Siam weed belongs to the family Asteraleae .Its common names are Awolowo weed, independence weed or siam weed (Okon and Amalu, 2003). It is used as a livestock feed because of its high protein content and less anti-nutritional factor (Iwu, 1993 and Phan et al., 2001) Siam weed after 4-12 weeks of re-growth showed that the leaf fraction had a crude protein content about 194/kg dry matter (DM) and average leaf to stem ratio of 2:1. 

Chemical analysis of the leaf fraction of an 8- week-old regrowth indicated a high crude protein content  of 258 g/kg DM and a high degradable nitrogen content but low in neutral detergent fibre (33l g/kgDM), acid detergent lignin (53 kg/DM), total extractable phenolic (37.1kg/DM), extractable tannin 0.72, absorbance at 550 mm) and extractable condense tannin (1.4 g/kgDM). In sacco degradability analysis of the 8- weeks old regrowth, leaf sample showed a higher 48% organic matter (935g kg -1DM) and crude protein (953 g/kgDM) degradability.

The leaf sample has an organic matter degradability of 670 g/kg DM as estimated by cumulative gas production in vitro after 24hrs incubation. There was a little or no phenolic- related anti nutritive factors in Chromoleana odorata. Additionally, leaf samples had no effect on rumen protozoa activity. Chromoleana odorata leaves are of high nutritive value and might have the potential to be used as a protein supplement of leaf meal of Chromoleana odorata in feeding animals is the presence of anti- nutritional factor (Checke and Myer, 1975) and this probably could be avoided by adopting proper harvesting and sun- drying procedures (Fasuyi et al., 2005),

Chromoleana Odarata has medicinal values and are usually used in treating inflammation and serves as an anti-fungi, anti-hypertensive and anti-fungal agent (Akimoladun et al., 2007).

Information on the use of chromoleana odorata in livestock nutrition is very scanty. This might be as a result of the widespread speculation about  its toxicity to animals and offending nature of its odour. Reports of Madrid (1974) of the consequent death that occurred in cattle following ingestion of Chromoleana odorata leaves attested to the toxic nature of the plant in livestock nutrition are as reviewed below.

Nwokolo (1987) delved elaborately on the mineral and amino acid composition of Chromoleana odorata. He reported on the amino acid composition and availability of these leaf meals (Table 2). He concluded that the values obtained for mineral and amino –acid availability could be attributed to the presence of anti nutrient factors, especially tannins since they occur in high concentration in plant materials and are associated with toxicity and poor growth rate and depressed dietary nutrient utilization in livestock.

Table 1 Mineral composition (Mg/kg) of Chromoleana odorata leaf meal (dry matter basis)

 Mineral                                 Chromoleana odorata leaf meal
Phosphorus                                       4.532
Calcium                                             11,551
Magnessium                                      3202
Potassium                                          13 800
Copper                                               37
Zinc                                                    52
Manganese                                        71
Iron                                                     79
Source: Nwokolo (1987),

Table2: Animo Acid composition of Chromoleana odorata leaf meal Amino acid
Amino acid                            Chromoleana odorata leaf meal
Asparte acid                                      8.2
Threonin                                            3.5
Serine                                                 3.5
Elutamic acid                                    8.0
Proline                                               4.5
Elycine                                               4.2
Alanine                                              4.4
Cysteine                                             0.8
Valine                                                4.1
Methionine                                        1.3
Isoleucine                                          3.2
Leucin                                                6.4
Tyrosine                                            2.0
Phenylalanine                                   3.7
Histidine                                            3.2
Lysine                                                4.7
Arginine                                             4.
Amino acid availability (%)           65.40
Source: Nwokolo (1987).

Table 3 Dry matter gross energy and proximate composition of Chromoleana odorata leaf meal.
Nutrient                                             Chromoleana odarata leaf meal nutrient
Dry matter (%)                                  87.40
Crude protein (%)                            18.67
Crude fibre (%)                                11.67
Ether extract(%)                               1.01
Ash (%)                                              3.63
Nitrogen free extractive (%)          3.332
Source: Aro (1990)


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