The study has its objectives, to examine corporate communication as a tool for change management-A study of First Bank of Nigeria and Unity Bank. In addition, the study deepens in analyzing the effect of change management as a tool to corporate communication. In the banking industry, communication ensures the cooperation and support required to successfully manage its organization and implement its change agenda.
The study sketches a conceptional framework of organizational change and change management and outline the empirical review as well a theatrical framework of analysis, survey design was used and data were collected using histogram, mean, and likert scale rating. Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested using ANOVA test and reliability coefficient at 5% level of significance. The result of the two hypotheses tested using ANOVA and reliability test at 5% level of significance should that public relations determine change management within First Bank and Unity Bank. It went further to show that communication strategy employed by First Bank and Unity Bank affect management change. The researcher recommends that workshops and trainings should be giving to First Bank and Unity Bank staff to enable them meet up with the challenges facing them.

Change denotes the transition that occurs when something goes from being the same to being different. For example, water in the liquid state is not the same as water in the frozen state. At some point, it underwent a transition and became different. Change involves the introduction of new procedures, people or ways of working which have a direct impact on the various stakeholders within an organization. It entails moving from one state to another, specifically, from the problem state to the solved state in a planned, orderly fashion. However, as the 21st century is preoccupied with the concept of change; the role of communication in actualizing change is gradually dawning on organizations.
At the heart of change management lie the change problems – the organized process for getting from the current state to be left behind and the future state to be realized. The change problem might be large or small in scope and scale, and it might focus on individuals or groups, on one or more divisions or departments, the entire organization, or on one or more aspects of the organization’s environment. Uncertainty and fear of the unknown are common factors for resistance during change – employees do not always understand why change is occurring and tend to be wary of moving away from the old. This is where communication proves invaluable because people seem to move along the change adaptability curve faster if they know what is happening to them.
One of the critical areas of successful change management therefore, is communication, which involves consulting with stakeholders throughout the change process, Communication is highly sensitive and crucial in building trust, maintaining loyalty and productivity, and ensuring the cooperation and support required to successfully implement the change. Strategic communication is “a deliberate and planned approach to all communication activities, both for internal and external audiences” (Sue, 2005). It is essential as it impacts on the success of change. Strategic planning provides a mechanism for ensuring that the right decisions are being made, and for the right reasons. Strategic communication plan enables an organization to be proactive and be prepared for any communication challenge or opportunities, which may arise from the introduction of change.
Communicating change intent once by memo, therefore, is never enough, it includes allowing time and resources for the transition itself – that in –between stage when people involved are letting go of the old and embracing the new. The ability to effectively and consistently keep an organization top-of-mind and visible to all stakeholders is a critical component of success. One aspect of business that is constant is that business processes will constantly change as technology opportunities evolve. However, introducing new technologies to advance business goals is usually unsettling, understanding and acting upon inherent pitfalls in the process through communication can make the process empowering.
Public relations help an organization and its public adapt mutually to each other. Often, it is a term used to describe both, a way of looking at an organization’s performance and a program of activities. Public relations function takes many forms in different organizations, including public information, investor relations, public affairs, corporate communications, employee relations, marketing or product publicity, and consumer service or customer relations.
Basic to all public relations, however, is communicating. Well-planned, effectively handled communications are increasingly seen as essential to the success and even existence of organizations in today’s changing world. Every organization-government, business, labour, professional trade, health, cultural, financial, recreational, educational and public service-depends on people. Their attitudes, attention, understanding, and motivation can be critical to the success or failure of an organization or idea.
Public relations, at its best, not only tells an organization’s “story” to its publics, but also helps shape the organization and the way it performs. Through research, measurement and evaluation, public relations professionals determine the concerns and expectations of the organization’s publics and explain them to management. A responsible and effective public relations program is based on the understanding and support of its publics.

