INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT PROGRAM IN UMUEBE FARMS LTD



CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       History of SIWES
1.2       Aim and Objectives of SIWES
1.3       Management of SIWES
1.4       Attachment company (Farm) Background
1.5       Location of the farm

1.6       Vision and mission statement
1.7       Comparative advantage/strength
1.8       Objective of the farm
1.9       Farm concept
2.0       Organogram of the farm
2.1       Functions of the organizational chart
CHAPTER TWO
2.2       practical activities perform during the industrial attachment programme
2.3       Major activities
2.4       Management, Account/supply section
2.5       Filling of ledger
2.6       Income ledger
2.7       Expenditure ledger
2.8       Preparation of voucher
2.9       Record keeping
3.0       Apirary (Book keeping) section
3.1       Harvest of Riped honey comb
3.2       Processing of the harvested honey comb
3.3       Processing to honey bees wax
3.4       Processing of Honey wine/beer (mead)
3.5       Bee products and uses
            Honey medicine
            Hone as raw material
            Bees was
            Propolis
            Royal jelly
            Bee pollen
            Bee venom
3.6             Crop production Section
3.7             Budding of citrus
3.8             Spraying activities
3.9             Nursery bed establishment
4.0             Transplanting seedling
4.1             Planting of crops

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                              INTRODUCTION
The Industrial Attachment Program fulfils part of the requirement in pursuing the degree of Bachelor of Agric in Ebonyi State University. This report serves to summarize the activities and experiences gained with Umuebe farms limited Ezzamgbo Ohukwu L.G.A Ebonyi State.
1.1       HISTORY OF SIWES
            The government’s decree No 47 of 8th October, 1971 as amended in 1990, highlighted the capacity building of human resources in industry commerce and government through training and retraining of workers in order to effectively provide the much needed high quality goods and services in a dynamic economy as ours.
This decree led to the establishment of Industrial Training fund (ITF) in 1973/1974. The growing concern among our industrialist that graduates of our institutions of higher learning lack adequate practical background studies preparatory for employment in industries, led to the formation of students Industrial work Experience Scheme (SIWES) by ITF in 1993/1994. ITF has as one of its key functions; to work as cooperative entity with industry and commerce where students in institutions of higher learning can undertake mid-career work experience attachment in industries which are compatible with student’s area of study. The students industrial Work-Experience scheme (Siwes) is a skill training programme designed to expose and prepare students of Agriculture, Engineering, Technology, environmental science, medical sciences and pure and applied sciences for the industrial work situation which they are likely to meet after graduation. Duration of SIWES is four months in polytechnics at the end of NDI, four months in college of Education at the end of NCEII and six months in universities at the end of 300, or 400 or 500 levels depending on the discipline.
1.2       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
            The SIWES scheme is aimed at exposing students to real life working enviroment enabling them to put into practice what  they have learnt in class, making them understand the technical implication of their profession as well as teaching them competence, standard and professionalism.
The objectives of SIWES among others includes to ;
*          Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery not available in their institutions.
*          Prepare students for the industrial works situation which they are likely to meet after graduation.
*          Provide students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theories and practices.
*          Provide an a venue for students in situations of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their approved course of study.
1.3       MANAGEMENT OF SIWES
            The bodies involved are:
Federal Government, industrial Training Fund (ITF), other supervising Agencies are National University Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), and National council for colleges of  Education (NCCE). The functions of these agencies above include among others to:
*          Ensure adequate funding of the scheme;
*          Formulate polices and guideline for participating bodies and institutions as well as appointing SIWES coordinators and supporting staff;
*          Establish SIWES and accredit SIWES unit in a proposed institutions;
*          Supervise students at their places of attachment and sign their log-book and ITF forms;
1.4       ATTACHMENT COMPANY BACKGROUND
            Attached company - Umuebe farms Limited Umuebe farms ltd is a privately held Nigerian limited liability company, founded by Dr. Sam O. Egwu former democratically elected governor of Ebonyi state, a crops scientist at University of Nigeria Nsukka. The company was incorporated in Nigeria on the 6th October 2005 with registration No RC637507 although started properly in the year 2004 with focus to encourage, develop and sharpen interest in professional agricultural and agro-allied enter prices as noble and profitable ventures, thereby cobbling the problem of food insecurity in Nigeria. The company has extensive experience in both agriculture and agro-allied enterprises and play deep in the entire system life-cycle of the economy.
1.5       LOCATION
            Umuebe farms L.t.d is located at Umuebe village in izhiangbo, headquarters of Ohaukwu Local Government Area, in Ebonyi State. Izhiangbo is situated on the Enugu-Abakaliki express way about 59 kms from Enugu and 21km from Abakaliki, capital of Ebonyi State Nigeria. Umuebe village in the administrative or operational farm headquaerts while other out- stations include satellite farm A, satellite farm B, satellite farm C all located at Oji-ogha Road, Ntsuraakpa, Izhiangbo and Okpoto palm plantation and mill located at Ekeri loguegbe, Okpoto, Ishielu Local Government Area.
            For more information send them an email, email address:umuebefarmslimited@yahoo.com or call these lines.
1.6       VISION AND  MISSION STATEMENT
            Vision: To be a premier agri-business skills enterprise centre of excellence, growing middle level man power and developing value chain in agri-business and entrepreneurship.
Mission statement: To demonstrate organized agro-production and provide top-class hands-on training to committed agri-business entrepreneurs using up-to-date production techniques and local resources with a view to restoring professionalism and strengthening the value chain in agri-business and related enterprises.


