PIG REARING AND MANAGEMENT - PIGGERY BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

PIG REARING AND MANAGEMENT - PIGGERY BUSINESS IN NIGERIA - PIGGERY UNIT - Pig is an omnivorous domesticated hoofed mammal with sparse bristly hair and a flat snout for rooting in the soil, which is primarily reared for pork, bacon, ham and sausages.
Pig productions can be extensive, intensive or semi-intensive, depending on the choice of the owner. But the system at Ebsu Teaching and Research Farm is highly intensive, where the pigs are been taking care of under a strict close system and I think this is the best production system for pig as individual feeding system also facilitates individual medication of pigs through feed. This has more significance to intensive farming methods, as the close proximity to other animals enables diseases to spread more rapidly. To prevent disease spreading and encourage growth, drug programs such as antibiotics, vitamins, hormones and other supplements are administered preemptively.


BREEDS OF PIGS AT EBSU TEACHING AND RESEARCH FARM
·        Large White and Landrace.  
·        Large White, also known as the English Large White, is a breed of domestic pig originating in Yorkshire, hence also known as the Yorkshire pig. First recognized in 1868, the breed is the progenitor of the American Yorkshire (or simply Yorkshire) in North Arrierica, The Large White is one of the most numerous of all pig breeds, widely used in crossbreeding for intensive pig farming around the world today.                   
·        Landrace is a medium to large breed of domestic pig, white in colour, with long bodies, fine hair, long snouts, and heavy, drooping ears. They are bred for pork production and mostly for crossbreed.

STRUCTURES IN THE PIGGERY UNIT
Water Trough: This is a section in the pen where clean drinking water is offered to the pigs. Water Troughs are very important, it's imperative to offer the pigs, regardless of age, a clean water source, encouraging them to drink, which will encourage them to eat, increasing growth and improving condition.

Feeding Trough: It is a place where formulated feeds are kept for the pigs.
Wallow System: it is a partition constructed with reinforced" concrete where water are constantly available for the purpose of reducing the body-temperature of the pig.
Growers pen: This is a partition kept for newly weaned pigs.
Breeding Pen: this is a partition in the piggery unit kept for the sole purpose: of breeding
Isolation Pen: it is partition in the piggery unit carried out to keep sick animals.
Quarantine pen: this is a partition in the piggery unit where newly introduced pigs are kept to determine their health condition before introducing to the rest flock.
Nursing pen: This is partition set aside for the purpose of nursing dam.

THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT IN THE PIGGERY UNIT
INCLUDES
·        Feeding and regular provision of water   
·        Record keeping
·        Medication
·        Castration
·        Sanitation 

SANITATIONS                                                                      
This is carried on daily bases and it includes sweeping, packing of swine dung's in the pens and washing water trough.

FEEDING AND PROVISSION OF WATER
Feeding and provision of water is of routine activities carried out in the piggery unit where a well formulated feed are placed in their .feeding troughs of the pigs while water is regularly provided both in their wallow system and water troughs. And these things are part of the daily activities that are carried out daily in the piggery unit.                                :
FEED INGREDIENT  USE FOR FORMULATION  OF FEED IN THE PIGGERY UNIT

Feed Formulation:
We feed on both concentrates and forages and all is given the same time per day.   
S/N

QAUXTITY
PRODUCT   WEIGTH





4bags
PKC  
50p/bag




Sbass
Maize   Chaff
250kg


3

7 bags
Wheat    Chaff
350kg


4
I bag
Bambara   groundnut
50kg


5

7 bag
Spay Green



6

1 satchet
Premix



8


Salt     
1kg


8

Sleight         
1kg


9

Bone Meal




(a)   Treatment: Ectosol = It is use to drive away injurious ants. Fish Meal - Consists of whole fish or fish cuttings (by-products) with or without the extraction of part of the oil/ dried and ground into a meal. Several types depending on the type of fish used. Crude Protein ranges from 35% to 70% depending on type of product ;\';hole fish or cuttings). Excellent protein quality and source of B vitamins. High in the content of Calcium and Phosphorus. At times  it" could be imported or locally made to serve the immediate need.

