1.1       Background of Study 
            “Suicide Bombing and Terrorism” is a twin –concept used to ex-ray the extent terrorist activities have gone. Though this research focuses on suicide bombing and terrorism in Nigeria, it is not limited to Nigeria. Nigeria being a multi-ethnic cum multi tribal state is faced with security challenges propelled by inter-ethnic tensions, anarchy, debauchery occasioned by egocentric and tribal aggrandizement of the ruling party.

            However, we cannot just “dive” into the current concept of terrorism which is the breeder of all other forms of terror-related activities (including suicide bombing which is treated as a twin-concept with it in this paper), without making it knowns to us that terrorism is a primordial system in Africa, lot alone the world. Moreover, the Sherifien dynasty of the Alawites and Filali in Morocco to the regencies of Algeria, Tunisia and Libya under the effect suzerainty of the Sultan of Turkey, the Berber-Arab population of North Africa experienced one form of terrorism after another, even before colonial rule1. [1]          

Nigeria since her return to civil rule in 1999 faces some national security challenges across the six geo-political zones in the country. The spate of bomb blasts, kidnapping, pipeline vandalisation and other forms of criminalities in recent times in various parts of the country are emerging trends of domestic terrorism.    This view was also shared by Minister of Police Affairs, retired Navy Capt Caleb Olubolade, when he acknowledged that the nation now faces new security threats that were quite different from what we used to know2.

            Terrorism in Nigeria climaxed between 2009 and 2011. It is not as if there are no records of terrorist activities in Nigeria after 2011, but terrorist activities got to their precipice between the said years. Terrorism is a canker that “suck” dry any nation wherein it is experienced. The Nigerian case is no exception. For instance, the northern part of Nigeria is now tagged “death zone” because of the activities of the Boko Haram Youth Corpers are afraid to go there. Business men and women have relocated from the North to other parts of the country. The recently incessant declaration of states of emergency [2] or curfew in many parts of the North is a clear example of how terrorism retards development in the country.
            This paper seeks to examine the local and social implications of suicide bombing and tourism in National Development.
            Coming to the side of legal implications, the paper X-rays certain laws, statutes, conventions, etc made internationally, regionally and locally to checkmate terrorism in Nigeria. These laws may include (but not constrained to), U. N. General Assembly Resolution 34/45 (1978), the U.N General Assembly Resolution 40/61 (1985) and, U.N General Assembly Resolution 13/73 (2001). Other conventions include, the convention on the prevention and punishment of crimes against internationally protected person; Diplomatic Agents adopted by the General Assembly of the U.N.C (1973) 1035 UNTS 167 ILM41 (1974), The international contention against the taking of hostages, adopted by General Assembly of the U. N. (1979) 1316 UNTS; 18 ILM 1460 (1979)3, etc.

        There are however such indigenous laws that “combat” terrorism expressly and impliedly, (impliedly in the sense that they do not clearly tackle terrorism but “fight” terror- related offences like murder, armed robbery, kidnapping, eccetera, as stipulated in the penal and criminal [3] Codes, and even the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria (as amended) 4. The express confrontation of terrorism is the recently passed statute, “Anti- terrorism Act”, 2013 which repeals that of 2011, which is a quintessence of local statute that control terrorism.
            Ely, Karomon states that “there is also an optimistic trend in the international arena of the late 1990’s. During the last decade, and more so during the last two to three years, we have witnessed a growing readiness and interest on the part of more countries to cooperate in the fight against terrorism, on the local, regional and global arena”5. This statement by Karmon indicates the readiness of countries to combat terrorism globally.