1.7       COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE/STRENGTH
            To actualize these vision and mission an Institution - Umuebe farms college approved by Federal ministry of Education and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) is attached to the farm for the purpose of using the farm facilities to train for the purpose of using the farm facilities to train interested people world wide on modern Agricultural practices. The primary aim is to equip the trainees practically to be on their own after drilling them through a designed programme of the college.
1.8       OBJECTIVES
            The main objectives of the farm project among others include to  
-           Provide opportunities and training facilities for entrepreneurs.
-           Offer facilities to graduate trainee, researchers and extension workers to practice.
-           Encourage, develop and sharpen interested professionals in agriculture and agro-allied enterprises as noble and profitable ventures.
-           Train and equip middle-level man-power in agri-business production.
-           Serve as reference data bank for local and regional agrio-business information.
1.9       FARM CONCEPT
The farm is a conceptualized closed system of mixed farming and mixed cropping operations with forward and backward linkages the major enterprises involved include;
Animal Husbandry section
-           Piggery
-           Cattle rearing
-           Micro-live stock rearing (snails)
-           Poultry
Apiary (Bee keeping) section
-           Natural honey production
-           Bees wax production
-           Production of beekeeping equipment etc
1.9       FISHERY/FISH FARMING) SECTION
1.10    CROP PRODUCTION SECTION
*          Orchard crops-citrus, mango, pineapple
*          Plantation crops – oil pal, coconut, plantain etc
*          Arable crops – maize, pepper, cucumber etc

MANAGING DIRECTOR
|
GENERAL MANAGER
|
ACCOUNTANT
|
UNIT SUPERVISORS

1.11    FUNCTIONS OF THE FARM ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
1.         Managing Director (MD): He is the general overseer and takes all the responsibility of the farm.
2.         General Manager (GM): He is  the make the decision maker, takes responsibility of the outcome.
3.         Supervisors: They are those individuals that takes responsibilities in different sectors of the farm. Workers together with the manager.
4.         Farm accountant: He takes the responsibility of recording, analyzing an interpretation of financial statement of the farm.
5.         Cashier: Works with the accountant  as well as releases the cash as when ado.
6.         Foreman: They are the staff that serves as pioneer in a group.
7.         Attendance: They are those who serves as staff in different section in the farm.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES PERFORMED
            The activities performed during my industrial attachment program in Umuebe farms Ltd are categorized into
2.1       A.        MAJOR ACTIVITIES AND
            B.        MINOR ACTIVITIES
These activities were performed in the following sections/departments in the farm.
There include
-           Management, account &supply section
-           Apiary section
-           Crop production section
-           Fishery/snailery section
-           Piggery/cattle section
2.3       MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNT/SUPPLY SECTION
            The following was the major activities performed in this section during my industrial attachment.
2.4       FILLING THE LEDGER
            Ledger means a financial statement that shows daily, weekly or monthly transaction made. Ledger summarizes at the transaction made in the farm. In Umuebe terms ltd, there are basically two forms of ledger kept in farm
(i)        Income ledger
(ii)       Expenditure ledger.
2.5       INCOME LEDGER
            This type of ledger record all forms of revenue accrued to the farm. This can be prepared daily, weekly monthly or even yearly.
            In Umuebe farms ltd,  it was prepared on monthly basis
Table 1: Format for income ledger of Umuebe farms ltd.
S/n
Date
Particulars
Control N
Honey
Maize
Plantain
Cattle
Boar
1
02/11/12
Sales of hones
2000
200




2
5/11/12
Sales of boar
3500




35000
3
7/11/12
Sales of weaners
6000





4
9/11/12
Sales of maize
4900

4900



5
12/11/12
Sales of plantain
8050


8050


6
14/11/12
Sales of honey
4200





7
16/11/12
Sales of cattle
110000
2000
4900
8050
110000

8
17/11/12
Sales of citrus
3600





9
19/11/12
Sales of guava
500







Total
174250
2000
4900
3050
110000
35000

2.6       EXPENDITURE LEDGER
            It summarize all the expenses incurred in the day to day run of the farm, it shows various expenses and their financial equivalent.
Table 2 Format for expenditure ledger of Umuebe farms ltd.
s/n
Date
Particulars
Control  N
Feed ingredient N
Agro chemical
 N
Transport
Drug
1
01/9/12
Purchase of 1 trip of spent grain
50000
50000



2
3/9/12
Purchase Agro chemical
12500

1250


3
4/9/12
Purchase of premix
5200



5200
4
5/9/12
Transportation of Okpoto
4000


400

5
6/9/12
Welding of tractor
2500




6
6/9/12
Purchase of 20 bags of soybeans
1800
1800



7
7/9/12
Repair of tractor type
1600




8
8/9/12
Drug for pig
1450



1450


Total
79050
59800
12500
4000
10650
2.7       PREPARATION OF VOUCHER FOR STAFF SALARY
Voucher means written receipt, acquaintance or release that serve as evidence of payment or discharge of a debt or to certify the correctness of account. In Umuebe farms L.t.d, vouchers are prepared monthly.
Table 3 Format for the staff staff salary voucher in Umuebe farms:

2.9       RECORD KEEPING
            Farm record and account have been identified as a technical tools in efficient farm management and growth, as a  student of agricultural economics, I actively participated in farm record and management. Farm record involve record keeping organized in a systematic way. This involve record of daily activities of the farm which may be physical or finical aspect. Below are some format of records kept in Umuebe farms l.t.d during my industrial training  attachment.

2.10    APIARY (BEEKEEPING) SECTION
            Below are the major activities performed in this section of the farm during my SIWES program;
2.11    HARVEST OF RIPPED HONEYCOMB
MATERIAL USED Hive tool, harvesting bucket with lid, quipped smoker, bee suit and veil, rubber hand groove, boot and harvesting knife.
Procedure;
            The bee suit, veil and rubber hand groove was putted on, the smoker was equipped with dried palm inflorecesence which produce smoke used to control aggressiveness of the honey bees. Hives stored with riped and sealed honeycomb was identified, the equipped smoker was used to smoke inside the hive to control the bees. The crown board was removed and introduced some smoke inside the hive. After that, the fully stored combs on the frames was cut into the harvesting bucket and covered immediately with the lid tightly to prevent honey bees from following the combs. These process was continued until the ripped comber exhausted. After harvesting from each hive (Langstroth) arrange the trams and cover the root.

