-off and leaching. This strategy requires the waste to be spread in thin layers, compacted, and covered with a fresh layer fo soil each day to minimize fests and oesthetics loss, diseases, air pollution and water pollution problems. This method si very useful for land reclamation or enhancing the value of submarginal land. Nevertheless, in situations where the strategy is not properly managed, it can degenerate into an open dump. On major constraint of the strategy is the need for large band space to be used as landfill sites. It could be pretty difficult to come by such sites, especially in countries where there are not enough land space for other human activities such as construction of houses, farming and provision of social infrastructures. For this strategy to be adapted in a country like nigeria where land space is supposedly not the problem our waste management authorities require a high degree management changes in attitude. They need sincerity of purpose and effective prioritization. It is only through this that this strategy can be effectively managed.[50]
The open dump.
            The open dump is the most widely used method among the lot. As a result when open dump is employed in waste disposal. The site should be an isolated area, be property supervised and about seven kilometers from the nearest town or district boundary.[51]objection has been raised regarding open dumpmethod of refused disposal. The hauling of refuse on open supply food for rodents and stray animals like dogs and breeding places for flies and mosquitoes. The method also provides a grossly unsanitary area.[52] The advantages of land redemption cannot be denied but it is a primitive method of disposal avoided even where the standards of work man ship are comparatively.[53]
            Miller (1992) describes this as a method which involves the depositing of solid land liquid wastes in a land disposal site in such a way that the whole thing of seavenger, aesthetics, disease, air pollution and water pollution problems. This method allows for easy management of wastes as all kinds of wastes are easily received. It can be easily put into operation within a short period and it is not capital intensive. However it is quite unsightly and can be described as a disease breeding management strategy. It cause air pollution where such wastes have to be burned incineration.
            Combustible wastes may be reduced by high temperature burning. Anincinerator is composed of furnace into which the refuse si charged and ignited. In the process, a secondary combustion chamber in which burning at a high temperature is continued to complete the combustion process. There after, flues where in the gases of combustion are dean sea take effect, before they are conveyed to adimney and consequently to the atmosphere[54] at though expensive, incineration method seems an acceptable method of refuse management among most authorities. The method is satisfactory, and there is need for providing a forced draught and to prevent noxious gas and smoke from polluting the atmosphere. This is because of their ability to separate incombustible from combustible waste. It is regretted that local incinerators in developing countries are usually unable to perform these functions with result that highly inflammable objects are dumped and abandoned in the incinerators making subsequent burning impossible.
            This is a device in which solid, semi-solid, liquid of waste disposal. It is a waste management mean strategy that can easily be used to reduce the volume of wastes by at least 80%. It requires little land, and is capable of removing odours and disease carrying organic matter. The method could be highly capital intensive and it requires skill. This must have been the reason for the abandonment of a somilax strategy in lagos state even after the installation of the incinerators some years ago. Unless very costly control measures are installed, incineration as a waste management strategy can cause air pollution. Where such pollution occurs it increases the concentration of carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and other poisonous gases as well as harmful particulates. It also increases in the amount of diseases in the environment.
            This is the method of refuse management where by the domestic refuse is allowed to compost for use as artificial manure. The system involves sorting out putrescible materials from non-putrescible ones. The putrescible wastes are then arranged in open heaps where they are turned over regularly for mixing aeration under suitable conditions like a temperature of up to 0C, some pattogenic bacteria are destroyed while the organic or putrescible protion of the waste is broken down by aerobic action. This end product is used as a fertilizer in places where chemical fertilizers are not available.
            On the whole the choice of a method to be utilized willdedend on the population density, economic status of the nation and topographical nature of the area. In view of the importance of safe refuse disposal to the public, there is need weighing the pros and cons of a particular method before adopting it.[55]
            Composting is therefore, the biological decomposition or organic wastes under controlled conditions. The method hastens the conversion of organic waste to soil conditioner, in term, fo fertilization. Composting requires that waste must be sorted before dumping composting has been described as soil bank for the future. Effective composting requires careful sorting to ensure that only garbage pack of the waste is converted. In Nigeria, it has been in practice for long as a traditional waste management strategy. It is used to improve farm yield. There is need to however point out the fact that it is not consciously seen as a waste management strategy.              

