Research proposal is the impact of environment on academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State.
            Right from the moment Julius Nyerere became the Tanzania presidents, he committed his government deliberately and unreservedly to the using of classroom environ merit to affect a radical transformation of the social values of his people. Speaking about the task of the period, Nyerere (1998), said “today we are engaged in revolution ... a revolution to stamp out colonial mentality from the heads of the people".

            Going by this, it was clear that if the goals of the revolutions were to be attained environment has an impact in achieving any positive goals oriented to include the children's academic achievement. He saw the environment as the most important factor in any state machinery directed toward development and changes. It was believed after some observations and analysis that it is environment more than any other single group or thing, that can determine, the attitude of children and shape their idea and the aspiration.
            Environment become power in its reality. With concept of the environment given by the researcher, it becomes more evident why very many years earlier Dewey (1968) has insisted that "one of the prime functions of the school indeed, the chief function is to provide a setting within which boys and girls can grow intellectually')'based on this, the need for rapid improvement of our environment in order to make our children maintain the expected standard should be a general concern to both government, private organizations and individuals.
            The impact of environment becomes more apparent, the moment one ponders the notion of school without good or favourable environment in which is located.
            Ezema (1993) quoting CESAC (2003) opined that there is the need to regard environment, since environment determines the children's future welfare and standard with regards to their academic works generally.
            From the assertion above, there is a need for parents to assist their children to choose environment that is conducive for learning that is environment that is located in a palace that is not near a market and have all the materials necessary for good education. This is because, it is only the environment that can make the children what they will be.
            The impact of environment involves guiding pupils towards securing the amount and quality of experience which will promote the optimum achievement of their potentials of human begins. The core impact of environment on the children's, academic achievement in Udenu Local Government Area, to a research, tended to expose the primary motivation and hidden areas where only environment made pupils not to met up with their academic achievement. This is because almost all the school in Udenu Local Government Area are located near a market in and  the rural parts of the local government area..
            As a result, the researcher, deemed it as a need to carryout this particular research work in order to determine and inform the good teacher the impact of environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school.

            The relationship between man and environment is basic and at the same time important because all the gains derived from ecological systems and all evolutionary changes hinge on the man's relation with the environment. Hence, children have not actually realized that achievement of academic excellence depends basically on their ability to adapt and cope with the environment.
            Surprisingly, in Udenu local government area, where this research work is conducted, schools, were situated in all corners of the areas without a due consideration of the environment whether favoruable or not. As a result, children found it extremely difficult to learn and understand as a result of the less friendly environment. This distracts the pupils and these rob them of the concentration required on programmes sequentially presented to them on line with the school curriculum.
            Udenu local government area is inhabited by mainly illiterate parents who are determined to average their illiteracy by ranking the education of their children as a priority. It seems that the environment, as discussed may impose some limitation on the realization of this ideal. The problem of the study then is "what is the impact of environment on the academic achievement of the children in primary schools in Udenu Local Government Area?

            The purpose of this study is to find the impact of environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study is to determine
i.       The factors that promote academic achievement of children.
ii.      The    impact    on    school    children    of    school environment devoid         of teachers,
iii.      The    extent   to    which    environment   facilitates
            children's learning readiness.
 iv.     The   degree   to   which   adverse  cultural   factors influence children's        learning behaviour.

            The researcher has no doubt that at the end of this research work any one coming across it would definitely know the need for accurate records of the past for future use. It will equally help any reader to know the brief historical analysis of the environment as contributed towards children academic achievement. The study is important for the following reasons.
1.         It shows the meaning and needs of environment to students by educating    the students on the need to go to a school that is not located near a           market.
2.      It will improve the academic standard of children by encouraging them to     school in a good environment.
3.    It helps parents to consider the environment first before blaming the     teachers on the poor academic achievement of their children.
4.         The study will help in promoting the body national environment       protection agency especially in Udenu Local Government Area. This is           because any organization or proprietor/proprietress must put more effort         to make sure that the school is conducive for learning.
5.         The study will also serve as a reference point to any further research work             related to environment and its important in academic achievement of the          student.

            The study was based on finding out the impact of environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu Local Government Area. Theresearch was basically delimited to the environment cum its impact towards education of the people.

The following research questions
1.      What are the environmental factors that promote academic achievement of   children?
2.         To -what extent does  environment facilitate the chidlren's readiness to       learn?
3.         How does an environment facilitate the children's readiness to learn?
4.         How does adverse cultural environment affect the children's learning          behaviour?