2.12    PROCESSING OF HARVESTED RIPPED HONEY COME
In Umuebe farms l.t.d, the method used in processing of harvested honey comb was dripping method
Material used
30 liters processing bucket, sieve, basket, uncapping spoon and 20 liters gallons.
Method
            The sieve was loosely tied on the processing plastic basket placed on top of  30liters processing bucket. The uncapping spoon was used to gently remove the cap used to seal the stored honey in the comb. After series of uncapping the sealed comb, allow the uncapped comb to gently drip down the collecting bucket under the basket. These process continued until all the harvested honey was re-fined by doubling the sieve. After refining the honey are safe for use, it  was then packed in a 20 liters gallons ready for packaging.
2.13    HONEY BEES WAX PROCESSING
Material used:
            Extracted honey comb, processing pot, oven, sieve, collecting bucket, stirrer, mould, water and big spoon.
 Procedure
            The extracted (processed) honey comb was soaked in water after about 6-7 days wash the extracted comb thoroughly to remove honey that was not properly removed during the initial honey processing. This was to avoid breakage of the wax after processing. After washing, the extracted comb was introduced into a boiling water. Allow  the mixture to thoroughly boil together until about 20 minutes, when the mixture show some yellowish substance (wax).
            Then the big spoon was used to sculp the mixture in the pot into the sieve that was tightly tied on the collecting bucket until the content in the pot was exhausted. Then pour into a mould and allowed to cooled for 24 hours. After that, the moulded wax was floating on top of the water. Then it was brought out and washed thoroughly. Note, the bees wax can be used as honey bee attractant by baiting it in and around the hive (bee man-made home).

2.14    HONEY WINE/BEER (MEAD) PROCESSING,
            Honey wine otherwise called mead is an alcoholic drink of fermented honey comb and water.
Material used:
Extracted honey comb, water, bucket sieve
Procedure:
Pour the extracted honey comb into a bucket with little quantity of water that was added to factiliate the fermentation process. The lid was used to cover the bucket and its content tightly. The mixture was allowed to ferment for also at 14 to 15 days. With the aid sieve, the content was sieved and the collected liquid content is known as Honey wine, otherwise called mead. It was then packaged in some plastic table water bottles.
Note: This product (honey wine) act as food for consumption as well as for sale.

2.15    BEE PRODUCT AND THEIR USES
The following products are benefits of beekeeping:
(i)        Honey: Honey can act as food, medicine and raw material
(a)       As food – it can act blood builder, growth food, energy food, stimulant and tonic.
(b)       As medicine – it can treat all respiratory diseases (cough, asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis), perfect healer of all kind of wound (ulcer, burns or surgery). As antibiotic, antiviral, promote fertility, toxicities as well as anemia.
(c)       As raw material – for cake and bread making, cream and soap and act as preservative etc.
(ii)       Beeswax:       It is useful in production of candle, shoe softening, shoe polish, textile, dental clinic, electricity as insulator cosmetics crayon for beautification etc
(iii)     Propolis:        It is used for making turpentine, paints malaria remedy, maternal swellings etc
(iv)      Royal Jelly:   Highly portentous used for restoring health, improving fecundity, isometrics, facial creams, skin conditioners etc.
(v)       Pollen: very high in protein, vitamin, fats, minerals and acid as capsules and tablets.
(vi)      Bee venom: Treats all nervous system disease (rheumatism arthritis, multiple sclerosis.
2.16    CROP PRODUCTION SECTION
            In this unit, the following are the major operations carried out in the farm.
2.17    BUDDING OF CITRUS
Budding – this is the unite of a bud with a stock commonly used to multiply tree crops such as roller, cocoa etc. it was opportune to practice budding of two specie of citrus i.e rough lemon (stock/and sweet orange bud)
Material used:
Rough lemon (stock), SWEET ORANGE (BUD), budding knife, budding tape, secateur, petroleum jelly;
PROCEDURE
            The dormant bud was cut from a matured branch, about two years old. The bark of the stock was carefully cut opened in a T-Shaped form with a budding knife. The bud was inserted into the opening on the bark of the stock with the node facing upward. The united citrus was tightly bound into position with the budding tape leaving the node open. The pet volume jelly was robbed on the surface to prevent air passing through. The budded crop started shooting after some weeks. When the shoot was well established, the branches of the stock above the bud was carefully cut off and the wound painted to avoid fungal and bacteria infection.
2.18  SPRAYING ACTIVITY
            This activity involved the use of chemical (herbicide and pesticide) to control the stubborn activities of the weeds and pests. I effectively participated in this activity, where I was taught how to mix chemicals and water at proper proportion. This spraying activity was carried out in plantation crops, arable, orchard and also pests.
Table 4 Showing various chemicals used in the farm.
S/N      Chemical                                           Function
1.         Dimethoate                                       Used to control pests
2.         Biosate (Glyphosate 4%)                A non-selective systemic herbicide
for control of annual and perennial grasses and broad leaf
3.         Para quite                                          Systems herbicide used to control
herbs.
4.         Delsate                                                A systemic herbicide used as pre-
emergent herbicide.

