Entrepreneurship refers to an personal or individuals ability to change or turn ideas into action or practice. Entrepreneurial programmes and modules offer students the tool to think creatively (ie invocation) it has to do with the ability to uses their initiatives in establishing new things our of the existing once or to modernize the existing once. Educational for entrepreneurship can be particularly effective in initial vocational training, as students are close to entering work life and self-employment   may be a valuable option for them.

            Vocational education training takes a variety of farm in different countries, but also within a country. 
Entrepreneurship is included in the national curricula for vocational   educational in a majority of European generally well established, particularly in countries where a “dual system” is in place, it can be however difficult to ensure the participation of small and  micro  enterprises.
Regardless of the vocational training are of the most effective way to teach, entrepreneurships to have students participate in practical projects and activities, in which learning by doing a emphasized and real experience with entrepreneurship is gained problem driven and experience –oriented education is essential to fostering entrepreneurial mindsets and abilities. The most commonly use teaching methods are lectures, computer simulations and business games, student companies, project work and group work company visits and work placements. Although a wide range of pedagogical tools are in place there seems to be in general a gap however between the teaching methods considered being most effective and those that are currently used.
One explanation may be that not all teachers choose to or are able to use active teaching methods. Another problem is linked to the lack of an interdisciplinary way of working on concrete projects. The current situation is that most teachers have not be trained in entrepreneurship consequently, they may be unaware of the right approach to entrepreneurship teaching initial and further teacher training of the highest importance, but entrepreneurship education is not yet included systematically in training programmes for educators. In many cases, on the job training is provided by external organizations. The most effective way to ensure that teacher competence in this field is adequate and up-to-date would be to make entrepreneurship a mandatory part of teacher education it is also important to offer further education to those teachers who have already competed their initial or educational. For public authorities, the first step for a cohe-approach would be to set up a steering or coordinating committee for entrepreneurship education at a nation or regional level, with representative from both the ministry of education and the ministry of economy and with the participation of other relevant departments and organization (including business associations and NGOs).
As a following step, introducing entrepreneurship as an explicit goal in the curriculum will be a clear signal that important for every student moreover, it will make it easier for teachers to spend teaching hour on the subject.  A general trend can now be observed in the shift of national curricula from contents to competences. This process should continue strengthening competence based teaching and learning makes it easier for entrepreneurship to be included in school programmes.  Among other recommended measures for public authorities are the following: 
·        -Make career exploration mandatory, and include entrepreneurship in vocational guidance;
·        Provide counseling for schools and teachers in designing vocational education training curricula, and disseminate successful experiences and practices between vocational education training schools;
·        Support those non-profit organizational and NGOs   whose mission is promoting and delivering entrepreneurship education, and which act as intermediaries between vocational schools and businesses.
·        Extend entrepreneurship to all fields of study in vocational education: link practical training in specific fields of study with objective of entrepreneurship, and provide support for student’s interest in starting up a business.
·        Make use of methods based on real experience (project work with real enterprises or with the local community, student mini-companies etc.
·        Ensure access to experts (from business, business associations, and NGOs ) who  can provide  training and ongoing support
Finally also actors have an important role to play:
·         Business associations should promote partnership between vocational education training schools and enterprises and motivate more business people to get involved in entrepreneurship education
