All companies want to improve employee, but how often do they examine their won management practices as a means of attaining it? Studies consistently show that a disturbingly high number of non-management employees are disengaged, not working at full productive capacity.

            Management is the core function of any organization. Management is responsible for well being of the company and its stakeholders, such as investors and employees.
            Therefore, the management should be a skilled experienced set of individuals, who will do whatever necessary for the best interest of the company and stakeholders. Best practices are usually outcomes of knowledge management. Best practices are the reusable practices of the organization that have been successful in respective functions.
            There are two types of management practice in an organization
(1)       Internal best practice
(2)       External (industry) best practice
1.         Internal best practice originated by the internal knowledge management efforts.
2.         External best practice (industry)
            External best practice are acquired to the company by hiring the skilled, educated and experienced staff and through external trainings.
            Thought, when it comes to management best practices, there are plenty:-
They can be further subdivided into different sub-domains within management, such as human resources technical, etc. But in brief practice and will not elaborate on different sub-domains.

            When it comes to management best practices, we can identify five distinct areas where the best practices can be applied:-
1.         Communication
2.         Leading by example
3.         Setting and Demanding Realistic goals
4.         Open management style
5.         Strategic planning
1.         Communication      
            Management is all about communicating to the staff and the clients. Effective communication is a must when it comes to successful management.
            The management should have a set of the best practice defined for clear and effective communication from the head to the staff and the clients.
2.         Leading by Example  
            Respect is something you should earn in a corporate environment. Leading by example is the best way of doing this. Define and adhere to leadership by example best practices and also make sure your subordinate do the same.
3.         Setting and Demanding Realistic Goals   
            Realistic goals can boost the corporate morale. Most of the times, organizations fail due to unrealistic, unachievable goals and objectives. There are many best practices on how to set goals and objectives, such as SWAT analysis.
            Since the goals are the driving factor behind your organization, you need to make use of every possible best practice for goal setting.

4.         Open Management Style
            When your management style is open and transparent, others respect you more. In addition, information directly flows from the problem  areas to you.
            Always try to follow the open door policies that do not restrict you subordinates coming to you directly.
5.         Strategic Planning    
            This is the most important best practice area when it comes to long-term benefits for the company usually, experienced people in management, such as Jack Welch, have their own, successful best practices for strategic corporate planning.
            It is always a good idea to learn such ideas from exceptional people and apply them in your own context.

1.         Forecasting
2.         Planning
3.         Organizing
4.         Commanding
5.         Coordinating
6.         Controlling
1.         Forecasting 
            Especially, financial forecasting is a key function for a business organization. There are many tools such as price sheets, effort estimates for accurate forecasting.
2.         Planning: This is the process of setting up a goal or a process by which one can determine what to achieve, how to achieve it.
3.         Organizing: Is the process of bringing activities of the set goal together
4.         Commanding: Is issuing instruction on how to achieve the set goals.
5.         Coordinating: Is bringing together human and material resources to achieve the set goal. To ensure that all instructions, and processes are carried out to the later.