2.18    NURSERY BED ESTABLISHMENT
Material used;
Hoe, Garden fork, cutlass, cultivator, Animal dung.

Method
The site was cleared with cutlass, tilled with hoe, harrowed using cultivator and garden fork. The animal dung was incorporated in the soil turned with the aid of garden fork. Cultivator was used to make furrow in form of drill. The seeds was introduced to the soil and covered lightly with top soil.
2.20    TRANSPLANTING OF SEEDLING                          
Activity – Transplanting of Nsukka pepper material; Nsukka pepper seedlings, garden fork, hand trowel, shovel, hand pan and cutlass procedure;
            After the site (bed) preparation, the bed was marked out into planting distance, of 60 cm x 60 cm apart up root the seedlings and transferred to the site using hand trowel. This transplanting activity was done at the early hours of the day.
2.21    Plating of Crops’
            During the industrial attachment in the farm, some crops was planted.
Table 5: Shows different crops that was planted materials used, seed rate and planting distance.
S/N
Crops
Spacing
Seed rate
Tools used
2
Nsukka pepper
One seedling per stand
60cm x 60cm
Garden fork, tape cultivater, hoe, cutlass
3
Maize
2 per stand
2 per stand
50cm x50cm

4
Cucumber
2 per tend
1m x 1m

5
Okro

60cm x 45cm


2.22    FISHERY/SNAILERY SECTION
            The specie of fish reared in Umuebe farms ltd is known as catfish (Dutch hollandisch). They are reared in the concrete pond with dimension 10m x 5m with carrying capacity of about 10,000 fingerlings. They also have an earthen pond with dimension 8m x 5m. Below are the major activities performed during my industrial attachment program in this unit.

STOCKING OF FINGERLINGS
Catish (Dutch hollandisch) is a specie found in fresh water habitant with comparative advantage of enough muscular body. Stocking of fish was done as followed.

Procedure:
            The fingerlings was brought in a perforated 50 liters gallons with little quantity of water. It was gently turned into some big bowls containing water. Some sachet of fish vit plus (an antistress, multivitamin, amino acid and mineral for fishes) was added to boost feed efficiency, growth control of stress situation as a result of bacterial diseases, transportation and sorting. The pond was tested to check the level of acidity and alkality of the pond (water). Note: catfish perform optimal in alkaline medium ((8 to 8.5) to acidic medium. The fingerlings in the big bowl was gently introduced to the pond (concrete).

FISH FEED FORMULATION
            Feed formulation is all about proper mixing of feed ingredients in a proper proportion to meet all the nutritional requirement . In Umuebe farms ltd, feed formulation was done mechanically use of machine such as grinder mixer, wet mixer, pelleting machine and drier.


Method of formulation
            The method used in fish feed formulation in Umuebe farms ltd was by use of machine. It involved, packing the ingredients into the grinds to crush it into fine particles. The grinded particular was transferred into the mixer.
            After that to the wet-mixer where little quantity of water was added to moisten the particles the feed water was added to moisten the particular. The feed water transferred to the pelleting machine that modified the feeds in pellets such as 6mm and 8mm sizes. The pelleted feed was packed into the drier (machine with an electric motor and oven) to reduce the moisture content of the formulated fish feed. It was then packaged into a 15kg fish feed bags.
Grinding of  the ingredients (by the grinder
|
Mixing of the grinded ingredient (In the mixer)
|
Wet mixing of the gradient (by wet mixer)
|
Pelleting of the feed (by the pelleting machine)
|
Drying of the feed
|
Packaging (15kg bags)

Flowchart of the fish feed formulation of Umuebe farms limited

COMPOSITION OF FISH FEED
The nutritional composition are made up of energy source, protein, vitamin, mineral for proper growth and resistance to diseases.
Table 6: Shows the description of feed ingredient and their various quantities used in fish formulation in Umuebe farms limited.
S/N
DESCRIPTION
QUANTITY (KG)
1
Maize
300
2
GNC (groundnut)
260
3
Biscuit waste
190
4
oyster shell
10
5
Fishmeal 72%
194
6
Methionine
1
7
Lysine
1
8
Fish premix
2.5
9
O.T.C
1.25
10
Vitamin c supper
1.25
11
Merament plus
1.25
12
Salt
3
Total composition ® 1005.25kg
Sorting of Fish
Sorting means separation of the fishes into different sizes.

Material used
Fish net, sculp net, big and small bowls, basket net, fish vit plus (anti stress as a result sorting).
Procure;
The volume of water in the pond was reduce to enable the fish to be caught with the aid of fish net and the sculp net.  The captured fishes was poured into the big bowl where there were separated to different sizes using the small bowl. The fishes was sorted  into big, medium and small sizes and was introduced back to their respective ponds according to their sizes. Fish vit plus (antistress as a result of sorting) was added and later fresh water was filled to the adequate level defending their sizes.
2.23    SNAILERY
            The specie of snail reared in Umuebe farms limited is known as African Giant Land Snail (Achatina achatina). It is reared in an artificially created natural enviroment called snail hutch. Snails are vegetarian and will accept virturlly  many varieties of food.

Table 7:         Different feeds for snail and their examples. These was fed to snails in Umuebe farms Ltd.
s/n
Feeds
Example
1
Leaves/weeds
Leaucina, centrosema, telfera a Ahuji, waterleaf, pawpaw, Okra, cocoyam.
2
Tubers
Cocoyam, sweet potato, cassava, yam.
3
Grains
Maize chaff or pap.
4
Fruits
Banana, egg plant, mango pawpaw, cucumber, pear, oil palm all sliced.
Note
Snails reach their maturity fat the age of 4 to 8 months or at 90to B5g weight depending on how they are feed.
*          To enhance their growth, snails are provided with mixture (different ) food rather than only one food item.
*          Snails avoid hairy plants and plant that produce defensive chemicals

Table 8: shows chemical that are poisonous to snails.
S/N
Chemicals
1
Chlorinated treated water with alum or any other chemical
2
Law cement
3
Solignum that is used to treat wood against termites
4
Kerosene
5
Poultry feeds mixed with lysine, methionine and or vitamin premix.
Table 9 shows animals that are dangerous to snails
1
Snakes
2
Forest spiders
3
Birds/turkeys, ducks
4.
Hawks
5
Lizard
6.
Frogs
7
Rats
8
Man

