It is the science of the atmosphere and its phenomenon (which we call weather). The reason for daily interest in weather is that it is new every morning. It is never stable for long but always in the state of becoming something new. Meteorology combines physics and geography.
The meteorologist is seriously involved in the science of the atmosphere from which he gets enough information to forecast the possible condition of the weather. The study of atmosphere by the meteorologist is confirmed to the lower atmosphere that is responsible for weather.

What is Atmosphere?:- It is refers to all the gaseous contained in water and soil in equilibrium with certain envelope.
Atmospheric resources
The most important atmospheric resource by man are water, solar energy and wind but equally important to man are:
-           Water
-           Solar energy
-           Wind
-           Heat
-           Atmospheric gases
            The water vapor is contributed to the air by evaporation from water surfaces soil and living tissues and combustion. It is found in a very little amount in the air of the instants and Polar Regions of the would and in much more volume in the wind and humid tropics.
Solar Energy is the main energy input in the earth system.
            The atmospheric energy sources can be reduced in quality through atmospheric pollution by man in the following ways:-
-           Introduction of dust particles from land surface e.g during hammattan period in Nigeria and content factories etc.
-           Introduction of soil, land and gases
-           Surface combine peroxide and hydrocarbons from molar vehicles.
Weather:- is simply the atmospheric condition of a particular place of a particular time it is temporal. It helps in determining the climate.
Climate:- is the average condition of atmosphere over along period of about 35yrs. Climate takes longer time for it to occur usually in 35yrs climate depends on position on “globe”

WEATHER                                                CLIMATE     
1.         Weather is daily or hourly             Climate is average
Of atmospheric condition               or sum total condition
of a place.                                          Of an area.
2.         It observed within a short               it is observed within a long period
Period of time                                   of time
3.         It is highly variable                          is constant and can be peneralize
period of time.
4.         It is considered in a shot                 is considered over a large place like village or town area.
5.         it is a basic of study planet           It is a fundamental for the study of climatology

            Weather stations usually measure pressure, temperature, daily maximum and minimum temperature, wind speeds, wind directions, humidity, cloud cover, solar radiation and precipitation. A good weather station must meet quite stringent requirement. Weather station is required to be in an open field, so that local building and obstruction do not disturb their measurements of wind speed and directions. They must be treat shade and must meet other important criteria. 

1.         Synoptic station:- They are professional and full time observers. They takes data in hourly bases and their data is used for forecasting.
2.         Agricultural Station:- They have part-time observers. They takes data twice in a day their data has to do with Agricultural practice
3.         Climatologically Station:- They also have part-time observers. They take data that has to deal on weather element.
4.         Rainfall Station:- They take data twice in a day per day. They take data that concern only rain dropper day.

            Instruments that are found in weather station include
1.         Thermometer -------- temperature
2.         Barometer (mercury and Aneroid)-------- pin pressure
3.         Hydrometer------------- humidity
4.         Wind vane--------- wind direction
5.         Anemometers------------ wind speed
6.         Ceilometers----------- cloud height
7.         Rain gauge and snow gauge--------- rain fall
Stevenson’s screen:- it’s a double layered. It has wooden and metal pan. It’s double layered in order to prevent direct sun ray that will influence the readings. It’s raised 1-2m above ground level on a still. It’s heure like in nature or Venetian blind. Its painted white to inactivate sunlight inside the Stevenson screen is minimal and maximum thermometer. It’s levies like in nature so as to take the atmospheric pressure
Maximum thermometer:- A mercury is glass thermometer. Its calibrated to take the highest temperature reached in a day its calibrated to 0.5oC deference. It does not reduce when the temperature shorts dropping. It stats reading around once the sun is out.
Minimum Thermometer:- its alcohol in glass thermometer. It’s calibrated to take minimum temperature reached in a particular day it stats reading around 1am – 3am. The graduation is 0.5oC.
Maximum Thermometer              Minimum Thermometer
-           It uses mercury                                 It uses Alcohol
-           It takes the highest               It takes the minimum temperature
            temperature reached in       reached in a day
            a day
-           It starts reading once                       It starts reading round 1am-3am in          
the instrument is                               1am – 3am in the morning.
resettled as long the
sun is up.                                