1.         Design economic incentives so employees at all levels of an organization can benefit      from them. 
2.         Provide meaningful feedback in a constructive manners on a regular basis
3.         Respect employees as individual, in addition to the job they do
4.         Be sure management at all levels of an organization receives adequate training.
5.         Provide support for employees when it’s genuinely needed.
6.         Don’t  be emotionally stingy
7.         Ensure senior leadership models beaviour that makes the rank-and file proud to be the    team      
1.         Design Economic Incentives so Employees at all Levels of an Organization can           Benefit from them  
            There’s a natural tendency for management to focus most heavily on senior-level economic incentives. While this is completely understandable, it’s best not to neglect substantive incentives for lower-level employees. That is, it you expect success. To the argument that this will be unduly costly, a program has to be carefully structured of course, so additional payouts reflect clearly defined revenue and/or earnings targets.
2.         Provide Meaning feedback in a Constructive Manner on a Regular Basis  
            This feedback is a foundational management skill, the ability to pro-manner that encourages, not discourages, is a corner-stone of effective management. That’s not to say feedback is always positive- that wouldn’t be management at all- but that the communication is done thoughtfully whether the occasion is encouragement for a job well done, or that course correction is needed.  
            Provide support for employees when it’s genuinely valued support can take away many forms: equipment when existing is outdated or in efficient, emotional support in the face of (occasionally) unfair criticism, flexible support for a reasonable level of work-life balance.
            Management support in times of need won’t be forgotten, it builds employee goodwill and loyalty.
3.         Respect Employees as Individuals, in Addition to the Job they do     
            Respect can be a simple but powerful motivator, just as its unpleasant twin, lack of respect, has the opposite effect. When employees feel genuinely respected (always assuming it’s warranted), they’re much more likely “to go the extra mile” to help a company succeed.
4.         Be Sure Management at all levels of an Organization receives Training       
            There’s a tendency for companies to invest less on supervisors and middle managers. I can readily speak from experience on this one, having received considerably more training and development opportunities in the latter stages of my career than in the early formative stages, when I most needed it.
5.         Don’t be Emotionally Stingy        
            There’s nothing for management to gain by with holding praise and recognition when it’s warranted. A recent employee study, I came across indicated that recognition is often a more powerful motivator than money. While this may well be less true at senior levels as financial rewards escalate, this post is focused on general employee productivity where the broadest gain can be made.
6.         Ensure Senior Leadership models Behaviour that makes the rank-and- file       proud             to be part of the team  
            Nothing demoralizes employees more quickly than seeing senior leaders act in a way they don’t like and few things energize employees more than a senior team they admire.
            Leaders are always being watched and judged, employees have keen eyes (and are data sharers ) when leadership is “walling the talk”, it will be quickly –but so will “talking the walk” without actually walking it.
            To help boast productivity, employee engagement matters. Ultimately, most employees would much rather be part of a team they’re committed to, not just a member of an organization.
            Developing and maintaining a consistent management approach that engenders esprit de corps is a key in the productivity process.

1.         Lack of incentive
2.         Poor/or low communication channel
3.         Lack of feedback mechanism
4.         Lack of respect for individual employee and petition
5.         Lack of motivation
6.         Division of labour
7.         Bureaucratic values
8.         Concentrating on socio cultural sector
9.         Melodiams in staff selection
10.       Tribalism    

