SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COMPUTER SECURITY SYSTEM USING DATA ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.0.0        BACKGROUND OF STUDY

In the past, security was simply a matter of locking the door or storing files in a locked filing cabinet or safe. Today, paper is no longer the only medium of choice for housing information. Files are stored in computer databases as well as file cabinets. Hard drives and floppy disks hold many of our secret information.

In the physical world, security is a fairly simple concept. If the locks on your house’s doors and windows are so strong that a thief cannot break in to steal your belongings, the house is secure. For further protection against intruders breaking through the locks, you might have security alarms. Similarly, if someone tries to fraudulently withdraw money from your bank account but the teller asks for identification and does not trust the thief’s story, your money is secure. When you sign a contract with another person, the signatures are the legal driving force that impels both parties to honor their word.

In the digital world, security works in a similar way. One concept is privacy, meaning that no one can break into files to read your sensitive data (such as medical records) or steal money (by, for example, obtaining credit card numbers or online brokerage accounts information). Privacy is the lock on the door. Another concept, data integrity, refers to a mechanism that tells us when something has been altered. That’s the alarm. By applying the practice of authentication, we can verify identities. That’s comparable to the ID required to withdraw money from a bank account (or conduct a transaction with an online broker). And finally, non repudiation is a legal driving force that impels people to honor their word.

As the Internet becomes a more pervasive part of daily life, the need for e-security becomes even more critical. Any organization engaged in office automation or online activity must assess and manage the e-security risks associated with this activity. Effective use of cryptographic techniques is at the core of many of these risk-management strategies. The most important security tool is cryptography which is the study of encryption and decryption.
 
1.1.0    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The formal method of safe guiding computer data and information post many disastrous problems as follows:

ü  Unauthorized access: skilled hacker who is able to break into any computer system can read and understands the content of sensitive data/information in the system, compromising the privacy of the data.

ü  Unauthorized data alteration: alteration of data during transmission across a network without detecting the change in the original message.                                                                     

1.2.0     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to develop computer security system for data encryption and decryption; this work will help protect computer files and information from harm and unauthorized user. The objectives of this study are:

a.       To provide and improve the computer data security through encryption of data.

b.      To provide  a means of safeguarding data in a system

c.       To enhance the integrity of data

d.      To facilitate the use of more sophisticated tool against hacking, cracking, bugging of a system files.

e.       To develop a platform to complement physical file security.

1.3.0    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Computer Security has been defined as the art of protecting computer system and information from harm and unauthorized user .The most important security tool beyond human integrity used is cryptography. Which is used to hide data from public view, and to ensure that the integrity and privacy of any data sent across a network is not compromised. Cryptography involves encryption and decryption process.The scope of this study covers data encryption and data decryption.

1.4.0    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY          

Data security in these contemporary times is a must. For your secrets to be secure, it may be necessary to add protections not provided by your computer operating systems. The built-in protections may be adequate in some cases. If no one ever tries to break into or steal data from a particular computer, its data will be safe. Or if the intruder has not learned how to get around the simple default mechanisms, they’re sufficient. But many attackers do have the skills and resources to break various security systems. If you decide to do nothing and hope that no skilled cracker targets your information, you may get lucky, and nothing bad will happen.

One of the most important tools for protecting your data from an authorized access is Data Encryption, any of various methods that are used to turn readable files into gibberish. Even if an attacker obtains the contents of the file, it is gibberish. It does not matter whether or not the operating system protections worked.

1.5.0    DEFINITION OF TERM

SECURITY: The set of accesses controls and permission that are used to determine if a server can grant a request for a service or resource from a client.

PASSWORD: An identity that defines authorized users of a computer in order to have access to the system.

SOFTWARE: A collection of computer programs that runs as a group to accomplish a set of objectives which could be referred to as task.

SYSTEM: An organized unit which composed of two or more inter related parts that functions together to achieve a particular goal.

ENCRYPTION: The process of converting ordinary information (plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (that is, cipher text).

DECRYPTION: The reverse, moving from unintelligible cipher text to plain text.

ALOGRITHM: This is a sequential way of solving a problem.

CRYPTOGRAPHY: This is used to hide data from public view and to ensure that the integrity and privacy of any data sent across a network has not been compromised.
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