Effective organization is structured around two types of management agendas. The ‘sustaining agenda’ which includes ongoing operational activities related to programme delivery, human resources, finance and corporate services, and this occupies about 90 per cent of an organization’s time and resources. The other agenda which occupies the remaining 10 per cent of time and resources is the “change agenda’. It includes activities designed to transform or innovate the way business is accomplished by improving or changing elements of the sustaining agenda. Crucial to those two agenda is Communication.
Communication ensures the cooperation and support required to successfully manage an organization and implement its change agenda. Our daily lives, are inundated with information. However, the world is moving beyond the information age(in terms of data, facts) into the knowledge age (in terms of comprehension, expertise, technical know-how). The information age is well immersed and what is really needed is a way to sift and sort this information, a way to gauge what is useful and what is not. Effective change management occurs only if a change initiative is properly communicated to all and sundry among other things, using the right communication strategies.

The main objective of the research work is to, Examine the corporate communications as a tool for change management-A study of First Bank of Nigeria and Unity Bank. More specifically
1.         To investigate the extent public Relations can be regarded as an organ in change management within First Bank and Unity Bank.
2.         To ascertain how public Relations practices employed by First Bank and Unity Bank help in managing change.
3.         To examine how communication strategy employed by First Bank and Unity Bank brings about management change.
4.         To find out the extent strategic communication affects organizational change management of First Bank and Unity Bank.

            Having formulated the study objectives, the study will be guided by the following hypotheses.
1.         Public relations do not determine change management change within First Bank and Unity Bank.
2.         Communication strategy employed by First Bank and Unity Bank affect management change.

The study will be guided by the following research questions
1.         To what extent could public Relations be regarded as an organ in change management within First Bank and Unity Bank, Enugu.
2.         To what extent will Public Relations practices employed by First      Bank and Unity Bank help in managing change?
3.         To what extent will communication strategy employed by First Bank and Unity Bank bring about management change?
4.         To what extent will strategic communication affect Organizational change management of First Bank and Unity Bank? 

The study among other things will justify the essential role of public relations in change management, as well as highlight the various communication strategies that could be used during change intent. It will also serve as a basis for future researchers who would like to explore similar subject, as well as a reference point for those willing to equip themselves with the knowledge the finding of the study will eventually generate and for the benefit of the organization concerned.

Change is inevitable in any social set up or organization yet most people and organizations detest it like leprosy. What will be the focus of this study therefore is how communication and public relations practices could be used in managing change. 

1.8       SCOPE OF STUDY
The study is delimited to the employees of the organizations under study. Consequently, data are collected from the members of staff of Enugu branches of the organizations.

Since the establishment of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. In 1894, the Bank has consistently met growing market demands for financial services through a process of Continuous reinvention. Its current customer centered architecture combines service delivery through the traditional branch outlet with ease of the automated delivery channel to create a customer service experience that is strong choice, convenience and mass customization.
Since its establishment, the Bank has been strategic to the well being and growth of the Nigeria economy. Consequently, it has remained the most portable banking franchise in Nigeria, with group profit after tax of NGN 36.54 billon in the financial year ended March 31, 2007. Under pinning this success is the Bank’s strategy, with its focus on the two critical imperatives of modernization and growth.
With 453 business locations as at March 31, 2007 the Bank has one of the largest domestic sales net works in Nigeria, all online in real time. As a market leader in the financial services sector, First Bank pioneered initiatives in international money transfer, master card, inters witch and ATM consortium. It is the industry leader in terms of value and volume of ATM transactions in the country.