·     Maize Grain - Is palatable and suitable to every livestock. It is the most valuable energy source among cereals. It has a high starch . content (about 65%), about 4% oil and a low fibre content.
·     Yellow maize has higher vitamin A content than white, maize. Vitamin A deficiency may have deleterious effect on pigs. Yellow maize should be preferred in monogastrics animals and should be properly dried before using it for feed formulation in pig.
·     Groundnut Cake - The groundnut is cultivated for its important use around the world today, especially on production of swine. The residual oil in groundnut cake may cause soft fat in pigs; therefore, the extracted decorticated meal is preferable for pig feeding. The seeds contain a trypsin inhibitor which is neutralized by heat during oil extraction.
·     After oil extraction the resulting cake contains 40 to 45% protein of medium biological value. The energy content is above 2600kcal ME/kg. It must be well dried before storage to avert development of mould in it.
·     Prim Kernel Cake - Palm kernel cake (PKC) as a by-product in the milling of palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cake is considered a medium grade protein in feed, containing 1.4.6% to 16.0% crude protein and energy of about 2000kcal ME/kg, useful for fattening pig. Palm kernel cake (a by-product of Oil Palm - Elaeis guineansis) has since become .an important feed ingredient.
·     Soya Bean Meal - Soya bean meal contained highly digestible amino acid content for pig/it can be use in absent of groundnut cake.
·     Bone Meal - It is a good source of calcium and phosphorus that help in bone improvement and support skeleton in the body of the animal, And typically it has about 48-52% protein, 33-35% ash, 8-12% fat, and 4—7% moisture.
·     It is primarily used in the formulation of feed for pigs to improve the amino acid profile of the feed.
·     Brewers Dry Grains [BDG1 - Brewers grains are the solid residue left after the extraction of malt in the production of beer, malt extracts and malt vinegar. Brewer's grain are yielded at the end of the mashing process once all sugars have been removed from the grain (previously malted or not). The remaining product is thus a concentrate of proteins, fibres and vitamins suitable for pig feeding. Brewers grains can be used in feeding applications with monogastric animals. It is quite palatable and is readily consumed by animals. Brewers grains are good sources of protein and of water soluble vitamins. However, wet brewers grains are bulky feed with low energy content. It has fiber content of 20% and energy content of about 218% and it must be dried properly before mixing with other feed ingredients.
·     Oyster Shell - Oyster shell is lower than of bone meal, and it has calcium content of about 35% and has no phosphorus in it.
·     Sweet Potato - This is another good source energy and it has to be properly boiled and'be given directly to the pigs. This can also be compounded in the pig feed when dried and grinded, It is use to replace maize at a great length.
·     Cassava Chaff and Sievate - One of the major limitation in the use of cassava is the presence of anti - nutrition factor. Hydrocyanic acid (ITCN). The cassava must be properly dried before mixing with other feed ingredient.

RECORD KEEPING
To keep records is simply to collect relevant information that can help you to take good decisions and to keep track of activities, production and important events on a farm. Records can be about any performance of the animals, economic development, or any activity of the farmer or veterinarian.
But in F.bsu Teaching and Research Farm, we keep record of the following : Boar number, Sow number, Litter number, Service farrowing and weaning dates, Number born alive and dead.                                               . .

Reasons for Record Keeping
a.      Be us :-d in determining profitability of various techniques used at the tarm
b.      Be used to keep your memory on what you did and/or what happened
c.      Be used in decision making, especially on a strategic level        
d.      Be used to compare the efficiency of use of inputs, such as land, labour and capital, for example when implementing a new / alternative systems
e.      Help   the   farmer/investor   in   improving   the   efficiency   of   farm's operations.

Revenue Record Example:
Date
No       of       pig sold/slaughtered
Total cost
Average total cost
Remarks











Stock Record Example:
Date: ………………………………
Farm: ………………………………
breed: ……………………………………
Source:………………………… ………
month …………………………….
year: …………………………………

Total number of


Boar


Total number of Sow


Total number of Piglets


Total number of all crossbreed


Total number of all Diire breed.


