Water is the liquid which forms lakes, seas, rivers, rain and is the basis of fluid of living organisms. Human body is 60% water and man need water to maintain this cells and for other activities to meet up with activities of life.
70% of the earth is covered with water. While 3% out of this is not salty and good for consumption. 2.5% of this 3% is frozen in polar Island leaving only about 0.5-1% accessible to man. Out of this number only 0.007% of the planet water is available to fuel and feed its population of 6.8 billion people.

            Activities of man has continually lead to insufficient and shortage of this available water. Man has being proven to be inefficient water users because of complex activities, industrial, natural degradation urbanization and development etc.
 Because of the ways and manner man handled this waters there has being lots challenges globally which has contributed to water shortage. These challenges are:
*          Increase in population growth
*          Rapid urbanization
*          Increased farming activities
*          Climate change etc.
The word is facing sever shortage of fresh water particularly in developing countries. Lack of water will put pressure on food prices, constrain developing countries, poverty reduction effort and hampers economic growth.

*          Environmental degradation and Climate Change
            This is another events which posses great challenge and contribute to global water shortage. Degradation contaminates water sources and reduces natural storage of water.
*          Agricultural Activities
            An agricultural activity is another area which challenge fresh water accessibility. Agriculture is yet another aspect of mans activities which contribute to challenges in water shortage globally. Agriculture account for the largest share of the worlds total fresh water consumption. Agriculture requires large amount of water. According to a report by the united nation, agriculture uses 70% of all water withdrawals while industrial and domestic activities take about 22.0% and 8.0% respectively. In order to meet up with the growing population, agricultural activities has increased significantly to feed the growing population. Source: Africa, Asia and consumer and economics trend Global 2010
*          Rapid urbanization:
Urbanization simply means migration of people from rural to urban areas with accessible amenities such as water, good housing, electricity supply etc. urbanization put strain on access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities especially in developing countries that are already suffering water shortage. Accord to UN report by 2020, 55.6% of the world population will live in urban areas. The more people migrate to urban cities where this amenities are available, the more the demand for water and hence reducing the available water and at the end result in water shortage.

*          Increase Industrial Activities:
            Many industries uses water to produce their product and some even go as much as engaging or business ventures that involve selling  of water e.g beverages producing companies, bottling companies etc. they make the highest business opportunity on water and the end result of this is shortage in availability of water globally.
*          Climate Change and Activities of Greenhouse Gas Emission
            Because of the negative effect of green house gas emission caused by mans activities, this depletes the ozone layer and increases the sun intensity on earth surface coursing intense heat and evaporation of the surface and underground water. At the end, Source Rivers, lakes, and even the underground water dries up by evaporation thus, reducing the quantity of global water. This result into global water shortage and displacement of aquatic life, and possible drought.
            In summary major challenges that could results as a result of global water shortage are:
-           Lack of clean water which will lead to poor sanitation and increased heath concerns i.e increase in spread of disease.
-           At the end, there is human death caused by spread of disease.
-           Negative consequences of water shortage to agriculture will in turn result to poor economy and exacerbate poverty incidence especially in developing countries.
-           conflicts may arise in water stressed area among local communities between countries and undermining business environment e.g India and Parkistine have long dispute over hydropower on river industries.
*          Also water scarcity has urged consumers and companies to implement on water saving measures in business and such business expand to the advantage of few while the majority suffers the shortage caused by this businesses.
In conclusion, water shortage will continue to be a critical problem which prompts government, business and consumers action. 

Many ideas and suggestion have being put in to solve the issue of global water challenges. Expects named “the top 19” came with 19 solutions to global fresh water crisis. Among these are;
*          Public Education and awareness:
Education is the number one step to start solving this problems. Education campaign should be carried out to change peoples behaviour to minimize excess waste of water, avoid polluting water source and other avenues to guard against actions that encourages water shortage.
*          Invent New Conservation Technologies
This will go a long way to help in conserving available water especial in areas where aquifers are drying up and rain water is unpredictable. Innovation is needed to help in developing new conservation technologies.
*          Recycled Water Waste
            Recycle waste water techniques is now used by many countries to cut down water shortage and become more self sufficient. Asian republic is a leader in this advance technology.
*          Improved Irrigation and Agricultural Practices
            This will also go a long way to solving global water shortage, it helps to close supply and demand gaps. The old methods of farming by irrigation which consumes large quantity of water is changed to advanced technology with less consumption of water.
*          Appropriately Price Water
            Water pricing and rights go hand in hand, with consumers questioning the benefits of high prices. When price of water are moderately high, people will see water as a commodity not to be wasted nor easily polluted. High price of water will make consumers to recycle and reuse water e.g as seen in fairly used cars where people spend less to get the same satisfaction they will derive from the new ones from manufacturers.
*          Developing Energy Efficient Desalination Plants
            Desalination has been an energy intensive solution to water scarcity. It is advanced method whereby machines and other technologies are employed produce drinking water from sea water. This machine reduces the salty test  of the sea water so that it can be use for both domestic and industrial activities. There are about 14,380 desalination machine globally which was said to be producing 16.3 billion gallon of water per day.

*          Improve Water Catchments and Harvesting
            This involves taking advantage of rain water and storing as much as possible for future uses. It also helps to reduce water scarcity.
*          Look to Community Base Governance and Partnerships
            This involves ensuring more effective governance at the grass roots level so as to lead to effective policies on a national scale.
*          Develop and enact better policies and regulations
            Regulations and polices help to check and control rate at which water is used. Punishment can also be melted out for defaulter of this policies aimed at reducing water shortage and improper utilization of water.
            Also, as water scarcity complicate food security and pollution, government need to redefine their role by establishing clean water act to ensure protections of our water.

*          Improve distribution infrastructure
            Poor infrastructure is devastating to health and economy. Bust pipes should be repaired; regular sewage system treatment will go a long way to reduce contaminating source water.  

*          Address Pollution:
Measuring and monitory quality of water is essential to human health, control pollution so as to secure the quality of drinking water especially at the local level. Water pollution not only reduces the quality of drinking water but also contribute to spread of diseases.
*          Water projects in developing countries/transfer of technology.
            While water scarcity is more sever in developing countries, to help in alleviating the suffering population one proposed solution is to transfer water conservation technologies to these dry areas.
*          Climate change mitigation
            Policies can be made on green house gas emission to have a renewable option and pursued. They should consider producing alternative ranging from bio energy hydropower to solar energy power plants.
*          Population Growth Control
            Control in population explosion could go a long way to bring solution to the global water shortage. The population growth could be control through taxation, education and use of family planning devices. According to the United Nations, water use has grown more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. They further stated that by 2025, about 1.8 billion people will suffer acute water scarcity and two third of the world population will encounter water stress due to this increase in population.

Other solution to global water shortage are;
Construction of more damps, large scale infrastructure and drilling of more bore holes.
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