SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The studies to determine the effect of pre-processing conditions on the characteristics of palm kernel oil (PKO), on the physiochemical characteristics of palm kernel oil (PKO), has been successfully carried out in this work. It can be concluded from the results conducted over 6 months period, that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in storage time of saponification value, free fatty acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, melting point and moisture content of the palm kernel oil from both two processing methods. Both there is no significant difference (P>0.05) on both processing method of above named parameters.
On the other hand, properties like freezing point has no significant difference (P>0.05) both on the storage time, processing method and interaction between storage time and processing method. While the interaction between storage time on the processing method had no significant difference (P>0.05) in all the parameters except melting point of the palm kernel oil. This shows that all the properties all increased with storage time of the palm kernel oil, both the little change in moisture content may be due to the changes in storage environment.
Based on the results obtained from this work, and for the fact that the palm kernel oil extracted from fermented palm fruits had lower free fatty acid ranging from (1.907 to 6.900 MgKOH/g) compared to the palm kernel oil extracted from boiled palm fruits stored for 6 months which had higher free fatty acid ranging from (6.564 to 11.108 MgKOH/g) on the basis of this finding. It can be concluded that palm kernel oil extracted from fermented palm fruits process is preferable for edible purpose while palm kernel oil extracted from boiled palm fruits processing is preferable for soap making.
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APPENDIX A 1
Table 5.0 Analysis Variance (Anova) on the Effect Of Pre-Processing Condition on the
Physiochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)
Composition Processing Storage time (months)
0 2 4 6
S.Vmeg/Kg Fermented 29.45+66.62a 57.50+38.57b 131.88+35.81c 221.59+125.32d
Boiled 25.25+70.82a 42.08+53.99b 119.21+23c 197.75+101.68d
FFAmgkoh/g Fermented 1.907+2.02f 2.917+101g 143.983+0.056h 6.900+2.973j
Boiled 6.564+2.203a 8.303+0.459b 9.088+0.321c 11.108+2.341d
PVmegKg Fermented 26.60+9.15c 32.60+3.15d 38.20+2.45a 45.60+9.85f
Boiled 28.60+10.3a 39.00+0.1b 41.60+2.7c 46.40+7.5d
IVWig,s Fermented 0.508+0.634b 0.761+0.381a 1.269+0.127d 2.030+0.888e
Boiled 5.329+2.248a 6.599+1.078b 8.122+0.445c 10.659+2.982c
MC% Fermented 6+5.88d 11+0.88m 14+2.12n 16.5+4.62g
Boiled 9+4.75a 12.5+1.25b 5.5+1.75c 18+4.25d
MPoC Fermented 27+1.5 26+0.5 25+0.5 24+1.5
Boiled 26+2.5a 24+0.5a 23+0.5a 21+2.5b
FPoC Fermented 0+1.75b 2.2+0.45a 2.3+0.55a 2.5+0.75f
Boiled 0+1.63a 2.0+0.37b 2.1+0.47b 2.4+0.77c
Means with the same alphabet = no significant at 5% probability. SV = saponification value, while means without the same alphabet are significant value at 5% probability. FFA = free fatty acid, PV = peroxide value, IV = iodine value, MC = moisture content, MP = melting point, FP = freezing point.