3.1       Introduction
This chapter aims at presenting the methodological steps taken in gathering the relevant data, exploring them, analysing them and drawing meaningful conclusion in order to achieve the objectives of the work. This is done under various subheadings including; research design, population of the study, sample size determination, instrumentation, sampling technique, data analysis technique, validity and finally reliability of the research instrument.

3.2   Research design
Research design is the plan or blue print on how to go about data collection and analysis, all aimed at providing solutions to the problem under investigation. Broadly speaking, it entails the specification of the procedures that would be deployed in the field work (Chukwuemeka, 2002, in Onodugo, et al 2010:65). In order therefore to obtain data to test the research questions, both primary and secondary data will be used.  The study will also adopt the survey research design which is the design that is usually adopted when a researcher is using questionnaires and oral interviews for a study. The research will be carried out in seven selected manufacturing firms in the south east Nigeria. The south east Nigeria is made up of five (5) states. The states are Anambra, Abia, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo states. A purposeful technique was employed in selecting companies for inclusion in this research work with each state being represented. Secondly, the manufacturer association of Nigeria, MAN is grouped into ten, (10) sectoral group with many subsectors. To explore the situation, the researcher uses two types of datasets. In the first place, it will use data collected from firms selected from seven different sectors. Each sector is selected from a different statethus making sure that all the states are represented. However,the two more remaining sectors were selected each from Enugu and Anambrastate respectively. This is to make sure that at least seven sectors are represented with Enugu and Anambra states having two sectors.
The firms are;                                            
·        Jacobs Wine Umuahia, Abia – Food, Bevereage and Tobacco Sector
General Cotton Mill Onitsha, Anambra – Textile Wearing Apparels Sector.
·        Ofali Rural Industries Limited A bakiliki, Ebonyi – Non Metallic Mineral Products Sector
·        Hardis and Dromedas Limited, Emene, Enugu – Chemicals and Pharmaceauticals Sector
·        Pittason Industries Nigeria Limited, Imo – Domestic and Industrial Product
·        Alo Aluminium Manufacturing Co Limited – Basic Metal, Iron and Steel Sector
·        Ngo Bros and Company Nigeria Limited – Pulp, Paper, and Paper Products

Data are also collected from the two major sources known to be used in every research work. This is the primary and secondary sources of collection. Primary data will be collected through survey investigation method with the use of questionnaire and direct interview while secondary data are collected through review of related literature on the topic. This is done through the use of both electronic and print sources such as;
 The Internet and other electronic media
Text Books
Conference Materials
Research Works, and any other material on intellectual property as it relates to performance.

3.3 Sources of Data
Data are facts and figure obtained in order to help determine the findings and conclusion of a study.  It is basically what differentiates a research work from a work that is based on assumptions or ones thoughts. For this work, the source of data is basically from the popular source of obtaining data for any academic research. These are through primary and secondary data
Primary data are data collected through the use of structured questionnaires administered to respondents and or through other primary sources like observations and oral interviews. It is data that is personally assembled by the researcher for the purpose of the topic under study.
Secondary data on the other hand is data that are collected from materials containing the data base of other researchers on related topics. It is data used for other studies but also relevant to the current study.  These are, Text Books, Journals, bulletins, Published and Unpublished Research Works, Articles in the Newspapers, Workshop and Training Papers, Annual Reviews of organisations, Annual Reports of Organisations, Directories of Manufacturing Organisations, Internet Sources, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus Library, National Library, Enugu State Library, Management Department of the University of Nigeria Enugu Library, Project works related to the topic, Manuals and Policy Statements, Copy Right Commission Library Abuja, Manufacturers Association of Nigeria Enugu, Anambra, Ebonyi, Imo and Abia states Directories and Annual General Meetings Reports, and their policies and then the Researchers’ Personal Library.

3.4 Population of the Study:                                                                     
In Onodugo et al (2010:68), a study population is all the people or things that constitute the focus of the study. In this study, the management staff of each of the companies will be the target population. This is because in any firm or organisation, issues and policies concerning management, performance and control is done by the senior staff level that belongs to the management cadre in the organisations. However the total population of each firm,as was obtained from their personnel department is as listed below,

Table 3.1: Selected Organisations and Total Number of Employees, (including             both management staff and others)
Jacobs Wine Ltd.
General Cotton Mill Ltd.
Ofali Rural Industry Ltd.
Hardis and Dromedas Ltd.
Pitason Industry Nigeria Ltd.
Alo Aluminium Man Ltd
NgoBros and Coy. Ltd

Source, Manufacturing Organisation under Study, 2014

3.5       Sample Size Determination:
Sample is a fraction or segment of the total population whose characteristics is used to represent the entire population (0nodugo, et al., 2010:69). In this study, the entire population which is 2258 consists of all the staff in the firm both managerial staff and others including but not limited to security men, secretaries, and factory hands. Since the management cadre is the target population, and consists of 644 employees, the complete enumeration method is therefore adopted.  Table 3.2  indicates it.