·        The European commission has a role in contributing to the exchange of good practices experiences and methods, in  raising awareness and in monitoring and benchmarking  the process in EU member  states.
In addition vocational education and training (ie vocational programmes differ from academic ones in their curriculum and in their aim of generally preparing students for specific types of occupations and in some cases, for direct entry into the labour market.
            Entrepreneurial programmes and modules offer students the tools to think creatively, to be an effective problem solver, to analyze a business idea objectively, and to communicate network, lead, and   evaluate any given project. Student fell more confident about setting up their own businesses if they can lest their ideas in an educational, supportive environment. However, the benefits of entrepreneurship education are not limited to boosting start-ups, innovative ventures and new jobs.  Entrepreneurship is a competence for everyone, helping g young people to be more creative and self –confident I whatever they undertake.
            The recommendation of the European parliament and the council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning / identifies the sense of initiative and entrepreneurship’ as one of eight key competencies to be instilled at all stages of education and training.
            Joint analysis by the commission and national authorities shows that although numerous initiatives on entrepreneurship education are under way at all levels across the EU, most of them are neither integrated into the curriculum nor form part of a coherent framework, and that as a result most students cannot yet take part in entrepreneurship courses and  programmes.
Education for entrepreneurship can be particularly effective in initial vocational training, as students are close to learning working life and self employment may be a valuable option for them. However, a real focus on entrepreneurship is missing in most cases, since the main task is seen as being to produce skilled workers.
This European project was developed under the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme CIP (2007-2013) by using the  “Best procedure”.  The  “Best procedure “ was set up (under  a mandate form the Lisbon council in 2000)  to  promote the exchange  of best practice and to create synergies between existing processes.  Best procedure projects analyze issues of interest for the commission and national administrations to provide a better understanding of their nature and of the work being done on them, and to identify best practice.
The aim is to encourage policy change in the member states and in the other participating countries, and one of the essential features of this methodology is that projects are carried out jointly by the commission and by the national administrations concerned.
This project builds on the commission communication fostering entrepreneurial mindsets through education and learning, adopted in February 2006, and on the Oslo agenda for    entrepreneurship education in Europe.  
An expert group was set up to gather and exchange information on the teaching of entrepreneurship in vocational education, and to propose appropriate measures.  National governments were asked by the commission to designate an expert.  Representatives of certain European organization and networks active in the field were also invited to participate as observers (the compete list of experts appears at the beginning of this report.
As apart of its work the expert group reviewed existing   programmes and examples of good practices     
More specifically, the main objectives of this work were the following:
·        To review existing programmes and the most commonly used teaching methods:
·        To gather information on existing good practice and provide examples. 
·        To identify the factors of success and the main obstacles
·        To identify and exchange best practice in promoting learning about entrepreneurship
·        To promote the exchange of experience
·        To highlight the role of public policies and identify relevant support measures; 
·        To draw conclusions and recommendations for policy action.
The tasks of the group were: to bring together the necessary expertise; to provide information and data on existing programmes; to ensure cooperation with ad the active  involvement of the national  administrations  in the participating countries.
            In a nutshell the  relationship among them is that they deal with transforming ideals, skills, innovations etc into effective practice or creativities through training and individuals.

