Manpower training and development as a phenomenon must based on a need analysis derived from a comparison of “the actual performance” and the behaviour. Manpower training and development is one of the major ways an organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and even in the foreseeable future.

            Organizational effectiveness rests on the efficient and the effective performance of workforce in turn rest on the richness of the knowledge, skills and abilities possessed by the workforce. Manpower training and development in most organizations is a continuous act/exercise. The inexorable march of time and the ceaseless glamour for social change combine to make adaptability and the continuing preparation of the workforce as inevitable as the initial acquisition of knowledge and skills. This cannot happen if employees training and development do not occur in an enterprise. In other to maximize the productivity and efficiency of the organization, every executive, manager or supervisor in a public or private organization has the responsibility and indeed the bounding duty to ensure the development of their employees who have requisite knowledge and expertise.
            Training is like sharpening an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in technology and other socio-cultural environmental changes of an organization. Productivity is the goal of today’s competitive business world and training an be a spring board to enhance productivity. The aim is to enable them contribute their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the organization (Onah, 1993). The main objective of training and development in service organization is to increase efficiency of employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity. This accounts for why a large number of fund and time is expected by organization at the period or the order in the improvement of the skills of their employees at various levels.
            The principal intention of training according to (Akpan, 1982), is to equip people with the knowledge required to quality them for a particular position of employment, or to improve their skills and efficiency in the position they already hold. Manpower development on the other hand, implies growth and the acquisition of wide experience for strategic advantages of the organization.
            Manpower training and development therefore, improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the employee. Therefore, the aim of this research is to know the currents state, nature, procedure and method of training and development used by the power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) for their employees and let’s not forget that any organization that has no plan for the training and development of its staff is less than dynamic for learning is a continuous process and acquired skill get obsolete when the environment changes. Also, a popular caption in the field of personnel management says, “if you think training and development are expensive try ignorance” while training and development prosper organization, ignorance”. While training and development prosper organization, ignorance destroys it. Therefore, workers like machines must be updated on constant basis or else, they end up becoming obsolete or misfit.

            This research as it deals with the training and development of employees in service organization is intended to find out the efficiency and effectiveness training and development programme in service organization with reference to Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu Zone. Since power Holding of Nigeria (PHCN) is an organization governing the use of electricity in Nigeria serves as a source of electricity supply, distribution and maintenance round the Nation. For this reason, it encounters numerous problems which range:
1.         Lack of qualified instructors and consultants to undertake training courses
2.         Lack of essential training tools.
3.         Lack of effective communication within the organization which makes it impossible for most employees to know about training opportunities available to them.

            The purpose for this research is to probe into the effect of manpower training and development in service organization using Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu zone as a case study with a view to find out how the organization is performing in terms of its employees training and development.
            The objectives are as follows:-
i.          To highlight the advantages of employees training and development in service organization.
ii          To examine the current training and development of employees in the organization and PHCN Enugu Zone in particular.
iii        To increase the general knowledge and understanding of individual member.
iv         To recommend appropriate measures that could help improve
v.         To increase efficiency and effectiveness of employees with the resulting increases in cooper the productivity.
a.         What method of training and development does you organization use?
b.         What is the category of staff level in your organization (PHCN)?

Here, Hi and Ho below represent the alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis respectively.
Hypothesis one
Hi:  Training and development improve productivity and better performance
Ho:  Training and development does not improve productivity and better performance.
Hi: Training and development improve skills and knowledge of   manpower in service organization.
Ho: Training and development do not improve skills and knowledge of manpower in service organization.

            The research will be beneficial to all service organization especially power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu and their staff as it emphasized of policy guidelines on the efficient and effective training and development programme.
            It will help managers of various organizations to generate ideas and solution to problems based on the best way to run training in their organization in order to achieve desired goals and objectives
            It will equally be useful to small scale business large corporations, universities, college of education and to the government.
            It will also help researchers to know more about training programme as a tool for improving employees, performance. Finally, it will be of great value to students as a point of reference and will equally form the basis for further research study.