2.24    LIVESTOCK SECTION
Livestock section are divided into two major units in Umuebe farms limited.
Cattle
Piggery
My major activities  that was performed in piggery unit. They include;
2.25    FEED FORMULATION
The method of feed formulation or compounding is manual. That is locally compounded feed with local resources (ingredients).In piggery  unit feed are formulated based on the classes of pigs. ie (a) Weaner stock feeds (b) Breeding and grower stock feeds:
Table 9: shows different feed ingredients and their composition for breeding and growers stocks in Umuebe farms limited.
S/No
Feed ingredient
% composition
1
Spent grains (Brewery waste)
45
2
Soya beans
5
3
Rice dust
15
4
Palm kernel cake (PKC)
15
5
Maize (Akumu chaff
5
6
Cassava peel
5
7
Bone meal
2
8
Salt
1
9
Fruits
1

Total composition  = 
94%

Table 10 showing different feed ingredients and their compost ion for weaner’s stock in Umuebe farms limited.
S/N
Feed ingredients
% composition
1
Spent beans
40
2
Soya beans
20
3
Rice dust
10
4
Palm  kernel cake
15
5
Maize (Akumu chaff)
5
6
Cassava peel
5
7
Bone meal
2
8
Salt
1
9
Fruit cucumber sliced
1
Total composition    =          99%
Table  11 showing description of feed ingredients and their functions.
S/N
Feed ingredients
% composition
1
Spend grains
Energy source that is made up of brewery waste such as wheat, maize
2
Soya bean
It is a protein source from plant for replacing worn-out tissue.
3
Rice dust
Energy source, mineral, vitamin
4
Maize
Carbohydrate and some vitamins.
5
Palm kernel cake pkc
For lipid and little protein
6
Bone meal
Provide calcium and iron in pigs
7
Salt
mineral(sodium chloride Nacl provide energy.
8
Cassava peel
Provide energy
9
Fruit
Minerals and vitamins

2.26    CASTRATION OF PIGLETS
Castration simply means the removal of testicles of a male animal. It is preferably done at the early life of the animal about 2-3 weeks old.
2.27    AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF CASTRATION IN ANIMAL
-           It prevent transmission of unwanted genes.
-           It prevent transmission of vernal diseases material used;
Material used; Surgical blade, razor blade, hand groove, cotton wool, disinfectant, forcept, syringe chemicals like lidocaine, procaine and hand bowl.
Procedure;
            The hand groove was putted on to prevent transmission of the infections disease. Disinfectant was added in a hand bowl containing water. The young boar was stretched on the operational table and held firmly by three attendants, in addition to the operator. The disinfected water was used to wash thoroughly the scrotal area to soften the area as well as check pathogens. The rectum temperature was determined by inserting the thermometer and left for some minutes. It was 39.60C. The scrotal area was shaved. 1ml lidocaine (anaestheties) was injected on the base and on the scrotum to immobilize the piglet. A surgical blade was used to make an icision on the scrotum exposing the testicles. The forceps was used to hold the testicle and was litigated with chronic cat gut and cut one after the other. Cotton wool soaked in hydrogen peroxide was used to clean up the area to avoid infections 1 ml of procaine was injected for quick healing of the wound.
2.28    VACCINATION/TREATMENT
            Vaccination is the introduction of organism, bacterial or vaccine into an animal to enable it produced antibodies against diseases.
Table12  showing list of vaccines used in Umuebe farms limited during my industrial attachment  program in piggery unit.
s/n
Vaccine
Dosage
Function
1
Oxytetracycline
1ml/20kg
Prevent bacterial infection
2
Ivomectin
3 ml/20kg
For deworming
3
Levermisole
3 ml/20kg
Prevent helminthic
4
Iron dextran
1ml/1okg
Prevent anaemia
5.
Adamacine
2ml/40kg
Prevent kakis

OTHER ACTIVITIES PERFORMED INCLUDE
-           Attending seminar/ Agric show
-           Colony division
-           Field inspection
-           Queen caging
-           Draining/scrubbing ^the pond.
-           Feeding the fish
-           Gathering feed for snail
-           watering of the snail hutch
-           Irrigation of crops
-           Harvesting
2.29    ATTENDING SEMINAR/AGRIC EXHIBITION(SHOW)
            I was a participant is a two day Agric exhibition and seminar organized by southeastern all farmers of Nigeria. Sixth edition of their annual programme held at monodotel hotel off-opkara  avenue Enugu,Enugu state Nigeria.
2.30    COLONY DIVISION
            As the name implies, colony division is the act of  creating a new colony from an existing one. It became necessary, If the existing colony show some signs such as
i.          Presence of drone in the colony
ii.         Queen cell or cells in the colony
It the above signs are seen in a colony, there is every need to embank on colony division else it can lead to (1) swarming (Movement or flying away of group of bees) or (2) absconding (total move away of bees from their live). Remember that colony that is preparing to swarm is looking home; you can give them that home
Field inspection
            This activity was done in Apiary unit. It involve (1) external field inspection and (2) internal fields inspection. It is done forthnightly to ascertain or check the activities of bees both externally and internally. It helps to detect if there is change in the normal activities of the honeybees. It is the responsibility of every honey beekeepers to check there hive often so as to avoid the pain of losing a very strong colony to swarming or absconding.
2.31    QUEEN CAGING
            This activity is done when there is need to raise queen bees. It involve locating the queen bee and cage her inside the queen kit where her movement are limited, inside the kit are some artificial cells where she lays the eggs and the beekeeper will introduce the eggs into an artificial queen cells, where the worker bees synthesizes royal jelly used to feed them as destined queens until eggs hatches out into a new queen bee and is used raise another colony.