            Educational system varies from one country to another, depending on the needs goals, aspiration and philosophy of  education of the country in question.  Since education has been seen as an instrument for scientific and technological development, almongst others, the federal government of Nigeria on the national policy on education listed five  main national goals of her education system  among which are 
1.      A united strong and self reliant nation
2.      A great dynamic economy from the on going vocational technical education and training  is that form of education that leads to the acquisition of practical skills, which will enable an individual to be gainfully employed in a chosen occupation or become  self reliant vocational technical education according to  Raymond (2007)  is about  work and training for work . One of the goals  of the technical and vocation education is stated   
In the national policy on education is to give training and impact the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self reliant. It this goals is adequately achieved, it would lead to a sustainable technological development whose total inducement is for national development
            Entrepreneurship and  enterprising behaviour are important objective for education and life long learning policies in the European union as a whole  as well as an individual member  states. It is  seen  as a source of flexibility and innovation as a creator of   jobs for the economy and at the same time as an interesting possibility for individual  development, fulfillment and citizenship.  An  overview is given of the representation of  entrepreneurship in innovation vocational and higher education and of the views of students and teacher in these project. Finally, these are presented concerning improvement in the development of entrepreneurship and enterprising competencies by  educational   innovation.


            Vocational technical education is a very important aspect of the Nigeria educational system under the 6-3-3-4  programmes  it develops occupational competence and teachers those  skills which enable an individual earn a living .  The national policy on education define vocational technical education as that aspect  of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied  skills  as well as basic  scientific knowledge.  Technical vocational education as viable industries and a prerequisite to new world technological order and therefore requires  adequate support  of human and material resources. The  proramme include numerous  occupational areas such as agrcu7lture, various trades,  health services and technical training .  Vocational  technical education and training  therefore can be defined as an educational training which has been designed technical and systematically to accommodate both the trainer and the trainee in order to enable most importantly the tranee acquire the basic knowledge  to skills, abilities understanding and attitudes needed   for ones efficient  performance in his/ her  chosen occupational carrier for self –reliance and national development. 
            The  philosophy and objective of vocational  and  technical education ca be found only in the general philosophy and objective of secondary  educational  under which vocational and technical education are usually subsumed.
Secondary education  in the Nigeria context includes vocational and technical education. however,  the Nigerian education act and the  education law do not show agreement n the definition of a secondary school but have  always understood  to include vocational  and technical  education. Vocational and technical education is still regarded as another secondary  education without a clear delineation of its philosophies  and objectives. 
The philosophy of secondary education, which  of course include vocational and technical education has been well documented by  Taiwo et al (1970)
1.      To  inculcate the spirit of self reliance  industry  and versatility
2.      To impress on the students their privileges and responsibilities as citizens at Nigeria
3.      To develop and project Nigerian cultured art and languages
4.      To Whom It May Concern: equip the students to live effectively  in a  modern age of science and technology
5.      To afford a large number of children the opportunity of education of high quality  irrespective of their social background.
1.      To  stimulate and encourage creativity
2.      To equip school leavers with skills to earn a living
3.      To provide the awareness that technology does not only solve problems but create some as  well
4.      To help develop the right attitude towards work and the habits of mind conducive to the proper use of technology
1.        Vocational  and technical education should  form a part at general  educational  for every secondary school pupils irrespective of his or her future career
2.        Vocational  and technical education should provide an orientation and preparation for those who   have the aptitude and desire to pursue  advanced technological education in the polytechnic and  universities
3.        Vocational  and technical education should provided orientation and basic skill  with which to start a life of    work for the  vast majority of pupils  who do not fall under number  2 above.
1.      Lack of skilled man power
2.      Acute shortage  of vocational technical teachers. 
3.      Lack of  adequate training facilities and equipment
4.      Inadequate vocational technical education  policies
5.      Lack of follow up and continuity in government policies
6.      Poor funding of vocational  technical education  
7.      Poor  remuneration of vocational   teacher

In vocational education curricular attentions to entrepreneurship is not new. This focuses on managerial knowledge and a lesser degree skills are available,  explicitly  arming at entrepreneurships diverging from trade  and commerce   training to entrepreneurial qualifications and  specializations in  training systems for bakes,  ceramists or hair dresses.
Several schools are identifying entrepreneurship more ideal in specific learning objective and  developing more integrated curricula . there ear interesting project aimed at the  intensification and enrichment of traditional activities around business plans as included in many trade  training courses  as one teacher said  business plan should not be made for the bank but e an inspiration for business. 
Although, at all  educational levels, initiatives and good practice were found a differentiated but coherent and  interactive approach from primary education  to  university and  continuing and  adult education is skill to be developed. Some of inspiration are found in the LCEE model. The  model as adopted by the prgoramme, starts with more general promotion of entrepreneurial attitudes  in early states to a more  specifically elaborated  development of entrepreneurial competences in later stages  of education.
The modern connect to new development in career  and  vocational  guidance in secondary  and  vocational education.  Entrepreneurship should be  promoted as a real and attractive to active employee ship
It is important to take into account the different types of entrepreneurial skills  distinguished in the  research report key skills and personal  qualities management competencies and entrepreneurial  competencies. In enterprise oriented educational on the other hand,  the focus of mainly on the last  dimension (management skill). This also  reflected in business schools that  mainly   prepare  students for management  in big business rather than for entrepreneurship.

However, lessons drawn from an international search for literature and entrepreneurship promoting projects. In many respects, the Dutch situation s comparable with other European countries. The non-acceptance of conational technical education and training as  a means of intervention in the normal course of development by Nigeria’s has brought a setback  in our national development which  must be addressed.
However,  an attempt was made in this paper to critically examines all the major concept and emphasized the  role of vocational  technical educational and  training for self –reliance and natural development. Despite, all these things checked were challenges pointed out which if not checked properly will not allow the  timid population of the Nigeria people grow  and became self reliant as to bring about natural  development.

1.      Igweh A.U  (2008) Vocational Technical Education
2.      Musa J.C.S  (1986)  Planning Development in  Education
3.      Klandt. H (1998) Entrepreneurship Education at the European
Business School.
4.      Kuip. I.  Vander (1998) Early Development of Entrepreneurial qualities
5.      International Consortium for Entrepreneurship Education CICEE(1998 )  

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