The scope of this study although very wide if it has been carried out in the entire service organization. For this reason, it was necessary to have a concentrated area of study which was restricted to the effect of manpower training and development in service organization using power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu Zone as the case study.
Its major limitation was the problem of getting information to the public as such, vital information needed was not readily available. Time equally would not be left out; getting permission to leave school and the issue of finance cannot be ignored as much was sent in procuring materials. However, with fact and judicial use of the limited resources, reasonable analyses have been carried out in this research work.
Until recently there has been a general resistance, to investment of training in the public service because of the believe that “Employees hired under a meat system must be pressured to be qualified, that they were already trained for their jobs and that if this was not so it was evidence that initial selection of personal was at fault (Stahl 1976) This assumption has been jettisoned as the need for training became obvious both in the private and public sectors.
Training has become mere obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment the rapid change in organization and technologic advancement which further necessitates need of training and development of personnel to meet the challenges. Many organization have come to recognize that training offers a way of “developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work and building workers training and development is essential, common for people to see training and development as the same thing. However, though they are similar they are not the same things.
Training is any training activity which is directed, toward the acquisition of specific knowledge, and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task (cole 1993).
(Tvancevichetal 1994) see training as the systematic process altering employee’s behavior to further organization goals.
In a more comprehensive manner, training can be defined as a short term process that utilizes a systematic and organized activities by which non managerial stall acquire the technical knowledge, skills and abilities for specific purposes in function.
Training is “an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge or skills for a definite purpose. It is a process for equipping the employees particularly the non-managerial employees with specific skills for example technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their performance and overall efficiency.
The objective of job training is to enable an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirement (Gardner, 1973).
(Thomas 1988) defines training as a process through which experiences are deliberately offered to variances to enable them to absorb some new perspective, understanding, vulture, attitude, techniques or skills. It involves planned activities on the part of an organization to increase job knowledge and skills or modify the attitude and social behaviour, of members in the ways that are consistent, with the goals of the organization and the requirements, of the job. The overall aim is to increase or improve a parson’s contribution to the achievement of the organizational goals.
Jones, George and Hill, (200) believes that training, primarily forces or teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and they need to be effective performers.
According to carrel and Kazmits (1982) training, is the systematic process by which employees, learn skills, information or attitudes to further organizational and personal goal. They also stated that “every training system operates with a philosophy set of beliefs concerning people, productivity and profit.
Development on the other hand focuses on building the knowledge and skills of organizational, members so that they will be prepared to taken on new responsibilities and challenges. Development is used in relation to the process of helping managerial, employees who perform non-routine jobs to improve their managerial, administrative and decision – making abilities and competence.
In the view of (Adamolekem 1983) staff development, involves the training education and career development has been identified to include:
1.         Creating a pool of reality available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
2.         Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and case advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledge able staff:
3.         Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new pregrems.     
Development can also be defined as a deliberate program of an organization to mould into the desirable shape its future leaders who are expected to perpetuate the business of the organization. Most efficient and effectively, (Fagbohaungb O. b2009).
Summary, the purpose of training is to improve knowledge and skills and to change attitude (Mullins, 1999).
Training and development as (Stoles 1966) put if rest on the fact that “a person learns through experience which many be actual, hearing or rearing or reading, about the experiences of others.
Training and development is predicted on workers, machines and tool deficiencies. These deficiencies, manifest inform of specific symptoms. The symptoms, that trigger training and development in organization may include:
1.         When there is high rate of absenteeism among workers.
2.         When there is reduced patronage from customers
3.         When there is a poor job performance among workers
4.         Where there is increase labour turnouer among workers
Aims of training and development
1.         To improve the productive capacity of individual employee.
2.         To improve the effectiveness of the organization.   
(Tessin 1978) discussed extensively how benefits accrues, to organization, individual and inter-group relations through training and development whereas, (Dickey 1982) submission bothers on individual benefit, bearing in mind that the workers are in the organization while the organization are cur in the workers. Discussing the benefits separately under subheading as done by (Tessin 1978) and (dickey 1982)
1.         Training and development assist workers to adjust to change
2.         Training and development improve job involvement of the work
3.         Training and development leads to improved profitability
4.         Training and development improves works commitment to the organization.