Dry bulb thermometer:- it uses mercury it takes the temperature of the air flowing into the state. It’s calibration is 0.5oC
            The factors that affect the dry bulb thermometer are:-
-           The wind flowing into the state, how moist and warm that the air is.
-           Cloud coverage, Rainfall, Humidity.
Maximum and dry bulb works in hand to hand when the temperature states dropping, the dry bulb also states dropping. The dry bulb does not take the heat intensity of the state. It records the temperature of wind flowing into the state.
Difference between maximum and dry bulb is that maximum thermometer tells you the maximum temperature reached a day while the dry bulb tells the temperature at a particular time.
Wet bulb thermometer:- A mercury in glass thermometer containing a wick that is inserted in a water. It’s design to tell how moist the wind flowing into that particular geographical area.
During dry season the reading of wet bulb thermometer is high.
            The difference of dry and wet bulb is used to determine the relative humidity of a geographical area. The calibration is 0.5oC.
Functions of Stevenson screen:-
-           It serves as shelter to the meteorological instrument.
-           To prevent sum radiation panted white to deflect radiation

            A weather satellite is a type of satellites that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the earth. The advantage of the weather satellite is that it sees more than clouds end cloud systems, city lights, fires, effects of pollutions, sand and dust storms, snow cover, the mapping, energy flows etc.
Types of meteorological satellites: The two basic types of meteorological satellites are geo stationary and polar orbiting satellites.
1.   Geostationary Weather Satellites-: The position of the satellite in the orbit makes it remain stationary with respect to the rotating with and this can recorder transmits images of the entire atmosphere below continuously with their visible-light.
2.   Polar Orbiting weather Satellites-: These circle the earth at typical altitude of 85km. polar satellites are in sum-synchronous orbit, which they are able to observe any place on Earth and will view every thing twice each day with the same general lighting conditions due to the near-constant local solar time.
Precipitation-: The rain fall intensity, duration and distribution, determine the effect the precipitation with have on agricultural production. If the rainfall intensity is high, the consequence will be soil erosion as a result of accumulation of excess water in the soil surface because the rate of rainfall is higher than the infiltration capacity of the soil. On the other hand, if rainfall is low, the result will be drought. The consequence of drought is low agricultural production.
The Rainguage-: A meteorological Instrument used in recording rainfall. It’s mounted in an open place where there will be no obstruction to rainfall. Inside the rainguage is a metallic funnel. At the it has a ring like shape. The essence is to prevent splashing water from entering inside the rainguage.  Inside the rainguage is a metallic bucket. It’s known as emergency bucket. It’s used incase the bucket that collect water gets filled during heavy rainfall to prevent loss of water.
Wind vane-: it’s used in measuring the wind. The wind vane consist of a long metal that has it cardinal point. In between the cardinal point is a blade and nobe. When jacking reading, we consider the nobe not the blade. The wind coming to Ebonyi is from Southwest. The wind vane is sited at the true north of the area.
Measuring Cylinder-: it is used in taking measurement of rainfall in a day it’s calibrated 0-5oc differences. The s.i unit of measuring rainfall is intimate.
Temperature-: temperature is not a much problem in agricultural production in Nigeria. This is due to that the variation in temperature is still within the ranges that required in crop production.
Relative humidity-:It has a significant impact on agricultural production in Nigeria. This is simply due to low relative humidity in which crops and evaporation, respectively.
Wind-:           This causes the destruction of many economic trees and crops such as palm trees, maize, okoro and oranges are usually destroyed by heavy wind.
Hygrometer-:          hygrometers are instrument used for measuring humidity. A simple as a of hydrometer and consist of two thermometer one of which is a dry bulb and the other a wet bulb thermometer.                   
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