2.1    Conceptual framework
2.2    Theoretical framework
2.3    Review of empirical studies
2.4    Summary of literature review     

            Many authors have written many papers as definitions to the concept "role" in various perspective and each definitions lies on one's conception and ideology which were mainly based on various areas of specialization.
            According to Ekuma (199£J) "Role is an expectation desired or belief which people have in a particular circle which guides, directs and modifies their activity". This assertion, was looking at the concept role as an already made factor which stands the better chance of directing, guiding and modifying the activity of the people within their circle.
            From the oxford advanced learners dictionary (2006) "it is a function that a thing typically has or is expected to have^ *by this, it is a common goal to be done which if it is not done may have an adverse impact. There are several roles but for the purpose of this particular research work, the case in question was the role of environment in pupils learning.
            Having reviewed some scholars in the definite of role as a concept, it is like saying that environment plays the greatest role in insuring the positive achievement by the children at all level of learning. This is obvious in an assertion given by Nigeria (1998) that: "it is only environment more than any other single group of people or thing that determines the attitudes of children and shape their ideas and aspiration of the notion. This is power its reality.
            With this conception of environment given by a teacher (since Nyerere was himself a teacher) it becomes more evident and clearer why many years ago or earlier, Dewey (2008) has insisted that "one of the prime functions of the school, indeed, the prime functions is to provide a setting within which boys and girls can grow intellectually".
            The impression here is that it is only the environment that can play the vivid role in realizing the children, who by this profession in position was in the support of the environment without saying after its manifestation to the understand it and its manifestation to the children's academic achievement in support of the said Icha (2001) in a seminar to undergraduate adopting to your society he, said that: books can help, so can laboratories computers, teacher, so also can numerous other types of materials which are useful to a certain extent but yet without a due adaptation of the environment where such things are presented, nothing meaningful have take place inside this analysis it is clear that environment plays the double standard in building the serves as a noun qualifier and harmonize knowledge for proper assimilation to pupils who obeys the rule of the environment.
            In a continuation to the learning arousal role of environment on the children's academic achievement, Sunday (2001) on the paper he presented to the students union government in the resumption of his office, titled the 'social classes and its effect on the children" he has this to say: "many children in a prominent middle class tend to have difficulty in school if placed in the same environment with children from the working class counter part. The reason is that in such social environment, social control and instruction are highly structured or were externally imposed in a teacher centred curriculum in Nigeria, Udenu Local Government Area in particular it is not yet noticed because practically most of the primary schools are all structured alike. As a result, the children from the middle class environment have been better exposed to education materials like radios televisions, toys and other rich educative materials and environment.
            They are better equipped and more motivated than children from working class environment tends to stress egalitarianism and development of self direction, a highly structured teacher centred classroom cannot only be discrepant fro middle class children but also can cause them to loss interest and motivation in learning the impact of adverse cultural environment on learning.
            The impact of environment infact becomes more, apparent, the moment one entertains the notion schools without a good favourbale, environment where this work was conducted. In making this study entertaining and educative in nature which is the primary motive, some certain fact should be cheered first.
            In the pursuit of optional stimulation levels, much recent school design has emphasized the minimization or maximization of environment stimulation. Although, there is much controversy over their effectiveness in improving learning process, woods (1969) noted that: "there is no significant difference in learning rate when widows are replaced by solid walls, that it has been found that learning ability many increase with continues sensory deprivation following this assertion, what it was saying was that errors were fewer in the less rich classroom. The fact is that some irrelevant things should be avoided in the classroom those thing which to some administrator or teachers look like improving the environment turns to be a great disturbance to such classroom whereby distracting and making children to lack the concentration during lesson delivery and various other class activities.
            However, there has been a practical trend towards on emphatic enrichment of the children internal or classrooms are replete with noise tools, posters, painting mobiles and mulfanious utilities. The assumption was that environmental richness is conducive to learning. A study of year long classroom enrichment programes however found that children performance were not enhanced. And on that very context Trabasso (1968) has argued that 'there is more danger in enriching a learning environment perhaps we might do better as teacher to improve words or relationships that are to be learned.

            According to Ebere (2003) citing Goddis (1999) theory is a way of packaging patterns from the past, to understand the present and be able to predict the future", from this definition given, one then saw it as an avenue in which solution were identified and can be solved in another perception, theory can be seen as scientific construct designed to help in the explanation of events and phenomenon it helps to sharpen the focus of a researcher, there by providing the necessary framework on which the inquiring is based in a different discipline, thrones emerge in explanation of the problems the basic rationale and relevance of theory lies on its capacity to provide the necessary answers to the objectives and various questions under study.
            On the basis of this, Elseley (1999) asserted that "it is environment that determines the human characteristics and activities found and wholly determines and dutates what man and his activities should be, and man is seen as vulnerable what man and his environment.
Going by this explanation, it is believed that, environment is a sine -qua-non in the modification of any human activity and at that survival of an individual also relived on the environment determinant perse.