            Forests are of immense importance in soil stabilization and erosion control especially in mountains and hilly regions; they also protect and conserve water supplies and prevent floods. Small groups of trees and even single trees have a similar role locally in preventing washouts and in holding stream banks. As mentioned above, trees contribute significantly nutrient recycling, carbon dioxide absorption, and oxygen generation of all products that comes from trees, those that are wood-based are by far of the greatest importance. Carbonized and fossilized wood(coal) supplies fuel for energy needs; other fossilized products of trees include amber, which is formed from the gum of pines, and kaurigum. From earliest times wood has been employed for such items as homes, rafts, canoes, fuel, and weapons.
            Primitive peoples were dependent on trees for many materials in addition to wood. Fruits and nuts of many kinds were important foods for both humans and animals. Leaves of palms and other trees were used, for thatching roofs. Cloths and hover fabrics made from bark, leaves, and other tree parts were used for clothing. Utensils were fashioned from calabashes, coconut and other fruits. Medicines, including genuine, were obtained from trees, as were dyes, taming materials, and spices.
            Modern civilizations are no less dependent in trees. Although substitutes now are commonly used for some tree products, the demand for trees remains strong, as in the manufacture of new print and other papers, as well as cardboard and similar packaging. The plywood industry converts immense numbers of trees into building materials.
            Many tree products other than wood and its derivatives are important. Edible fruits produced by trees include apples, cherries, peaches, pears, walnuts, chestnuts, pecans, and other in temperate climates; avocadoes, figs, persimmons, and citrus fruits in warm-temperate and subtropical regions; bread fruit, mangoes and mango steins in tropical regions; and the important fruit of desert region-the date. The coconut(cocusnucifera) the oil palm(Elaeisguineensis) and the olive(Oleaeuropea) are important sources of oils and fat used as food and for other purposes. From the trees comes such spices as cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg; substances used in beverages, such as cocoa, coffee and kola nuts; and chicle, the basis of chewing gum. Nonedible tree products exploited commercially include rosin, turpentine, tanbark, creosote, and cork and kapok fiber[56]

4.2       Protection of forests
            Protection of forests is a general term describing methods supported to preserver improve a forest threatened or affected by abuse or out of balance nature.
            Thus, forest protection also has a legal status and rather than protection form only people damaging the forest is seem to be broader and include forest pathology too. Thus due to this different suggest different things for forest protection.
            In German speaking countries, forest protection would focus on the book and abiotic factors that are non-crime related. It must be noted that a protected forest is not the same as a protection forest. These terms can lead to some confusion in English, although they are clearer in other languages. As a result reading English Literature can be problematic for non-experts due to localization and conflation of meanings.
            The types of man induced abuse that forest protection seeks to prevent include:
1.      Aggressive unsustainable farming and logging
2.      Expanding city development caused by population explosion and the resulting urban sprawl.
There is considerable debate over the effectiveness of forest protection methods. Enforcement of laws regarding purchased forest land is weak or non-existent in most parts of the world. In the increasingly dangerous south America, home of major rainforest, officials of the brazillian national agency for the Environment (IBAMA) have recently been shot during their routine duties.[57]
Land purchase
            One simple type of forest protection is purchasing of land in order to secure it, or in order to plant trees (afforestation). It can also mean forest management or the designation of areas such as natural reservoirs which are intended to be left to themselves.[58] However, merely purchasing a piece of land does not prevent it from being used by others for poaching and illegal logging. On site monitoring.
            A better way to protect a forest, particularly old growth forests in remote areas, is to obtain a part of it and to live on and monitor the purchased land. Even in the USA, these measures sometimes don’t suffice because arson can burn a forest to the ground, leaving burnt areas free for different use.[59]
            Other methods of protection
            A number of less successful methods of protecting forest have been tried, such s the trade in certified wood protecting a small section of land in a larger forest tropical rainforests can die if they decrease in size, since they are dependent on the moist micro climate which they create. There is an excellent article in national Geopgraphic October issue concerning red wood forest in California and their effort to maintain forest and rain forest.[60]

4.3       Protection of Animals
            Protection of animal is the practice of protecting endangered animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wild life conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife to humans.[61] Many nations like Nigeria, have government agencies dedicated to have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent non-porfit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.
Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction end.
Major threats to wildlife.
            Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below.[62]
Habitat loss: fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear litter resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the fast Habitat loss- due to destruction, fragmentation or degradation of habitat- is the primary threat to the survival of wildlife in the United States.
When an ecosystem has been dramatically changed by human activities-such as agriculture, oil and gas exploration, commercial development or water diversion-it may no longer be able to provide the food, water, cover, and places to raise young.
Every day there are fewer places left that wildlife can call home. There major kinds of habital loss:
1.      Flabitat destruction: a bull does pushing down trees is the iconic image of habitat destruction. Other ways that people are directly destroying habital, include filling in wet land dredging rivers, moving fields, and cutting down trees.
2.      Habitat fragmentation: much of the remaining terrestrial wildlife habitat in the remaining terrestrial wildlife habitat in the U.S has been cut up into fragmented by species habitat has been fragmented by dams and water diversions. These fragments of habitat has been fragmented by dams and water diversions. These fragments of habitat may not be large or connected enough to support species that need a large territory in which to find mates and food. The loss and fragmentation of habital make it difficult for migration species to find places to rest and feed along their migration routes.
3.      Habitat degradation: pollution, invasive species and disruption of ecosystem processes (such as changing the intensity of fires in an ecosystem) are some of the ways habitats can be become so degraded that no longer support native wildlife. Cl
Climate change Global warming is making hot days hotter, rainfall and flooding heavier, hurricanes stronger and drought more severe. This intensification of weather and climate extremes will be the most visible impact of global warming in our everyday liver. It is also causing dangerous changes to the landscape of our world, adding stress to wildlife species and their habitat. Since many types of plants and animals have specific habitual requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernating mammals, and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. Natural phenomena like floods, earth quakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires, affect wildlife.