Unity Bank Plc was incorporated in May 1945 as a private limited liability company and commenced business operations as a commercial bank in the same year. The Bank was converted to a public limited liability company in April 1987 and was subsequently listed on the floor of the Nigeria stock exchange in January 1990. On February 5, 2001, the Central Bank of Nigeria granted a Universal banking License to the Bank, thus allowing the Bank to undertake a wide range if financial services to its numerous customers across the country.
The Bank has witnessed tremendous growth and development in branch network, quality of service delivery and overall financial performance in the last two decades. It embarked on a process of cooperate transformation that has resulted in the emergence of a restructured Unity Bank Plc, strategically positioned to fully optimize opportunities in the industry. Unity Bank Plc is adequately capitalized, shareholders’ funds is in excess of N25 billion and asset base is N165 billion. Presently, Odu’ a Investment Company Limited holds 10% equity stake in the Bank, while private individual investors and staff of the Bank own the remaining 90%. The authorized share capital of the Bank is N7, 000,000,000.00 divided into 14,000,000,000.00 ordinary share of 50kobo each.
With banking operations spanning sixty-two years, Unity Bank Plc is reputed to be the longest surviving indigenous bank in Nigeria. Unity Bank Plc is a customer-focused bank. We take delight in learning the intricacies of our customers business and preferences, thus the byline “taking you to greater heights”.

·          Corporate Finance
o   Corporate finance packages include:
o   Capital Market operations
o   Mergers and acquisitions
o   Capital Restructuring
o   Venture Capital
o   Project Finance
o   Investment services/Advisory
o   Portfolio Management
These products are available to customers and non- customers of the Bank alike. The guiding philosophy is to proffer value-adding solutions to “customers” debt/equity management problems.

1.9.4   Commercial Banking
The Commercial Banking department manages the relationships of middle level companies, small businesses and trading clients.  The department, which is situated at the head Office, has the following sectors under it.
Key Distributorship Schemes- Guinness Nigeria Plc, Nigerian Breweries, Flour Mills Plc. Etc. Unity Bank Plc was officially approved in September 2003 by Guinness Nigeria Plc to participate in the key distributorship scheme along with six other banks. Apart from Guinness Nigeria Plc, credit facilities are also granted to key distributors of other producing companies in Nigeria e.g. Nigeria breweries Plc and Flour Mills Plc.
Agricultural Services - The sector is one of the real sectors of the economy. The bold step of the present civilian government has brought about a great boost in agricultural production in the country. The sector has in its agric portfolio, various companies in the areas of fish farming, animal production, cash crop production etc.
SMIES - The sector identifies investment opportunities and, deal flow/ screening and investment structuring

The Public sector Group provides a one-stop market for customers and prospects in the three tiers of Government, Parastatals, Commissions and Institutions of higher learning. It provides the following services. Current Account Plus overdraft Facility (Capof) - designed for Local Government Councils to assist them in bridging the gap between payment of salaries and receipt of their monthly statutory allocation.
Higher Institutions Funding Account (Hifa) - designed for higher institutions of learning to facilitate the completion process of capital projects pending the receipts of its grant.

1.9.6   Revenue Collection Services
Federal Inland revenue Services Collection:
1.         Value Added Tax
2.         Company Income Tax
3.         Capital Gain Tax
4.         Stamp duty
5.         Withholding Tax
6.         Personal Income Tax
7.         Pre-operational Tax
8.         Petroleum Taxes
9.         International Taxes - Payment via Swift instruction.
State Revenue Collection
1.         Lagos States Taxes - payable Bank wide
2.         Ogun State Taxes - payable Bank wide
3.         Lagos Water Revenue - All Lagos Branches
4.         Lagos Waste Collection
Customs Duty payment
All branches nationwide collect on behalf of the Federal Government of Nigeria, NITEL and NEPA Bills as well as sell forms of institutions of learning and professional bodies.
o   Relationship management.
o   Provision and administration of Bonds and Guarantees
o   Provision and administration of loans and advances