            Environment according to oxford advanced learners disctionary (2006) is the condition, circumstances, etc affecting a person's like it was agreed here that all existing or non-existing elements that affect the human life was regarded as environment.
            This is because all the elements have an impact in the environment.
            In a related manner Okere (1986) said that "environment consist of all, or any of the following media namely the air, water, land and medium of air which includes,   the   air,   within   other   natural   or   main   made structured above or below ground.
            Going by this particular analysis given out environment is therefore anything including air which the children breath the water they drink the food they eat and how they eat it. The building which academic achievement. In a no distance time Ezema (1993) said that "great Britain environmental development (1990) opined that environment includes water, air, land and all plants and human beings which exists among these or any of them" from these definitions and explanations, the concept of environment encompasses all the circumstances and friendly factors to include the natural and artificial factors that children interacts with which in the other hand can enhance their academic achievement. This is just like saying that children's academic achievement depends much on the environment and that environment is universal.
            In making the fate of pupils learning in an environment without a teacher vivid for the purpose of this research work.
            Ezema (1993) federal environment protect agency of Nigeria (FEPA 1993) thus, environment incorporates all in our ways of life which includes arts, crast flora) fauna, tradition/culture, weather/climate water bodies etc.
            What the above expression according to the author was saying was that environment that contain all things that faster the children's life. The arts and science habitual attitudes, our-way of life and all the water bodies of any kind. It was asserted that those thing which affect children's life real situation was no other factor or element than what we knew and called environment. According the Owunwa (1999) on the lecture he delivered to school of social science Avan Ikoku collage of education titled, "the formal decision making said that" environment refers to the domain or setting where foreign policy of a state is made and he motional of environment as regards to tais to include domestic and external environment control everything that happens and that cannot be stopped or changed in learning is environment.
            The external environments comprise the three sub-sectors. The physical, social and institutional sectors. The physical sector is the entire universe the earth which includes land, sea and air and the outer space. This sector essentially concerns the geographical locus of the state obviously this locus can inhibit effective communication among the milieu. The social sector deals with group of people which includes students whereas the last one the institutional sector more or less can have some measurable influence on its behaviour that is for the external environment.
            In the domestic environment it includes the people the political parties, interest groups and the policy makers, themselves, because as members of the society they have imbibed the values and norms of that society and those exposes them to pressures and influences from entitles within the state. A part from being members of that society, some element of the peoples domestic environment of the decision making. As we are going on Devis (1997) has his to say "environment consist of all the external influences that impinge upon human organization , these influence exert their effects through physical stimulus that produce sights sound test, smells and other bodily sensations" it is these sensations that made us to be aware of our environment and its is environment and meet to it. We can easily under state our total environment if we separate the human elements in it from those that are non-human, the element surrounding them are of human origin which we refer to as social environment. The general character of our social environment depends chiefly on the culture of the group to which we belong. The character of our natural environments depends primarily on the climate water, resources of the part of the world we live in an area for long period of time, they are certain to have made changes for better or worse in their environment. It then becames difficult to draw a sharp line between the constructed physical environment and some aspects of natural environment.
            The fate of pupils learning in an environment featured greatly after the successful established by Darwins theory (2003) when geographers of the period began to adopt environment approach to the explanation of area variation over the earth surface and the differentiation of man from one place to another. This form of explanation is geography inspired the springing of the two schools of thought with divergent views on man environment relationship. The schools were the school of environment determination and the school of environment possibilities.
            The first school has the following people (Budde, Oemoline, miss ellem sample and Eusarth Huntington) and have their view that " a particular physical environment or any given environment determines the human characteristic and activities found in him they were saying that general attitude of behaviour was best ermined by the environment found there and nothing else. To the school of possibilsm which encompassed (Paul, vice, delabianche) said that "it is man rather than changes the environment and make the environment what he wants it to be" when enitcially analyzed especially for the purpose of this particular research work we can believe that the first school of thought were of more useful view because it was their view which considered the environment in manipulation of human activities rather than human being manipulating the environment to fit theirs. Although, they said that the first group was correct but what they were saying was that man is not totally enslaved to his environment because man has some options to free himself from some of environmental influences. After all, man has grown his crops by irrigation where there were little or no rainfell has reclaimed land from water body.