4.4       Protection of Endangered Species
            An endangered species is a species of organismsthatwill likely become extinct. The phrase endangered species’ colloquially refers to any species that fits this description whereas conservation biologists typeically with it refer to species that are designated endangered in the FUCN red list, where in “endangered” is the second most severe conservation for wild populations, following critically Endangered. 3079 animals and 2655 plants are endangered worldwide, compared with 1998 levels of 1102 and 1197, respectively.[63] The amount, population trend, and conservation status of each species can be found in the lists of organisms by population.
            May nations have laws that protect conservation reliant species: for example forbidding hunting, restricting land development, or creating preserves.
Conservation status
            The conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood that it will become extinct. Many factors are considered when assessing the conservation status of a species; e.g, such statistics as the number remaining the overall increase or decrease in the population overtime, breeding success rates or known threats.[64] The FUCN Red list of threatened species is the best. Known world. Wide conservation status listing and ranking system[65]
            Over 40% of species are estimated to be at risk extinction.[66] Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create biodiversity action plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species. In the United States this plan is usually called a species recovery plan.
            FUCN categories, and some animals in those categories, include:
·        Extinct: examples: all as bear, aurochs, balitiger, black fin cisco, carribean monk seal, Carolina parakeet, Caspian tiger, dodo, dusky seaside sparrow, eastern cougar, elephant bird, golden toad, great quk, haast’s eagle, Japanses sea lion, Javan tiger, Labrador duck, moa, passenger pigen, pterosaurs, saher toothed cat, schamburgks dear, shor-faced bear, steller’s sea cow, thylacine, toolache wallaby, western black rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros.
·        Extinct in the wild: captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population. Examples: Barbary lion (maybe similar oryx, Socorro dove, Wyoming toad
·        Critically endangered: faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Examples: addax, African wild Ass, Alabama cavefish, amurleopard, arakan forest turtle, Asiatic cheetah, axoloti, Bactrian camel, brazillian merganser, brown spider monkey, California condor, Chinese alligator, Chinese giant salamander, gharial, hawarian monk et cetera. 

4.5       Reason for Extinction and Solutions
            A balanced ecosystem is an essential need for abetter tomorrow for mankind. Deterioration of ecosystem will give a negative impacts to theworld such as land slides, climate change and floods. However, large number of animals and plants are threatened with extinction these days. We depend on them not just to have our daily food but in many ways especially in environmental and ecology control. So that causes and preventions steps should be taken into account before it become worse.
            It is true that human activity is the major cause of this problem. Development of cities with construction of buildings and skyscrapers will destroy animal and plant habitats. So that, those plants and animals cannot survive because their food sources, home disrupted. Another significant casue is the hunting of race species for exotic food and traditional medicines which can be sold at high prices. In addition pollution of air and water can interrupt plants and animals life. For example, pollution of sea can threaten plankton and coral life which is a source of food and shelters to other marine life.
            A number of urgent measures need to be taken in order to solve this problem. Firstly, the hunting of rare species should be banned and international agency to be set up to prevent the illegal trade of these animals. Apart from that, government and local council can apply dome rules and regulations about pollution of river, sea and air against irresponsible companies and individuals. Heavy fines can be imposed to those who are against the laws.
            In addition, the public and children must be educated with knowledge about the importance of environment and ecosystem surrounds them. This can be done through campaigns in public and syllabus in schools.[67]

5.1             RECOMMENDATION
In the course of this research work, the following are our recommendations:
1.      The Nigerian authorities in conjunction with the existing environmental bodies should create preventive measures so as to eradicate those unwanted those unwanted factors that does not encourage environmental sustainability.
2.      Laws should be enacted and implemented that require sanitation in all the states on a weekly basis.
3.      The Nigerian government should adopt efforts and strategies necessary for implementation of the concept of sustainable development.
4.      There should be penalties inflicted on states that do not comply with the provisions of the laws governing sustainable development
5.      Programmes should be created which will educate and sensitize the younger ones and adults alike on the need to achieve a sustainable society.
5.2             Conclusion
During the last few decades, it has become evident that we can no longer think of socio-economic development in isolation from the environment. The nature of issues confronting us a long with an increasing interdependence among nations necessitates that countries come together to chart a sustainable course fo development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, was a mile stone event, effectively focusing the world’s attention on environmental and development problem we face as a global community.
            The summit brought together governments from around the globe, representatives from international agencies and non-governmental organizations with the objective of preparing the world for attaining the long-term goals of sustainable development.  

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[48], Kuwait stil recovering from gulf war fires. 3-jan-2003
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