2.32    DRAINING/SCROBBING OF THE POND
            This activity involve reducing the level of water in the pond and the use of brush and salt to scrobe the wall and floor of the fish pond to remove the hard accumulated green-algae that compete for oxygen availability and circulation in the pond. After the removal clean and fresh water was added and some sachet of fish vit plus (an anti-stress, multivitamin, amino acid and mineral for fishes) was added.
2.33    FEEDING OF FISH
The importance of feed  cannot be over emphasized. In Umuebe farms limited, at the early stage of the fishes the type of feed used was on imported fish feed called cuppenes with different diameters such as 1.5mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4.5mm and at the advanced 6mm,8mm and 9mm of local fish feed called vital feed was used to feed to fish three time daily.
2.34    WATERING OF THE SNAIL HUTCH
            As the dry spell set in toward November, there was need to irrigate the snail hutch since snail need a very warm and calm environment to thrive, watering of the hutch was done every morning

2.35    IRRIGATION OF CROPS
This activity was done in the late maize and the Nsukka pepper farm, newly cultivated cucumber inclusive. It was done every morning.
2.36    HARVESTING
            Harvesting of some farm produce such as cucumber, early maize, okra, Nsukka pepper, citrus (lemon, shaddock and sweet  orange), Guava, plantain, banana etc was also done during my industrial attachment program in Umuebe farm limited.
2.37    ECONOMIC COST ANALYSIS IN LIVESTOCK (ANIMAL
SECTION)
Table 13:  Fixed cost
S/N
Items
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Boreholes
5
50,000
250,000
2
Wheel barrow
2
5000
10,000
3
Fish pond
3
50,000
150,000
4
Hives
76
4000
432,000
5
Generator
1
120,000
120,000
6
Buildings
8
350,000
2,8000.00
7
Hose
3
3000
90000
8
Bullets(bowl) busket
15
300
4500
9
Spade/shovel
10
800
8000
10
Cutlasses/hoe
13
950
12350
11
Line rental & main tenancy fee
-
-
15000

TFC


3687850

TABLE 14 SHOWING VARIABLE COST OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR LIVESTOCK (ANIMAL) SECTION
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Feeds
Kg
750
150
1,125000
2
Labour Cost
Mandays


10000
3
Transportations



21,050
4
Maintenance of machineries & equipment



4500
5
Drugs/vaccines




6
Diesel/fuel
Litre
60
120
1000
7
Disinfectant



7200
8
Syringe



3900
9
Repairing of pens



1150
10
Brooms

7
50
4100
11
Cement

2
1650
350
12
Hand glove
Kg
12
300
3300
13
Nose mask

12
50
3600

TVC                                                                            1185750


TABLE 15: RETURNS FROM LIVESTOCK SECTION FROM JULY TO DECEMBER        
Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
July
Honey
21kg
2000
42000

Bee was
-
-
4200

Pork
36kg
900
32400

Growers
11
15000
165000

Culled sow
2
45000
90000

Weaners
16
5800
92800

Barrow
1
34000
34000

Boar
1
39500
39500

Cattle
2
96500
193000
Sub total



1048400
August
Weaners
25
5500
137500

Culled sow
3
43500
130500

Growers
9
16000
144000

Barrow
1
33500
33500

Pork
39kg
900
35100

Cattle
1
105,500
105,500

Bee was
-
-
3900

Honey
15kg
2000
30000
Sub-total



620000


Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
September
Snails
35
500
17500

Bee was
-
-
4700

Honey
27
2000
45000

Cattle
2
100000
200,000

Culled sow
2
50000
100000

Boar
2
38500
77000

Weaners
34
6000
204000

Growers
14
16500
231000
Sub-total



888200





October
Snails
21
500
10500

Bee was
-
-
6600

Honey
33kg
200
66000

Boar
1
36000
36000

Culled sow
2
385000
77000

Growers
13
16500
214500

Weaners
25
6000
150000

Barrow
2
36500
73000

Honey wine
5kg
500
2500
Sub-total



636100
636100





Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
November
Fish (catfish)
32kg
900
28800

Snails
28
500
14000

Bee was
-
-
8050

Honey
36kg
2000
72000

Boar
2
38500
77000

Culled sow
2
41500
83000

Honey wine
15kg
500
7500

Weaners
31
6200
192200

Barrow
2
372000
74400

Growers
22
16500
363000
Sub-total



919950





December
Fish (catfish)
120kg
900
108000

Snails
25
500
12500

Bee wax
-
-
10500

Honey  wine
21kg
500
10500

Honey
2
2000
78000

Culled row
2
45500
91000

Boar
41/kg
40000
80000

Pork
35
900
36900

Weaners
29
6500
227500

Growers

16500
478500

Barrow
2
40000
80000
Sub-total



1213400

Total cost                   =          N4853600
Total revenue            =          N10484000+ N620000
+          N888200 + N636100 + N919950 + N1213400
=          N5,326050
But
Gross margin (GM)  =          TR – TVC
:. N5326050 – N1185758
Gross margin (GM) = N4140292
However
Profit Ù           =          TR-TC
N5326050    N4853600
= N472453
:. Profit(Ù)     =          N472453

4.2       ECONOMIC COST ANALYSIS OF FIXED COST IN CROP
PRODUCTION SECTION
TABLE 16: FIXED COST
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Land
Ha
10
150,000
1,500,000
2
Tractor
-
1
172000
172000
3
Disc plough