Retail banking department is a group saddled with the responsibility of abridging the financial needs of the lower and the middle classes of the economy by making available financial supports for the creation of retail based risk assets and liabilities with the ceiling amount of not more that N20million turnover in six months. Retail Banking issues, amends and pays on performance bonds given by one party to another against loss or violation of the contract. This may be used to support a customer’s promise to deliver goods or guarantee obligation to complete a project.
Overdraft Facility - This facility is structured to augment customer’s    working capital by bridging the gap that may arise as a result of the cash inflow and outflow.
Leases – This is a facility that allows customers to acquire assets like equipment, plant and machinery while repayment is structured to allow payment of monthly rentals without undue pressure on the customer’s incomes
Term Loan – This facility has longer tenor than overdraft. It is used to meet long term business needs such as business expansion and procurement of large plants.
Import Finance- This is a facility type that enjoys flexibility of options. Unity Bank introduces options that meet the need of their customers in relation to cost-effectiveness. These options include standby letter of credit and collection obligations, bankers’ acceptance etc.
Export finance – Unity Bank extends facilities to their customers to meet international transactions at various stages; from production to shipping of the goods to buyers and collection of the proceeds.

Institutional Banking activities are specifically structured to provide excellent services to multinationals and corporate clients. In adding to quality services, it place premium on mutual business relationship built around in-depth understanding of client’s business so as to tailor products and efficient services to meet their precise business needs. Businesses are segregated into groups and products are packaged to take care of financial needs. The Directorate provides first class financial services and advice to the following clients:
1.         Conglomerates & Multinationals.
2.         Corporate institutions
3.         Energy Companies
4.         Telecoms Operators

The department relates with the Pre-Shipment Inspection Agents, Nigerian Customs and other relevant authorities in the processing of import documents such as
1.         Approved Form ‘M’
2.         Original Final Attested invoice
3.         Bill History
4.         Bill of Exchange
5.         Bill of Lading
6.         Exchange Control Documents i.e. customs clearing documents
7.         Clean Report of Inspection (CRI) and Customs Duty Receipts.
8.         Customer’s Authority to pay.
Documentary Credits:
Establishment of Letters of Credit such as:
o   Irrevocable Clean Confirmed Letter of Credit
o   Irrevocable Cash Confirmed Letter of Credit
o   Irrevocable Unconfirmed Letter of Credit
o   Discounting Letter of Credit Facility
Invisible Trade Transactions:
o   Business & Personal Travel Allowance
o   Subscriptions, School Fees & Maintenance Allowance
o   Dividend & Royalties Payment
o   Medical Expenses
o   Technical services Agreement
o   Management Fees
o   Capital importation/Repatriation
o   Personal Home Remittance
o   Foreign Cheque Clearing
o   Collection of Funds Overseas
Export Services & Domiciliary Accounts
o   Maintenance of Domiciliary accounts both in cash and inflow basis.
o   Processing of N & P forms for Exportation business.
Unity Bank treasury department specializes in placement and deposits of funds amongst banks usually dominated in local currency - Naira and foreign currencies. Treasury department also specializes in the management of accounts of other financial institutions.
Unity Open Plan Account (UOPA)
.           Share Acquisition Savings Account (SASA)
.           Artisan/Apprentice Savings Account (ASSA)
.           Marital Savings Account (MASA)
.           XMAS/Sallah Savings Account (XSSA)
.           Pilgrimage Savings Account (PISA)
.           Household Appliances Target Savings Account (HATSA)
.           Save and Grow Education Savings account (SAGESA)
.           Retirement Savings Account (RESSA)
.           Home Ownership Savings Account (HOSA)
.           Vacation Savings Account (VASA)
Unity Assets Acquisition Scheme was introduced to ease the financial burden of customers and non-customers alike wanting to acquire various assets and house hold equipments. The product is targeted primary at salary earners wanting to acquire personal assets like cars, satellite dish, gas cookers, personal computers, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioner, generating set, electronics, deep freezers etc.
Unity Inland Funds Transfer – for easy local money transfer. Unity inland Transfer (UIFT) is for both account and non-account holders
Western Union Money Transfer – Foreign currency is received by customers from any part of the world in a reliable, fast and efficient manner. Money sent to Nigerian from any part of the world can conveniently be cashed at any of the branches nationwide. This service made possible by Western Union enables millions of people all over the world to remit money to their friends, relatives and family.

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