3.0                                         MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Study area
            The research was conducted at Ali-ogo Ekoli Edda in Afikpo south Local Government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The area that was used lies in the humid tropics with high rainfall and high temperature, the mean annual rainfall of this zone for 2010 and 2011 base year was 2200mm obtained from 87 rain days with a fairly defined peak rain period of six months from April to September.

            The maximum and minimum temperature is 32.180C and 17,40C respectively while the relative humidity ranges from 50-87% and mean of 68.42%. The soil belongs to the order spodic horizon and association derived from humid climate. The soil textural class is sand loam.

3.2 Soil sampling
            Within each location, a soil sample was collected from the soil depth 0 – 30cm and bulked (composite soil sample). The bulked soil sample was mixed up thoroughly and three representative samples that have been collected were stored in a sample bag and labeled. Each sample becomes a replicate. These soil samples were used to determine the soil chemical properties after these set of samples, another soil sample was collected with soil auger attached with core sampler at the depth of 0 – 30cm respectively, and was used to determine the physical properties of the soil.

3.3       Laboratory methods
The physical parameters analyzed were:
The bulk density was determined using the core method of Blake and Hartage method (1986).
Total porosity was determined using the formula stated in equation 3.

 TP =    1 – Bd           x  100  -----------------------------Eqn 3
                    Pd                   1
 Where TP is total porosity, BD is bulk density and Pd is particle density

Soil Moisture content was determined using the gravimetric method by the formula in equation 4
Soil moisture = Weight of wet soil – weight of oven dried soil x 100    
Weight of wet soil      --------Eqn 4
Soil hydraulic conductivity was determined using method by Landon, 1991.
Infiltration rate was determined by the double ring infiltration method as described by Landon, 1991.
Soil temperature was determined using soil thermometer
Soil texture was determined using the hydrometer method described by Bouycous (1962).

3.4 Soil chemical properties
Organic carbon was determined using the walkey and black method described by Nelson and Sommers, (1982).
Organic matter content was obtained by the equation below
Organic matter = %OC X 1.724.
Exchangeable cations Ca, k, Mg, and Na were extruded with ammonium acetate and their amount in the filtrate determined by Perkins Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (A .A. S)
Exchangeable acidity was determined by titration method according to Tel and Rao, (1982).
Nitrogen was determined using macro-Kjehdal method (Bremmer and Mulvaney 1982).
Available phosphorus was determined using extractant by Bray and Kurtz (1998).
Total acidity and exchangeable bases was determined according to procedures outlined by Tel and Rao, (1982).
Soil pH was determined using glass electrode pH meter in water (McLean 1982).

3.5 Heavy metal accumulations
The heavy metals were determined using the Atomic Adsorption spectrophotometer machine (A. A. S) the following were the heavy metals that were analyzed Zn, Bo, Fe, and Mo.

Data collected was analyzed using ANOVA and means separation acceding to F – LSD as described by Stell and Torie, (1982).
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