Meteorological elements   
Weather stations
Materials and Apparatus    
Methods and procedure     

The basic practical study on meteorology was carried out in Ebonyi State University, meteorological station. The practical was conducted in groups to enable student retain the knowledge after observing and utilizing all the instruments found in the meteorological station. The practical session took place on 22 May 2014 at exactly 12 noon. The instrument consists of the following; Stevenson screen, Maximum and minimum thermometer, Wet and dry bulb thermometer, Rain guage consisting of funnel and emergency bucket, and the wind vane. All of this helps to give accurate observation of the daily atmosphere condition.

Meteorology as a Science 
Meteorology is defined as a science that study, observe and record all atmospheric condition which is used for weather forecasting.
   These observations are carried out by professionals working in a meteorological station who work on a daily basis in meteorological stations. The station could either be on land or on water but provided there is no alteration from buildings and trees.
      During the past century, 18th century to be precise, the meteorologist has  no major breakthroughs not until the 19th century where there was orderly and more advanced facilities and equipments or instruments to aid meteorological or weather analysis.
        Presently, we have space launchers, satellite mask and other forms of instruments put in place to get accurate weather changes. These instruments are controlled and managed by professionals known as Meteorologist.
      Today, the happenings and changes in the atmosphere can be studied ranging from temperature, humidity down to rainfall of a particular area which can be gathered together and put in place. The application of meteorology can be used in the military, agricultural activities, construction and mining and weather forecasting.
                        The meteorological station studied during the cause of the practical are namely;
1.         Synoptic weather station
2.         Climatologically station
3.         Agricultural station
4.         Rainfall station
Synoptic weather station
   This is a meteorological station where professional observers who are full time observers work. Their observations are carried out daily on an hourly basis. The data collected are used for weather forecast.

Climatologically weather station
     The observers are part-time workers who collect data mainly on weather elements like temperature, rainfall and others for the purpose of accurate analysis. They record their data twice daily (9am in the morning and 3pm in the afternoon). This is to ascertain the early hours atmosphere condition and the late afternoon conditions as well.
     Agricultural weather station
 The data’s collected here are done twice per day, i.e 9am and 3pm on a daily basis. These record are carried out by part-time observers mainly on agricultural purposes.
Rainfall weather station
     These are also part-time observers who collect data based on the daily rainfall of a particular area. The collected data are done twice daily i.e morning 9am and afternoon 3pm. The data collected are used to justify the amount of rainfall of that particular area.

    The study of meteorology cannot be understand without knowing the elements that contributes to weather composition, which are;
1)                                     Cloud
2)                                     Rain
3)                                     Relative humidity
4)                                     Wind
      The meteorological instruments include the following and these was found in the meteorological station.
1)                                   Stevenson screen
2)                                   Thermometer ( maximum and minimum)
3)                                   Thermometer (dry bulb and wet bulb)
4)                                   Rainguage
5)                                   Wind vane

Rainguage: This is a meteorological instrument used for the measurement of amount of rainfall. The rainguage is 0.25m above the ground made of metallic container that consist of a funnel and a bucket. The top of the rainguage is ring-like or round in shape which prevents water from splashing into the bucket. The funnel directs the rain drops into the bucket and this gives us an accurate measure of total amount of rainfall of the day. The rain guage is mounted in an open space or area where there is no building or trees to influence the reading. The rainfall collected is measured using the measuring cylinder and its calibration is 0-1m different.

Wind vane: This measures the direction of wind. The anemometer is also a meteorological instrument which measures the speed of the wind. The wind vane is mounted in an open area, it is a metal long pole with four cardinal point. The pole has a knob and blade which when there is heavy or wind approaching detects the direction of the wind. When taking your observation of the direction of wind, we consider the knob and not the blade.      

Maximum thermometer: This is mercury in glass thermometer used to check the highest temperature reached in a particular day. Its calibration ranges from 0.5oc. The mercury content in the thermometer expand as the temperature increases. The old mercury thermometer when in use can be rested using a magnet before taking your observations but the new mercury thermometer is reseted by swinging the thermometer after every observation.  

Minimum thermometer:  This is an alcohol in glass thermometer. Its calibration is 0.5 deterrence and it takes the minimum temperature reached in a day.     
Dry bulb thermometer: This records the temperature of a geographical area at that particular time.
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