 

Breeding Record Example:

SOW I
Sow II
SOW III
Remark
Boar Used




Date   of mating




Date of farrowing




Litter size




Average weight of the piglet




Date:  …………………………………………
Farm:…………………………………………
breed:…………………………………………
Source:………………………………………
month …………………………………
year: ……………………………
Date
Balance
Feed Consumer
Medication
Remark
















CASTRATION  
Castration is any  action,  surgical, chemical or otherwise, by which a biologic"! male loses use of the testes.
But in Ebsu teaching and research farm we use open castration method to castrate piglet that are between 3 to 4 months old. And the following
processes and drug were used.
a.  Restrain the wanted animal.                                         
b.  Shave the part you want to castrate and also use detol on it to control infection.
c. Give the animal local anesthesia e.g. lignocaine.
d.  Do what is called gentle massage to get the injected drug round the area.(Leave for Sminutes).
e.  Hold the testis gently and cut through the skin with a sharp surgical blade or razor blade to push the it out, don't forget to ligate the testis artery with chronic catgut once the is out to control bleeding.(It is advice to ligate in double space to avoid risk of loose).
f. After removing the two testis, mix 2ml of procaine penicillin with 1ml streptomycin and inject at the castrated area before incision.
g. Spray oxytetravet to act as an anti-biotic to the animal and the castrated animal has to be kept in the isolation pen to avoid stress from other pigs, (and you are done).

Drugs used for pigs.
a. Lignocaine
b. Oxytetravet
c. Procaine penicillin and streptomycin.

PIG GLOSSARY
·        All-in, All-out production - A production system whereby animals are moved into and out of facilities in distinct groups. By preventing the commingling of groups, the hope is to reduce the spread of disease. Facilities are normally cleaned and disinfected thoroughly between groups of animals 
·        Barrow - A neutered male is a barrow and the adult male is a boar.
·        Biosecurity - Diseases can be easily spread between herds and a strict isolation and sanitation program is normally practiced.
·        Boar - a term for a male domestic swine suitable for breeding.
·        Cooling - Cooling systems normally involve evaporating water to lower the temperature of the pigs. Generally used only  for the breeding-gestation herd. Cooling also takes place by air movement in hot weather.
·        Corn Belt - The area of the United States where corn is a principal cash crop, including Iowa, Indiana, most of Illinois, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
·        Denitrification - The biochemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen or as an oxide of nitrogen.
·        Farrowing - The period from birth to weaning.
·        Farrow to Finish Operation - A production system that contains all production  phases,   from breeding  to  gestation  to  farrowing  to nursery to grow-fir.ishing to market.                             
·        Feeder Pig Operation-- Breeder sells pigs out of the nursery phase to a finishing operation to grow them out to market weight.
·        Finisher Pig - Production phase between the nursery and market.
·        Finishing Operation - The operation purchases feeder pigs from a fcc-der pig operation and feeds them to market weight at 240 to 260 ibs. Historically, producers purchased feeder pigs at auctions, but because of disease  transmission  concerns/  most operations now bypass auctions and buy all of their animals from the same supplier.
·        Gestation - The 113 to 116 day period when the sow is pregnant from breeding until farrowing.
·        Gilt -Young female, up to about 6 mos old.
·        Grow Finish - Pig between nursery and market, usually takesl4-16 wee.
·        Hand Mating - An individual female that is ready to be bred is exposed to an individual boar in a small pen for a few minutes, under the supervision of the producer. Heat - Refers to the estrous period for the sow. The first estrous normally occurs 3 to 5 days after the pigs are weaned.
·        Hog - Generic term, usually applied to growing swine.
·        Hoop Structure - A low cost, uninsulated and naturally ventilated building used for older swine. The floor is mostly earthen and typically bedded with straw.
·        Lactating - Period when a sow is providing milk to her pigs.
·        Limit Feeding - Feeding strategy in which pigs are fed a specific amount of food in a specific time period Vs free access to feed. Limit feeding is common in Europe, but normally only used for gestation animals in the Nigeria.
·        Litter - The pigs that are born at one time to one sow - normally 8-12 pigs.
·        Marketing - When they reach market weight, the grow-finish pigs are sold for processing to the packing plant. Market Weight - 240 to 260 Ibs.
·        Mating - Breeding a sow or gilt after the onset of estrus and before ovulation, may include at least two services by different boars to ensure successful mating.
·        Mechanical Ventilation - The use of mechanical ventilation fans to pull air through the animal building.
·        Non-Productive Sow Days - Days a sow is neither lactating or gestating.
·        Nursery - The growth phase from weaning until they enter the grow-finish building.
·        Pen - Most swine are grouped together in pens, whether kept in a shelter or in a  fenced open lot. The number of animals penned together may be less than 10 to several hundred, but is normally between 15 and 30.     

·        Pen Mating - Boar is placed in a pen with group of sows to allow for breeding.
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