1
32000
32000
4
Hoe

5
450
2250
5
Garden fish

4
350
1400
6
Cutlass

15
350
8250
7
Cultivator

8
550
1200
8
Knapsack

4
4500
18000
9
Sprayer




10
Rainbow

8pair
250
2000
11
Hose

3
3000
9000
12
Boreholes

5
30000
250000
13
Wheel

2
5000
10000

TFC


2,996100

TABLE 17: VARIABLES COST (INPUTS)
S/N
INPUT
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Pepper Seeds
2 tins
500
1000
2
Maize seeds
5 sachet
450
2250
3
Okra seeds
I sahet
150
150
4
Cucumber seeds
5 sachet
350
350
5
Herbicides
14 cartons
3500
3500
6
Pesticides
Car tons
250
2500
7
Fertilizes
35 begs
3200
3200
8
Transportation

850
8550






Labour




Ploughing

-
12500

Fertilizer


2500

Application




Chemical


1500

Application




Needing


3800

Harvesting


2000

TABLE 18: FIXED COST
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Citrus
-
-
-
105000
2
Palm produce
-
-
-

3
Plantain




4
Maize
kg
6851
20
101000
5
Banana
kg
1592
50
1325000
6
Cucumber
kg
1821
100
137020
7
Coconut
kg
2912
50
79600
8
Guova
kg
1493
50
74650
9
Okro
kg
1664
100
1594000
10
Pepper
kg
1967
200
393400
11
Water leaf
-
-
-
5500
12
Pawpaw
kg
2425
50
121250
13
pineapple
kg
950
70
66500

TR


4877620

TC       =          TFC     +          TVC
TC       =          N200600 + N217300
TC       =          N2223400
But
Tr        =          N40877620
SO,
Gross Margin (gm)               =          tr-tr
:.4877620 – 217300
Gross margin (GM) = N4660320
However,
Profit x           =                      TR       -           TC
N4877620 – N2223400
Profit (x)        =                      TR       -           RC
N4877620     -                       N2223400
Profit (x)        =                      N2644200

2.37    CONSTRAINS/OBSERVATION
            The following are the challenges faced in the course of my industrial attachment programme in Umuebe farms limited.
1.         Just like other industries/companies in Nigeria, the epileptic power supply from power holding company of Nigeria was disastrous to the growth of the farm.
2.         Accommodation was also a very big challenging factors as most of the worker/staffs reside kilometers away from the farm which a lot of lateness, absenteeism and excuses so the farm suffers the outcome.
3.         Most of the staffs are unskilled, only one or two are expert in their fields so more are  required.
4.         Poor veterinary service. The supervisor in charge of this area was  not effective in discharging her duty especially in cattle unit as  most of the cattle was seen with one infection or the other such as scabies.
5.         Transportation was a very big challenge  especially to I.T students as the stipends given to I.T students a times was into
Forthcoming.

2.38    MY RELEVANCE TO UMUEBE FARMS LIMITED
            Within the specified compulsory six months of industrial attachment in Umuebe farms limited Izhiangbo, my impart over the period was enormous.
1.         The work in the accounting and supply unit was effective and much more easier for the accountant and cashiers as a result of my indispensable input in preparation of payment voucher as well as filling of ledger (income and expenditure).
2.         I was also instrumental in the areas of advertisement and marketing of their farm produce/products especially in the Agric exhibition and seminar held at Enugu state Nigeria.
3.         In the aspect of record keeping, I was also valuable because the case of improper or inappropriate record keeping was things of the past.
4.         During the programme, I participated effectively in all activities in different unit of the farm thereby contributing so much to the progress of the farm.

CHAPTER THREE
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND EVOLUTION OF THE FARM
            Umuebe farms limited has contribute immensely to agriculture and socio-economic development in this state and Nigeria at large.
            Some major achievement includes;
1.         The farm through its institution, Umuebe farms college approved by federal ministry of Education and National Board for technical Education NBTE) serve as an avenue to train interested Nigerian and also a research centre on modern Agricultural practice. The primary aim was equip the trainees patriotically to be self employed after thoroughly drilling them though designed programme of the college.
2.         The farm boost of centre where natural and quality honey are produced in a reasonable quantity.
3.         The farm has in the part years offered  numerous employment opportunities to Nigeria workforce.
Staffing
            Umuebe farm limited has both skilled and unskilled staff, the skilled include managing director manager, accounted and supervisors. The unskilled staff are mostly the causal attendants in the farm.
Table below shows job qualification of the staffs of Umuebe farms ltd (UFL)
s/n
Staff office
qualification
1
Managing director
PhD
2
General manager
B. Agric, MSC Economics
3
Accountant
BSc. Account
4
Supervisor
HND/OND in Agric
5
Veterinary specialist
OND in vet school
6
Receptionist
Olevel
7
Driver
Driving liences
8
Security men (civil defence)
O’Level
9
In student
I.T posting letter.
STAFF CONTROL DISCIPLINE AND SANCTIONS
            In case of indiscipline, the following are laid down sanctions and punishment assigned to any misconduct.
s/n
Indiscipline
sanction
1
Use of abusive words
Caution
2
quarrelling
Caution
3
Fitting
 Caution/query
4
Dodging of work
Query
5.
Absenteeism without
Salary reduction
6
Stealing
expulsion
MANAGERIAL OUTFIT
The farm is currently managed by an Agricultural economist. He deploy all the managerial skills in how the farm should be run, in controlling of staff and indecision making process go as to maximal output at a minimal cost.
RECOMMENDATION
            I recommend the farm to make used of their abundant resource such as large parcel of land in the farm, instead of allowing it to lie waste, it should be channel towards a productive agricultural venture which will iprove their net farm income. Secondly the farm should make their farm college affordable smile the primary aim of its establishment is to train interested Nigerians that will be able to stand firmly on their own after passing though the college.
            I also wish to remind the school Institutions), the importance of posting their students on their practical year to places that are relevant to their field of study during their industrial training programme instead of allowing them to choose their convenient places at the detriment to their course of study.
            Finally the federal government should raise to their responsibilities and design the SIWEs programme in such a way students after passing through the scheme becomes job creators and not job seekers.

