RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SCHOOLS

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BUY THE COMPLETE WORK: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN LAGOS STATE

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the methodology adopted by the researcher in carrying out the study. They include; the design of the study, area of the study, population of the  study, sample and sampling technique, instrument used for data collection, validity and reliability of instrument.
It also include method of data collection and analysis.
Design of the Study
            This research study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The essence of adopting his research was to elicit data from target population through questionnaire and interview instruments. The data generated therefore were subjected to statistical analysis for the purpose of drawing necessary conclusions.
Area of the Study
            This research was carried out on the 16 government owned secondary schools within the five communities that made up of Onicha Local Government Area.
            Data for the study were collected from 10 government owned secondary schools comprising 2 secondary schools from each community. The questionnaire was designed based on the main variables of the hypotheses to get the required information for the study and for quick data analysis. The items of the questionnaire were carefully structured to avoid diversionary responses from the  respondents.
Population of the Study
            The population for the study was made up of 520 teachers in the government owned secondary schools situated within the five communities.
Sample and Sampling Technique
            The sample for the study was drawn from 120 teachers from 10 government owned secondary schools in the study area. The proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the six government owned secondary schools in the five communities. The choice of this sampling technique was because the various secondary schools from different communities have different characteristics and each of them needed to be adequately represented to increase the generalizability of the findings of the study. (Obasi, 2000). In addition, purposive sampling is used for the selection of those who were interviewed. Purposive sampling is used for sourcing expert opinions on an issue.
Instrument for Data Collection
            The instrument used for data collection in the study was validated by two experts from the department of Educational foundations and one expert in measurement and evaluation. Their suggestions and corrections were properly utilized.
Reliability of the Instrument
            To ascertain the reliability of the instrument, a test retest method was used. The instrument was administered to 30 teachers from government owned secondary schools in Ohaozara Local Government area. After two weeks the same instrument was re-administered to the same group of teachers. The results of the two test given to teachers of both Onicha Local Government Area and Ohaozara Local Government Area were collected and compared. Using pears on product moment correlation coefficient the scores yielded 0.70. This was high enough of the instrument to be reliable.
Validity of the Instrument
The validity of the instrument refers to the ability of an instrument to prove that it actually claims to measure. Efforts were made to draft the questions in simple and unambiguous language.

Method of Data Collection
            Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources.
Primary Source  of Data:
            Data were obtained from direct responses from interviews with some of the respondents in secondary schools understudy. Structured and unstructured questionnaire items not only served as supplementary sources of data, but also as a means of validating the consistency of the results of the interviews.
Secondary Source of Data
            Secondary sources of data include textbooks, Journals, Articles, monographs, unpublished materials, official documents from secondary Education board, Onicha Local Government Area headquarters, Isu.
Method of Data Analysis
            The data collected from the respondents with the use of questionnaire were rated using the 5-points Likert Scale. The analytical method used for the analysis was mean. Thus, the formula below was used.
Mean(x)         =          ∑x
                                     n
where X         =          Mean
            x          =          score
                     =          summation
            n          =          No of scores
However, a mean of 3.0 was adopted as a decision rule for the analysis of the data collected. An item with the mean of 3.0 and above will be accepted while items with mean below 3.0 will be rejected.
Working         5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1       =          15
                                    5                                  5         =          3.0

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