1.         Lack of Incentives: When employees are not being rewarded in organization        irrespective of gender or race, academic qualification.  Senior or junior employees are       not being rewarded accordingly.
2.         Lack of Communicate: Is when there is communication gab between employee and             management their band to their lapses.
3.         Lack of respect for individuals employee and petition: When there’s no feedback         from the management to the employees the management cannot know the problem   facing the employees. And it is only the management know their problem that it can    be solved.
5.         Lack of Motivation: Employees are not being invested on training. This will make          the employee not to have experience over the company.  
6.         The division of labour: bureaucracy demands apparently lead to monotony and   boredom. Most importantly it leads to alienation. This explains a situation where the           workers is estrange or dissociated from the surrounding society. Being afraid of this            situation, Weber wrote that "it is horrible to think that the world would one day be         filled with little cogs, little man changing to little jobs and siring for another bigger             one". Schafer (2002:203) argued that true division of labour has certainly enhanced the performance of many complex bureaucracies, in some cases it can lead to trained             incapacity: that is workers become so specialized that they develop blind problems,        liven worse, they may not care about what is happening in the next departments.
7.         Bureaucratic values: of impersonality arc constantly in conflict with societal values.     According to Rosen bloom and Krauchuk, (2002:205), public’ organization,     bureaucratically as organized, tends to be in tension or conflict with society in terms            of style of action, emotional feelings, and overriding concerns. The differences       between societal and bureaucratic values, in short, are social interaction versus doing     and the beliefs randomness, and emotionalism versus specialized expertise             systemization and impersonality, while to Weber, "the question in order to keep a            position of mankind free from this parceling out of the soul, from this supreme         mastery of the bureaucratic way of life,
8.         Concentrating on socio-cultural sector: they shift emphasis away from structural             implications to the socio -cultural realms of the system. Two of the scholars that   represented this theory are Professor Robert M. price and Martin Landau. According            to R.M. Price, (1975:102) There is a need to reveal (he process aspects of the      relationship between structure and system, a need for a bridge to link the macro-level          concern with Polynormativism (ecological concern) to a micro-level concern with   actual behaviour (socio-culturally determined) of transitional bureaucrats. Contrary to         Riggs" argument, Price maintains that the problem docs not lie in whether the        transferred bureaucratic structures in the developing states have been institutionalized            or not, but rather "lies in what has been institutionalized and what has not". He argues         that what has been institutionalized in the developing states is the status instead of the        role aspects of organizational position. And contrary to Pye, he argues that       bureaucrats   in the developing states not only understand fully their responsibilities, especially             to         their corporate groups, but are also under constant pressure from these groups, but      so arc prepared to sacrifice organizational norms (which we assume they are in a             position, to follow meticulously) in order to satisfy the demands of their corporate           groups (social groups).
9.         Melodrama in staff 'selection: inefficiency in the public enterprises as emanating          from the compendium of nepotism and corruption. The word "cognitive" is connected         with ones mental processes of understanding. Drama can be referred to as an exciting             event or a play in the theatre. While mellow is to become or make someone less        extreme in behaviour, Melodrama is a story, play or novel that is full of exciting      events and in which the characters and emotions seem too exaggerated to be real.       Therefore, Cognitive Melodrama literally can be seen as an exciting act of event that             makes someone less extreme in behaviour in connection with his/her mental         processes of understanding. It can mean a compendium of events necessitated by            factors in the- environment that beclouds ones understanding of the reality because of     its excitement that overshadows reasonability. It is. an interplay of factors in the            environment such as favouritism, nepotism, tribalism, clientelism and prebendalism and all such elements and acts that can be termed "corruption" in the public      institutions that obstructs the effective-administration of the affairs of government that is ordinarily supposed to attain effective performance of the public enterprises which         can be translated into development of the society. What the theory is saying in a          nutshell is that hardly can any Nigerian get a job,  favour or any other thing of value without "knowing" somebody, or "knowing" somebody who knows somebody or         somebody who "knows" somebody who "knows" somebody...Of course, it is news      when an applicant gets a job in any of our public organizations without "knowing"             somebody. Even when this news is heard, it is received with unabashed incredibility.      This is precisely because the society has come, to live and accept the fact that nothing     goes for nothing, and nothing happens without necessary contacts. The corollary of           this situation is that no applicant gets out seeking for job without first making the        necessary contacts, liven before he or she submits the application for the job, the             necessary spadework must have been completed and assurance given for the success          of the application. This necessary spadework invariably involves getting in touch with    the right person or the person who knows the right person (Okoli, 2003). This is only       at the micro level. At the macro level, this phenomenon affects the group. In a society    like Nigeria, the group may be ethnic, religion, political or class. Cognitive     melodrama at the macro-level is the conglomerate those events that emanates from the         society that impedes the effective and efficient administration of the entity call            Nigeria and the allocation of political appointments, the administration of the             institutions of government like the judiciary, legislature, central banks and how they       impact on the society in which they are found. Issues like federal character principle,            quota system, rotational presidency, zoning system allowing tribalism and ethnicity to            play to the gallery,
10.       Tribalism: this is another bottle-neck in the efficiency process of the public service.      So many persons have lost their job possibility due to the tribal logger-head in the    country. Once this has been settled, the efficiency of the public sector would be     appreciated.

Organizations can achieve a great success by employing management best practice.
            This is one way to make sure that the same mistake is not repeated. Once a best practice is derived through knowledge management, it should be properly documented and integrated to the relevant functions of the company.
            Best practices should be included into corporate trainings regularly.

1.         Oxford English Dictionary
2.         “Management’ Business Dictionary. Retrieved 29 November 2012
3.         Administration industrielle et generale prevoyance organization-commandment, coordination – controle, Paris: Dunod, 1966.
4.         Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard       Barrett-Business & Economics -2003 –page 51.
5.         Giddens, Anthony (1981). A contemporary critique of Historical materialism. Social       and Politic Theory from Polity Press 1. University of California press. P. 125. ISBN      9780520044906. Retrieved 2013-12-29. “In the army barrack, and in the mass co- ordination of men on the battlefield (epitomized by the military innovations of Prince             Maurice of Orange and Nassau in the sixteenth century) are to be found the prototype             of the regimentation of the factory- as both Marx and Weber noted”.
6.         Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management            People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: Mcgraw-Hill            p.19 ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2.
7.         Gomez-mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008) Management:             People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-      Hill.p.20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2.
8.         Khurana, Rakesh (2010) (2007). From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social     Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of            Management as a Profession. Princeton University Press. P. 3. ISBN 9781400830862.          Retrieved 2013-08-24. “When salaried managers first appeared in the large         corporations of the late nineteenth century, it was not obvious who they were, what            they did, or why they should be entrusted with the task of running corporations”.                
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