In industry, formed training is used for any of a variety of specific purposes as stated below.
1.         Induction Training:- it involves the introduction of the new entrant to the undertaking and its ways including the structure, rules and procedures of the company to enable him to cope with the new environment
2.         Skill Development:- Training is employed to up-date a person’s knowledge or skills at any stage of his carcer, and whenever changes occur in his work such as where new technology is introduced.
3.         Skill Acquisition: Involves the development of new skills and abilities, where deskilling of work take place semi skilled machine operators may be provided with the kind and degree of training necessary to acquire the required skills
4.         Increasing motivation: It entails deliberate ices of training to increase individuals’ willingness to work up to the required patter and standards.
5.         Attitude Change:- Training many be undertaken to change the perspective and attitudes workers adopt in relation to the organization and their work in it in a positive way.         

An academic exercise like this requires a review of related literature of the study. in tine with the above assertion, the researcher, in this chapter, reviewed many textbooks journals, articles, magazines newspapers, thesis, etc that have discussed in pensively the effect of man power training and development in service organizations of a state with a particular reference to Enugu zone under the following headings.

Around the world, electric industries are undergoing extensive restructuring. The trend, which started, in the United Kingdom and Chile in the 1980, has rapidly spread to many countries in rating America, Asia, Europe and Africa. The main motivation of driving forces for restrung, the electric industry in different countries, are not the same. In some countries, such as the united kingdom and the Latin America countries, privatization of the electric has provided a means of attracting focmd, from the private sector to relieve the bracer of heavy burden of heavy government subsidies in the country formerly under centralized control (Central and eastern Europe) the process follows a general trend away from centralized government control, towards increased privatization and decentralization, in the United States and several other countries where the electric industry has for the most part been the owned by the private sector, the trend is toward increased competition and regulation.
Power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) formally knows as National electricity power authority. (NEPA) is a public corporation owned by the federal government of Nigeria to generator, transmit and distributes electricity to the populace. The history, of electricity (power generation) in Nigeria dates back to 1898 when electricity was first produced in Nigeria. Therefore several other towns established electricity supply by the installation of isolated generation in each town.
In Ighb, the “Nigeria government electricity undertaking” was established within the them public workers department to take over the responsibility supply to Lagos curse.
In 1950, however a central body was established by the legislature council ordinance, No. 15 of 1950 which transferred electricity supply and development to the care of central body know as the “Electricity corporation of Nigeria (ECN) other bodies also had licenses to generate electricity in some location in Nigeria significant among such were the Nigeria electricity supply company, (NESCO) in Jos and the African timber plywood limited in sapele.
The first 132KV- Transmission line chider the management of
(ECN) was commissioned in July, 1961 and was 146KM long connection Lagos with Ibandan Via shamanic
In 1962, another body know as Nigeria Dans Authority was established by an act of parliaments in the authority was responsible for the construction and main enhance, of dams and other words, on River Niger and else where generating electricity by means of water supply thereby improved, navigation.
National electric power authority (NPA) was establish in April 1972, with the amalgamation of the former electricity corporation of Nigeria (FCN) and the Niger Dams Authority (NEPIA) with the headquarters in Lagos.
As a government parasitical, it’s employees and consumers seriously hamper NEPA is operations due to several government directive and fraudulent activities. In order to reduce this anomaly, the authority was granted partial autonomy as a quasi commercialized organization in 1992 while this gesture has granted some powers to the authority, it is still under the control of the government hence the authority could still not take some necessary drastic and far – reacting measures to improve its revenue collection and reduce the incidence of fraudulent activities.
Like most state – Owned enterprises, NEPA has suffered from service under-finding and chrder – capitalization, inappropriate capital structure excessive executive interference, and sub-optimality and decision making.
NEPA equipment are subjected to vandalism, and theft by group of cabals in different part of the country. The by hydro power station suffer from low water level during dry season and the generation output capabilities of thermal stations are often hampered by shortage of fuel. Equipments are expansive to repair mostly due to their obsolete status.
NEPA as we know is a government ran entity as earlier stated that enjoys a lot of the financial, transfers, subsidies grants and tax and import, duty naives from the government. These social incentives, from the government were counterproductive for NEPA’s efficiency, it resulted in an under trained and chmotinated manpower and lack of will to operate as a profitable entity.                                                                                 
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