            This paper goes on to examine the historical development of suicide bombing and terrorism and of course, the concepts of suicide bombing and terrorism. What face the contemporary Nigerian state are security challenges. A developing country like Nigeria is ‘raped” and wrecked by insecurity owing to terrorism. National growth and development are “halted” [4] because everybody is security-conscious and nobody wants to risk their life. These problems have caused retardation in the country’s economic and social development.
            This paper is made up of five chapters. The chapter one deals with the general introduction, statement of problem, research question objective of study, scopes of study, and research methodology. The chapter two deals with the literature review, historical development of suicide bombing and terrorism, the concepts of national development, empirical cases on suicide bombing and terrorism, the cause of suicide bombing and terrorism. Chapter three is on the theoretical frame work of suicide bombing and terrorism, ie; suicide bombing and terrorism in Nigeria, local (Nigerian) statutes on suicide bombing and terrorism and international laws on suicide bombing and terrorism. Chapter four deals with the legal and social implications of suicide bombing and terrorism: the success(s) and failure(s) of both the national and international laws in checking terrorism. Finally, chapter five deals however, conventionally and conservatively with observation, recommendation(s), and conclusion.

            Suicide attacks are not a new phenomenon6 and they have exponentially increased over the past two decades. They have clearly
become the most dangerous modus operanadi of modern terrorism. This refers us to the manga’s case7 the suicide bomber who bombed the Nigeria police force headquarters Abuja on June 16, 2011.
            The essence of this paper is not only to discuss suicide bombing and terrorism but to bring it down to the Nigerian context; examine its legal and social implications in national development. This paper (research) is “virgin” it is virgin because not quite a good number of researchers have developed interest in the subject, hence, scarcity of already made materials for the project.

1.2       Statement of Problem 

            Nigeria today is ranked among the world’s terrorist states countries. This not only connected with the Boko Haram insurgency but with terrorist roles played by characters from Nigeria, out side Nigeria. A “locus classicus” on this issue is the December 27th 2009 case of Umar Farouk abdulmutallab who had tried (atttempted) to bomb an America airline, and the May 23, 2013 incident in wool-wich London wherein two Nigerians (Michael, Adebaajo and his brother, Mujaheed Adebalaj) on a broad- day light decapitated a British soldier, Drummer Lee Rigby of the battalion the Royal Regiment of fusiliers.           
            In the light of the afore-stated terrorist acts carried out by people who are indigenous to Nigeria, the country is rated among the top terrorist countries of the world. These terrorist activities by Nigerians within and outside the country have made Nigerians all over the world to become “indirect suspects”. Terrorist activities have made Nigerians not to be trusted. All these lead to retardation in growth and development. This paper seeks to present the fortune terrorism, especially in the form of suicide attack/bombing brought to the statues of national development (whether good or bad).
            However, it is ascertainable that terrorism brings no good fortune but ill fortune. It is a threat to the Nigeria State. It has brought economic retardation political insecurity and social terror. All these give me concern; hence the topic, “Suicide Bombing and Terrorism in Nigeria: An Examination of the Legal and Social Implications in National Development”.

1.3       Research Question                 
            This paper has one but multi-facet question it seeks to answer. As we have known, the paper is on “Suicide Bombing and Terrorism in Nigeria; An Examination of the Legal and Social Implications in National Development”. But this however is not the only problem this paper seeks to solve. It also seeks to answer questions like;
            What is suicide bombing/terrorism?
            How has it affected national growth and development?
            What are the causes of terrorism in Nigeria?
            These and many more are questions this paper seeks to address.

1.4       Objective of Study       
            This paper is directed towards achieving coherence and lucidity on the questions cited above. This however neither means that this paper is a perfect research on terrorism nor insinuate that the research has been haphazardly done but that research has been done to tackle specific questions on certain aspects of terrorism.
            The paper seeks to bring clarity on the questions of suicide bombing and terrorism in Nigeria. It concentrates more on the Nigeria State and diversifies a little globally. Although there have not been, enough researches done on the topic and no much secondary sources, dealing on the subject, this paper seeks to give the reader a clear understanding of the subject with the limited, materials available.
            Again, this paper seeks to ‘weigh” the statutes that guide against terrorism in Nigeria.
            Finally, the paper is primarily interested in the legal and social implications of terrorism; how it promotes or hampers development in nation building.