ECONOMIC COST ANALYSIS IN LIVESTOCK (ANIMAL SECTION)
Table 17
Fixed cost
S/N
Items
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Boreholes
5
50,000
250,000
2
Wheel barrow
2
5000
10,000
3
Fish pond
3
50,000
150,000
4
Hives
76
4000
432,000
5
Generator
1
120,000
120,000
6
Buildings
8
350,000
2,8000.00
7
Hose
3
3000
90000
8
Bullets(bowl) bucket
15
300
4500
9
Spade/shovel
10
800
8000
10
Cutlasses/hoe
13
950
12350
11
Line rental & main tenancy fee
-
-
15000

Total


3687850

TC = 4853600

TABLE SHOWING VARIABLE COST OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR LIVESTOCK (ANIMAL) SECTION
TABLE 18
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Feeds
Kg
750
150
1,125000
2
Labour Cost
Mondays


10000
3
Transportations



21,050
4
Maintenance of machineries & equipment



4500
5
Drugs/vaccines




6
Oresel/fuel
Live
60
120
1000
7
Disinfectant



7200
8
Syringe



3900
9
Repairing of pens



1150
10
Brooms

7
50
4100
11
Cement

2
1650
350
12
Hand glove
Kg
12
300
3300
13
Nose mask

12
50
3600

TVC                                                                            1185750
Returns from livestock section from July to December        

Table 19
Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
July
Honey21kg
21kg
2000
42000

Bee was
-
-
4200

Pork
36kg
900
32400

Growers
11
15000
165000

Culled sow
2
45000
90000

Weaners
16
5800
92800

Barrow
1
34000
34000

Boar
1
39500
39500

cattle
2
96500
193000
Sub total



8400
August
Weaners
25
5500
137500

Culled sow
3
43500
130500

Growers
9
16000
144000

Barrow
1
33500
33500

Pork
39kg
900
35100

Cattle
1
105,500
105,500

Bee was
-
-
3900

Honey
15kg
2000
30000
Sub-total



620007


Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
September
Snails
35
500
17500

Bee was
-
-
4700

Honey
27
2000
45000

Cattle
2
100000
200,000

Culled sow
2
50000
100000

Boar
2
38500
77000

Weaners
34
6000
204000

Growers
14
16500
231000
Sub-total



888200





October
Snails
21
500
10500

Bee was
-
-
6600

Honey
33kg
200
66000

Boar
1
36000
36000

Culled sow
2
385000
77000

Growers
13
16500
214500

Weaners
25
6000
150000

Barrow
2
36500
73000

Honey wine
5kg
500
2500
Sub-total



636100
636100





Month
Items sold
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
November
Fish (catfish)
32kg
900
28800

Snails
28
500
14000

Bee was
-
-
8050

Honey
36kg
2000
72000

Boar
2
38500
77000

Culled sow
2
41500
83000

Honey wine
15kg
500
7500

Weaners
31
6200
192200

Barrow
2
372000
74400

Growers
22
16500
363000
Sub-total



919950





December
Fish (catfish)
120kg
900
108000

Snails
25
500
12500

Bee wax
-
-
10500

Honey  wine
21kg
500
10500

Honey
2
2000
78000

Culled row
2
45500
91000

Boar
41/kg
40000
80000

Pork
35
900
36900

Weaners
29
6500
227500

Growers

16500
478500

Barrow
2
40000
80000
Sub-total



121340

Total cost                   =          N4853600
Total revenue            =          10484000+620000
+          888200 + 636100 + 919950 + 1213400
=          N5,326050
But
Gross margin (GM)  =          TR – TVC
:. 5326050 – 1185758
Gross margin (GM) = N4140292
However
Profit Ù           =          TR-TC
5326050    4853600
= N472453
:. Profit(Ù)     =          472453

ECONOMIC COST ANALYSIS OF FIXED COST IN CROP PRODUCTION SECTION
FIXED COST TABLE 20
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Land
Ha
10
150,000
1,500,000
2
Tractor
-
1
172000
172000
3
Disc plough

1
32000
32000
4
Hoe

5
450
2250
5
Garden fish

4
350
1400
6
Cutlass

15
350
8250
7
Cultivator

8
550
1200
8
Knapsack

4
4500
18000
9
Sprayer




10
Rainbow

8pair
250
2000
11
Hose

3
3000
9000
12
Boreholes

5
30000
250000
13
Wheel

2
5000
10000

TFC


2,996100

VARIABLES COST (INPUTS)
S/N
INPUT
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Pepper Seeds
2 tins
500
1000
2
Maize seeds
5 sachet
450
2250
3
Okra seeds
I sahet
150
150
4
Cucumber seeds
5 sachet
350
350
5
Herbicides
14 cartons
3500
3500
6
Pesticides
Car tons
250
2500
7
Fertilizes
35 begs
3200
3200
8
Transportation

850
8550






Labour




Ploughing

-
12500

Fertilizer


2500

Application




Chemical


1500

Application




Needing


3800

Harvesting


2000

FIXED COST TABLE 20
S/N
Items
Unit
Qty
Unit price N
Total price
N
1
Citrus
-
-
-
105000
2
Palm produce
-
-
-

3
Plantain




4
Maize
kg
6851
20
101000
5
Banana
kg
1592
50
1325000
6
Cucumber
kg
1821
100
137020
7
Coconut
kg
2912
50
79600
8
Guova
kg
1493
50
74650
9
Okro
kg
1664
100
1594000
10
Pepper
kg
1967
200
393400
11
Water leaf
-
-
-
5500
12
Pawpaw
kg
2425
50
121250
13
pineapple
kg