            In order to investigate the confliction claims of environmental impoverishment and enrichment, lurole poerteous (1992) exposed children to a learning task in an environment which was sufficient flexible to permit the rearrangement of soft furnishings posters or mobiles to give distinct levels of environmental complexity children were found to learn best in the low complexity and least well in the high complexity environment children were found spending more time looking at the environment rather than the task in the high complexity condition.
            Of course, several replications of the experiment would be required to discover whether adaptation accrued and the room. It is impossible to asses whether he is attending to the environment displays or whether he is rehearsing the learning task, clearly a design decision for or against enrichment of the traditionally classroom or the, impoverishment of many modern classroom will required much more research on the cones proposed by the authority or scholar porteous. Notwithstanding, learning environment should not built solely to promote learning activities in classroom, libraries and study areas. In the effect of this, summer (1990) argued that since formal learning is an interaction between tutor and pupils while engaging in working which is teaching and learning process to bring about change, the children was expected to gain as much intellectual fellow children as from his teacher. The explanation have is that regardless of what the distraction should be, there is the need for calling a spade a spade. That is improving the academic environment to adopt the cordial learning atmosphere. The place of academic learning should be kept decent not over decorated for the fact that anything over dose learning environment can be any settings, classroom nursery or playground and the purpose of the prepared environment is to make the children independent of the adult, the vision of the scholar above was that when an environment is prepared for the children in any particular setting the environment will play the role of making such children an independent of the adult. It is assumed that most of the children have not reached to the age being on their own and it is only the environment that can help them to do this. As this will manifest in their real life situation when they (children) come up to the expected age of being independent. It is a place where the children can think for himself. This is environmental manifestation, the ideal classroom to him was described, they talk about open education in many respects.

            This chapter describes methods and procedures used by the researcher in caring out the study with particular emphasis on.
3.1     Research design
3.2    Area of the study _
3.3    Population of the study
3.4    Sample and sampling technique
3.5    Instrument for data collection
3.6    Validation of the instrument
3.7    Reliability of the instrument
3.8    Method of data collection
3.9    Method of data analysis

            The design of this study was a descriptive survey research. Questionnaire was used together, vital information from the respondents as regards the impact of environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu local government area of Enugu State.

            The researcher conducted her research study in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State.

            The target population is estimated at 9TDOO people in Udenu local government area of Enugu state. This comprises mostly of teachers, civil servants and literate parents at the proportion of the 2.2.1 respectively.

            The researcher used stratified random sampling in selecting her respondents. The accessible population of two hundred (200) were used which comprises of teachers, civil servants and literate parents. This was carried out in the proportion of 2.2.1 that is 80 for teachers, 80 for civil servants and 40 for literate parents.

            The instrument used was a structured questionnaire, copies of the questionnaire were used to collect the data for the study since the research involved the measurement of perceptions of respondents in terms of the impact on environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu Local Government Area, questionnaire was considered appropriate (Borg and Gall 1979 and Best 1984).
            The 20 items instrument consisted of two parts. Part one sought personal data on the respondents, part two was developed based on the purpose of the study, the hypotheses and the reviewed literature to elicit answers to the study's research questions.
            The part two was further divided into five sections: strongly agree, "SA" agree "A", undecided "U", disagree "O" and strongly disagree "SA".
            These sections respectively sought information on the impact of environment on the academic achievement of children in primary school in Udenu Local Government Area.
            The questionnaire was ended with nominal values assigned to each possible response that was expected from the response each of the items was scored on the basis of this code.
            In part one, the respondent was requires to check the column that concerns him/her. The part two is a rating scale structured in five point: strongly agree, agree, undecided; disagree, and strongly disagree were assigned with numerical values 5,4,3,2 and 1 respectively. Responses with values 2.5 and above were classified as positive responses, while those below 2.4 were negative responses, 2.45 being the real lower limit of agree, with the assigned numerical value of 2.5 was adopted as the cut-off point on the scale.

            The instrument was given to two experts were requested to validate the instrument with reference to clarity and its appropriateness in addressing the purpose of the study. The items which were not clear and appropriate were dropped leaving the twenty items used in the study. These are the items the experts found appropriate in addressing the objectives of the investigation.

            The instrument used in this study was very reliable because it makes use of questionnaire which it is the people of the same locality were the respondent. The teachers, the civil servants in udenu local government area and also the literate parents in udenu and this shows that their answer is the truth and nothing but the truth. It is also reliable because the item used is validated by experts who dropped those that are not clear and appropriate.

            A total of 220 copies of questionnaire were add-ministered to the respondents. Two hundred (200) copies were returned for analysis. This respondents a high return of 91 percent.

Frequency   distribution   table   and   mean   statistics   were adopted for the data analysis as it applies to the research questions highlighted for this study. The formula for the  X = EFX

            Where X = mean; E = summation sign; F = response frequency; X = nominal values and N = number of respondents.

Decision Rules
            In the five-point likert scale weighted 5 to 1 from strongly disagree, undecided response is weighted 3. This means that the positive response starts from 3.5 which is the lower limit of "agree". Which is weighted 4. consequently, scores below 3.5 are regarded as disagree while those with socre of 3.5 and above are accepted as agree 3.5 therefore is the cut-off point of the responses to the research questions items.  
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