1.5       Significance of Study     
            This paper is necessary in certain respects and aspects. In proffering measures to be taken for the development of a nation, considerations must be made on the subject of terrorism; how it affects development in a state.
            This paper is also relevant to people who want to know the causes of terrorism. In short, the relevance of this paper is too enormous since it deals with certain aspects of terrorism like historical development of suicide bombing and terrorism, empirical cases of suicide bombing and terrorism, local and international laws on suicide bombing and terrorism.
            However, despite the significance of this paper in many areas, the paper is also vital to voracious readers who are versatile and read to acquire knowledge and may see reason to appreciate or criticize the “healthiness” or “illness” of the research.

1.6       Scope of Study            
            This paper is directed but not limited to suicide bombing and terrorism in Nigeria. It covers terrorist activities in other parts of the world.
            It deals with international laws on terrorism, it also seek to check the success and failure of both local and international laws in combating terrorism globally. However, this paper concentrates more on terrorism in Nigeria. It seeks to face the locally indigenous insurgent group, BOKO HARAM that stands menacingly against the security of the country.

1.7       Limitation of Study         
            It will be fallacious to state that this paper is without problem.
            In the course of this research, a lot of problems were encountered. This include the problem of limited materials like text books, journals (academic) and even cases dealing on the subject.
            These limitations made the research to base so much on online materials like academic journals, individual thesis and few textbooks like Boko Haram and terrorism (edited by Simon O. Anyanwu and Isidore U. Nwanaju) and some journals like the International Law and the Growing Trend of Terrorism. The paper is subject to the information of the media.
            This is not to say that these limitations made the research half-baked but made it rather tough with time consuming factors and resource- demanding processes.
            Another problem I encountered in the course of the research is the problem of money for the ‘run-arounds” there was little or no money for the visitation of other schools in “scramble” for materials (though it was still done painstakingly).

1.8       Research Methodology  
            This study is purely a qualitative research and therefore uses qualitative research method. This is because the data for the study were sourced from primary source i.e. interviews of the research participants. However, the literatures reviewed in this study are from secondary sources: books, journal articles, newspaper publications and internet.
            In the course of gathering materials for this, I relied heavily on primary sources of data such as textbooks, article, newspaper publications and the internet.
            In qualitative approach, it is recognized that data collected through qualitative interview rely more on criteria other than validity, reliability, and generalizability4. Instead of dependence on the criteria of reliability and validity which leads to generalization, the qualitative part of this study depended on the criteria of trustworthiness and authenticity5. stated that two sets of criteria have been proposed: the trustworthiness criteria and the authenticity criteria for doing a qualitative aspect of any research. The trustworthiness criteria are judged by the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability.
            The research depended on the trustworthiness and credibility of the information or data gathered from the research participants through face-to-face oral and recorded interviews. The participants interviewed by the researcher are community leaders and elderly persons believe to have a wealth of knowledge of land inheritance law under Ikwo custom and tradition.
            The parallels of the criteria of trustworthiness in qualitative research are made up of four criteria, each of which has an equivalent criterion in quantitative research6:
·    Creditability, which parallels internal validity;
·    Transferability, which parallels external validity;
·    Dependability, which parallels reliability;
·    Conformability, which parallels objectively;
Credibility refers to the confidence that can be placed in both the data collected and the analysis. The term is synonymous with validity in quantitative research.

[1] Adeyemi, B. O. “Terrorism in Nigeria, Groups, Activities and Politics”, Int’l Journal of Politics and Good Governance, Vol.1 Quarter, 2010
2. Abimbola, J. O., “Domestic Terrorism and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria Issues and Trends: A Historical Discourse”, Journal of Arts and Contemporary Society, Vol.4, September 2012
[3] Ebonyi State University Journal of Int’l juridical review (Vol: 198)
[4] The chapter four of the 1999 constitution deals with fundamental human rights and by implication is against terrorism since it does not preserve the rights individuals to maltreat others.   
5 Ely, K. “Trends is contemporary international terrorism” Countering Terrorism, Institute of Counter-terrorism
6 Silke A. “The Role of suicide,” terrorism and political violence, Routledge, Vol. 18, spring 2006, num1, P.44   
7 Mohammed Manga. He was the first Nigerian to commit suicide bombing. He was responsible for the bombing of the Nigeria Police Force Headquarters, Abuja on June 16, 2011

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