Table 3.2: Managerial Cadre of the Firms under Study
Name of Organisation
Category of Personnel
Managerial Staff
Jacobs wine ltd
General Cotton Mill ltd
Ofali Rural Industry ltd
Hardis and Dromedas ltd
Pittason Industry ltd
Alo Aluminium Man Ltd
NgoBros and Coy. Ltd

Source: Manufacturing Organisation under Study 2014

The managerial cadre consists of 644 employees for the seven organisations under study. By the nature of the study, purposive non probability sampling technique is also applied here. The method is a situation where the researcher zeros down on the part of the population that possesses the required information as respondents, Onudugo, et al. (2010:72). The researcher will therefore examine only the managerial cadre since from the background knowledge; it is the relevant sample frame that will have the information required. Again, all the personnel in the managerial cadre will be studied in order to meet the sample size adequacy which is an important consideration in making sure that it represents the population well in order for it to be used to judge the whole.

Secondly, the idea of sample size emanates from the fact that most times, it is difficult to study the entire population especially when it is large. However, in this case, considering the relative small size of the population of the managerial cadre, the exhaustive sampling method will be used. This is a case where, due to the size of the population, the entire population is investigated in order to achieve the sample size necessary for the purpose of drawing conclusion (

3.6       Research Instrument
The main instruments that will be used for data collection for the study are the questionnaire and the oral interviews. The questionnaire contains forty questions all in likerts scale form. It is made up of two sections, the personal data section and the section on management of intellectual property and its effect on firm performance. These questions are designed according to the study objective.

3.7       Sampling Technique:
The purposive sampling of non-probability sampling technique is adopted where the copies of questionnaire is allocated to the population of each stratum. This is a technique where the researcher deliberately ensures that all element of the population do not share equal opportunity to be included in the study. Certain persons with certain qualities are selected and in this case, the managerial cadre of each of the organization are selected.

3.8       Data Analysis Technique
 Hypotheses 1 will be tested with linear regression which is usually adopted when comparing variables.
Hypotheses 3 and 5 will be tested with Friedman Chi square. This tool is commonly used to compare observed data and expected data. Hypothesis 2 and 4 will be tested with the z-test. The z-test tool compares sample and population means to determine if there is a significant difference between the variables. All these will be based on the likert scale using the population of respondents. Secondly, all the test tools would be applied using Statistical Package for Social Science Research, (SPSS) Windows Software Analysis. Other tools to be used are; tables, percentages, and related frequencies.

3.9 Validity of the Research Instrument
The validity of a research work reveals to the researcher and the readers the extent to which the instrument used in the work has gone in actually measuring the investigation. Adefila, N. (2008:37) defines it as the ability of a test instrument to measure what the researcher primarily sets out to measure. Enikanselu,Ojodu, and Oyende (2009:50), observe that validity of a test reflects what a test measures and how well it measures it. Validity is concerned with how a measuring instrument is actually measuring the concept under study in terms of its contents and accuracy. The questionnaires contain not just relevant questions on the concept but also in an adequate capacity thereby addressing face and content validity respectively.
Consequently, validity can be said to be dealing with effectiveness and efficiency of the research instrument especially as it pertains to accuracy and appropriability. In order to certify this, the researcher strictly observes the following in designing the instrument;
·        Ensuring that all the questions in the questionnaires are clear, simple and to the point thereby enabling the respondents to supply answers with ease.
·        Ensuring that the items in the objectives are fully covered and exhausted.
·        Ensuring that the questions asked are not just relevant, but alsostructured in such a way that it will address the core issues at stake, thus addressing the research questions appropriately.
·        Generally making sure that both content and face value validity are portrayed in the work.

3.10 Reliability of the Research Instrument
Reliability of the research instrument refers to the degree of consistency of the instrument used in such a way that if same research is carried out by another person using the same respondents and in the same period of time, then a similar result is likely to be obtained. Ezigbo,(2010: 505), comments that reliability helps to establish confidence in the conclusions and inferences about the findings of the study. There are three methods that are mostly used to determine reliability of an instrument; test-retest, parallel form and split halves methods. The researcher used the test-retest technique in this work. A group of respondents were tested and retested by administering the same version of the instrument to same people at different time. The two results obtained are compared to ascertain the degree of similarities and/or differences. Person Moment Product Correlation Coefficient was used to do this which shows that r=0.94 indicating that there is consistency in the survey items. The result obtained and the computation is shown in appendix ix and xi.


Adefila J.J. (2008), Research Methodology in Behavioural Science, Kaduna, Apani Publishers

Enikanselu, S.A., Ojodu, H.O., and Oyende, A.I. (2009), Management and Business Research Seminar, Lagos, Enikon Consult

Ezigbo, C.A. (2011), Advanced Management Theory and Applications: Third Edition; Enugu, Immaculate Publications Limited

“Manufacturing Association of Nigeria Directory”, (MAN) 2013 and 2014; an Annual    Publication of the Manufactures Association of Nigeria by the State Chapter

Onodugo, et al (2010), Social Science Research: Principles, methods and Applications; Enugu, EL DEMAK Publishers

Polit, D. F., and Hungler, B. P. (1978), Research Principles and Methods Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company publishers 

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